Browsing by Subject "INNATE IMMUNITY"

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  • Kallionpaa, Henna; Laajala, Essi; Oling, Viveka; Harkonen, Taina; Tillmann, Vallo; Dorshakova, Natalya V.; Ilonen, Jorma; Landesmaki, Harri; Knip, Mikael; Lahesmaa, Riitta; Koski, Katriina; Koski, Matti; Ryhanen, Samppa; Siljander, Heli; Hamalainen, Anu-Maaria; Ormisson, Anne; Peet, Aleksandr; Ulich, Valentina; Kuzmicheva, Elena; Mokurov, Sergei; Markova, Svettana; Pylova, Svetlana; Isakova, Marina; Shakurova, Elena; Petrov, Vladimir; Karapetyan, Tatyana; Varlamova, Tatyana; Ilonen, Jorma; Kiviniemi, Minna; Alnek, Kristi; Janson, Helis; Uibo, Raivo; Salum, Tiit; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Ahlfors, Helena; Moulder, Robert; Nieminen, Janne; Ruohtula, Terhi; Vaarala, Outi; Honkanen, Hanna; Hyoty, Heikki; Kondrashova, Anita; Oikarinen, Sami; Harmsen, Hermie J. M.; De Goffau, Marcus C.; Welling, Gjalt; Alahuhta, Kirsi; Korhonen, Tuuli; Virtanen, Suvi M.; DIABIMMUNE Study Grp (2014)
  • Schuijt, Tim J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; e Melo, Felipe de Sousa; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Boer, J. Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J.; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost (2016)
    Objective Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Design We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. Results We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. Conclusions This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut-lung axis in bacterial infections.
  • Jalakas, Pirko; Huang, Yi-Chun; Yeh, Yu-Hung; Zimmerli, Laurent; Merilo, Ebe; Kollist, Hannes; Brosche, Mikael (2017)
    Proper stomatal responses are essential for plant function in an altered environment. The core signaling pathway for abscisic acid (ABA)-induced stomatal closure involves perception of the hormone that leads to the activation of guard cell anion channels by the protein kinase OPEN STOMATA1. Several other regulators are suggested to modulate the ABA signaling pathway, including the protein ENHANCED RESPONSE TO ABA1 (ERA1), that encodes the farnesyl transferase beta-subunit. The era1 mutant is hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and shows a more closed stomata phenotype. Using a genetics approach with the double mutants era1 abi1-1 and era1 ost1, we show that while era1 suppressed the high stomatal conductance of abi1-1 and ost1, the ERA1 function was not required for stomatal closure in response to ABA and environmental factors. Further experiments indicated a role for ERA1 in blue light-induced stomatal opening. In addition, we show that ERA1 function in disease resistance was independent of its role in stomatal regulation. Our results indicate a function for ERA1 in stomatal opening and pathogen immunity.
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Sandelin, Jerker; Salem, Abdelhakim; Nordstrom, Dan C.; Waris, Eero (2017)
    Background and purpose - Although the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA) is not well understood, chondrocyte-mediated inflammatory responses (triggered by the activation of innate immune receptors by damage-associated molecules) are thought to be involved. We examined the relationship between Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and OA in cartilage from 2 joints differing in size and mechanical loading: the first carpometacarpal (CMC-I) and the knee. Patients and methods - Samples of human cartilage obtained from OA CMC-I and knee joints were immunostained for TLRs (1-9) and analyzed using histomorphometry and principal component analysis (PCA). mRNA expression levels were analyzed with RT-PCR. Collected synovial fluid (SF) samples were screened for the presence of soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results - In contrast to knee OA, TLR expression in CMC-I OA did not show grade-dependent overall profile changes, but PCA revealed that TLR expression profiles clustered according to their cellular compartment organization. Protein levels of TLR4 were substantially higher in knee OA than in CMC-I OA, while the opposite was the case at the mRNA level. ELISA assays confirmed the presence of soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 in SF, with sTLR4 being considerably higher in CMC-I OA than in knee OA. Interpretation - We observed that TLRs are differentially expressed in OA cartilage, depending on the joint. Soluble forms of TLR2 and TLR4 were detected for the first time in SF of osteoarthritic joints, with soluble TLR4 being differentially expressed. Together, our results suggest that negative regulatory mechanisms of innate immunity may be involved in the pathomolecular mechanisms of osteoarthritis.
  • Syed, Mansoor Ali; Shah, Dilip; Das, Pragnya; Andersson, Sture; Pryhuber, Gloria; Bhandari, Vineet (2019)
    Hyperoxia-induced injury to the developing lung, impaired alveolarization, and dysregulated vascularization are critical factors in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD); however, mechanisms for hyperoxia-induced development of BPD are not fully known. In this study, we show that TREM-1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1) is upregulated in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal murine lungs as well as in tracheal aspirates and lungs of human neonates with respiratory distress syndrome and BPD as an adaptive response to survival in hyperoxia. Inhibition of TREM-1 function using an siRNA approach or deletion of the Trem 1 gene in mice showed enhanced lung inflammation, alveolar damage, and mortality of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice. The treatment of hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice with agonistic TREM-1 antibody decreased lung inflammation, improved alveolarization, and was associated with diminished necroptosis-regulating protein RIPK3 (receptor-interacting protein kinase 3). Mechanistically, we show that TREM-1 activation alleviates lung inflammation and improves alveolarization through downregulating RIPK3-mediated necroptosis and NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor containing pyrin domain 3) inflammasome activation in hyperoxia-exposed neonatal mice. These data show that activating TREM-1, enhancing angiopoietin 1 signaling, or blocking the RIPK3-mediated necroptosis pathway may be used in new therapeutic interventions to control adverse effects of hyperoxia in the development of BPD.
  • Vorkapic, Emina; Lundberg, Anna M.; Mayranpaa, Mikko I.; Eriksson, Per; Wagsater, Dick (2015)
    Objective: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammation, loss of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and degradation of the extracellular matrix in the vessel wall. Innate immune receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) were recently shown to regulate immunological processes leading to the formation and progression of atherosclerotic plaques as well as to other cardiovascular pathologies. Our aim was to investigate whether blockage of TLR signaling, under the control of TIR domain-containing adaptor protein including IFN-beta (TRIF), could inhibit the inflammatory response and AAA development in mice. Results: In human AAA, an increased TLR3 and TLR4 expression in association with macrophages and T lymphocytes was demonstrated with immunohistochemical analysis. Angiotensin (Ang) II-induced aneurysm formation was significantly reduced by 30% in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice. Morphologically, AngII-infused ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice had a more intact cellular and extracellular matrix while ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII displayed an increased medial thickness associated with aortic dissection, thrombus formation, and a more disorganized vessel wall. Gene expression analysis of the abdominal aorta revealed a profound decrease of the inflammatory genes CD68 (P <0.05), CD11b (P <0.05), and TNF-alpha (P <0.05) and the protease gene MMP-12 (P <0.01) in ApoE(-/-)Trif(-/-) mice compared to ApoE(-/-) mice infused with AngII. Conclusion: Our results suggest that signaling through TRIF is important for the inflammatory response of AngII-induced AAA and that blockage of the TRIF pathway reduces vascular inflammation and protects against AAA formation. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.