Browsing by Subject "Incidence"

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  • Kaskinen, Anu K.; Happonen, Juha-Matti; Mattila, Ilkka P.; Pitkanen, Olli M. (2016)
    OBJECTIVES: Treatment of pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect (PA + VSD) has evolved during recent decades, but it still remains challenging. This study evaluated 41-year experience of outcome, survival and treatment of PA + VSD patients. METHODS: Patient records and angiograms of 109 patients with PA + VSD born in Finland between 1970 and 2007, and treated at the Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, were retrospectively analysed in this nationwide study. RESULTS: Of the 109 patients, 66 (61%) had simple PA + VSD without major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs). Although we observed no difference in overall survival between those with or without MAPCAs, the patients without MAPCAs had better probability to achieve repair (64 vs 28%, P <0.0003). Only 3 patients were treated by compassionate care. Overall survival was affected by the size of true central pulmonary arteries on the first angiogram (P = 0.001) and whether repair was achieved (P <0.0001). After successful repair, the survival rate was 93% at 1 year, 91% from the second year, and functional capacity as assessed by New York Heart Association (NYHA) I-II remained in 85% of patients alive at the end of follow-up. Palliated patients at 1, 5, 10 and 20 years of age had Kaplan-Meier estimated survival rates of 55, 42, 34 and 20%, respectively. Patients who underwent repair attempts but were left palliated with right ventricle (RV)-pulmonary artery connection and septal fenestration had better survival than the rest of the palliated patients (P = 0.001). Further, the McGoon index improved after implementation of a systemic-pulmonary artery shunt in the overall PA + VSD population (P <0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that achievement of repair and initial size of true central pulmonary arteries affect survival of patients with PA + VSD. Although the overall survival of patients with MAPCAs showed no difference compared with simple PA + VSD patients, they had a higher risk of remaining palliated. However, palliative surgery may have a role in treatment of PA + VSD because the size of pulmonary arteries increased after placement of systemic-pulmonary artery shunt. In addition, subtotal repair by a RV-pulmonary artery connection and septal fenestration improved survival over extracardiac palliation.
  • Laaksonen, Sanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Maligni pleuraalinen mesoteliooma on voimakkaasti asbestialtistukseen liittyvä hyvin huonoennusteinen valta osin keuhkopussissa esiintyvä syöpä. Suomessa sen ilmaantuvuus on noin 100 uutta tapausta/v. Aineistona käytettiin Suomen Syöpärekisterin tietoja vuosina 2000–2012 diagnosoiduista keuhkopussin mesotelioomapotilaista ja kuolin tietoja täydennettiin Tilastokeskuksesta. Kyseessä oli epidemiologinen tutkimus ja tavoitteena oli selvittää, minkälaisia mesotelioomapotilaat Suomessa ovat. Erityisesti olimme kiinnostuneita keuhkopussin mesoteliooman ilmaantuvuuden ja ennusteen kehityssuunnasta, ja potilaiden saamasta hoidosta. Vastaavanlaista tutkimusta ei ole Suomessa aikaisemmin tehty. Aineiston käsittelyyn on käytetty IBM SPSSStatistics 22.0- ja Excel-ohjelmaa. Maligin pleuraalisen mesoteliooman ilmaantuvuus ei ole vielä kääntynyt Suomessa laskuun ja elossa oloaika ei ole parantunut vuosina 2000–2012. Keskimääräinen sairastumisikä oli 68.99 vuotta ja valta osa sairastuneista oli miehiä. Ennusteeseen vaikuttavia tekijöitä näyttäisivät olevan morfologia, taudin levinneisyys ja tehdyn kirurgisen toimenpiteen tyyppi. Vain hieman alle 2/3 potilaista oli saanut hoitoa. Noin 6 %:lla potilaista mesoteliooma diagnosoitiin vasta ruumiinavauksessa kuoleman jälkeen. Tutkimus osoitti, että taudin diagnostiikassa ja hoidossa on edelleen kehitystarvetta.
  • Lindahl, Jan (2019)
  • Suokorpi, Annika; Autio, Tiina; Ruotsalainen, Eeva; Björkstrand, Marit; Rimhanen-Finne, Ruska (2019)
  • Kanerva, Jukka; Aro, Hannu; Janes, Rita (2019)
  • Pakarinen, Toni-Karri; Lindholm, Paula; Kanerva, Jukka (2019)
  • Turunen, Rosa-Mari; Sarkeala, Tytti; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Anttila, Ahti; Pankakoski, Maiju (2019)
  • Högberg, Ulf; Winbo, Jenny; Fellman, Vineta (2019)
    Abstract Aim This population-based study assessed the incidence of rickets in infants up to age of one born in Sweden from 1997-2014. We also examined maternal and perinatal factors and co-morbidity. Methods We used Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare registers and data from Statistics Sweden. The outcome measure was an International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, code for rickets. Results There were 273 cases of rickets, with an incidence of 14.7 per 100,000 and a 10-fold incidence increase between 1997-2014. The majority (78.4%) were born preterm, half were small-for-gestational age (SGA) (birthweight
  • Lehto, Joona; Virolainen, Juha (2017)
  • Kantanen, Anne-Mari; Kalviainen, Reetta; Parviainen, Ilkka; Ala-Peijari, Marika; Bäcklund, Tom; Koskenkari, Juha; Laitio, Ruut; Reinikainen, Matti (2017)
    Background: The aim was to determine predictors of hospital and 1-year mortality in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-treated refractory status epilepticus (RSE) in a population-based study. Methods: This was a retrospective study of the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium (FICC) database of adult patients (16 years of age or older) with ICU-treated RSE in Finland during a 3-year period (2010-2012). The database consists of admissions to all 20 Finnish hospitals treating RSE in the ICU. All five university hospitals and 11 out of 15 central hospitals participated in the present study. The total adult referral population in the study hospitals was 3.92 million, representing 91% of the adult population of Finland. Patients whose condition had a post-anoxic aetiological basis were excluded. Results: We identified 395 patients with ICU-treated RSE, corresponding to an annual incidence of 3.4/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.04-3.71). Hospital mortality was 7.4% (95% CI 0-16.9%), and 1-year mortality was 25. 4% (95% CI 21.2-29.8%). Mortality at hospital discharge was associated with severity of organ dysfunction. Mortality at 1 year was associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.033, 95% CI 1.104-1.051, p = 0.001), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score (aOR 1.156, CI 1.051-1.271, p = 0.003), super-refractory status epilepticus (SRSE) (aOR 2.215, 95% CI 1.20-3.84, p = 0.010) and dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) (aOR 2.553, 95% CI 1.537-4.243, p <0.0001). Conclusions: Despite low hospital mortality, 25% of ICU-treated RSE patients die within a year. Super-refractoriness, dependence in ADL functions, severity of organ dysfunction at ICU admission and older age predict long-term mortality.
  • Roininen, Nelli; Takala, Sari; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Mattson, Johanna; Heikkilä, Päivi; Karihtala, Peeter (2017)
    Background: Breast carcinomas with neuroendocrine features (NEBC) are a very rare entity of mammary neoplasms, WHO classification of which has recently been revised. There are very limited data available about the clinical behaviour and treatment options of NEBC. Methods: We collected retrospectively patients with NEBC from Oulu and Helsinki University Hospitals in 2007-2015. There were 43 NEBC cases during the period. Results: The incidence of NEBC from all breast cancers varied from 0.1% in Helsinki to 1.3% in Oulu. The mean tumor size was 2.2 cm and 23 patients (55.8%) had no lymph node metastases when diagnosed. In total, 4 patients (9.3%) had distant metastases at the time of diagnosis. High estrogen receptor (ER) expression was observed in 41 (97.7%) patients. When non-metastatic NEBC were compared to a prospective set of ductal carcinomas (n = 506), NEBC were more often HER2 negative (p = 0.046), ER positive (p = 0.0062) and the NEBC patients were older (p <0.0005) than patients with ductal carcinomas. Plasma chromogranin A correlated only to higher age at diagnosis (p = 0. 0028). Relapse-free survival (p = 0.0013), disease-free survival (p = 0.024) and overall survival (p = 0.0028) favoured ductal carcinomas compared to NEBC, while no difference was observed in distant disease-free survival or in breast cancer-specific survival. Conclusions: There is remarkable variation in the incidence of NEBC in Finland, which is likely to be explained by differences in the use of neuroendocrine marker immunostainings. Poor local control and worse overall survival may be linked to the more aggressive biology of the disease, despite its association with apparently indolent prognostic factors.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parviainen, Mickael; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (2019)
    BackgroundBone stress fractures are overuse injuries commonly encountered in sports and military medicine. Some fatigue fractures lead to morbidity and loss of active, physically-demanding training days. We evaluated the incidence, anatomical location, risk factors, and preventive measures for fatigue fractures in young Finnish male conscripts.MethodsFive cohorts of 1000 men performing military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989), were analysed. Each conscript was followed for his full military service period (180days for conscripts with rank and file duties, 270days for those with special training, 362days for officers and highly trained conscripts). Data, including physical activity level, were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire and from the garrisons' healthcare centre medical reports. Risk factor analysis included the conscripts' service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index, smoking, education, previous diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms, as well as self-reports of physical activity before entering the service using a standard military questionnaire.ResultsFatigue fractures occurred in 44 (1.1%) of 4029 men, with an incidence of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 0.92-1.70) per 1000 follow-up months, and mostly (33/44, 75%) occurred at the tibial shaft or metatarsals. Three patients experienced two simultaneous stress fractures in different bones. Most fatigue fractures occurred in the first 3months of military service. Conscripts with fatigue fractures lost a total of 1359 (range 10-77) active military training days due to exemptions from duty. Conscripts reporting regular (>2 times/week) physical activity before entering the military had significantly fewer (p=0.017) fatigue fractures. Regular physical activity before entering the service was the only strong explanatory, protective factor in the model [IRR=0.41 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.85)]. The other measured parameters did not contribute significantly to the incidence of stress fractures.ConclusionRegular and recurrent high-intensity physical activity before entering military service seems to be an important preventive measure against developing fatigue fractures. Fatigue fractures should be considered in conscripts seeking medical advice for complaints of musculoskeletal pain, and taken into consideration in planning military and other physical training programs.
  • Pihlajamäki, Harri; Parviainen, Mickael; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kiviranta, Ilkka (BioMed Central, 2019)
    Abstract Background Bone stress fractures are overuse injuries commonly encountered in sports and military medicine. Some fatigue fractures lead to morbidity and loss of active, physically-demanding training days. We evaluated the incidence, anatomical location, risk factors, and preventive measures for fatigue fractures in young Finnish male conscripts. Methods Five cohorts of 1000 men performing military service, classified according to birth year (1969, 1974, 1979, 1984, 1989), were analysed. Each conscript was followed for his full military service period (180 days for conscripts with rank and file duties, 270 days for those with special training, 362 days for officers and highly trained conscripts). Data, including physical activity level, were collected from a standard pre-information questionnaire and from the garrisons’ healthcare centre medical reports. Risk factor analysis included the conscripts’ service class (A, B), length of military service, age, height, weight, body mass index, smoking, education, previous diseases, injuries, and subjective symptoms, as well as self-reports of physical activity before entering the service using a standard military questionnaire. Results Fatigue fractures occurred in 44 (1.1%) of 4029 men, with an incidence of 1.27 (95% confidence interval: 0.92–1.70) per 1000 follow-up months, and mostly (33/44, 75%) occurred at the tibial shaft or metatarsals. Three patients experienced two simultaneous stress fractures in different bones. Most fatigue fractures occurred in the first 3 months of military service. Conscripts with fatigue fractures lost a total of 1359 (range 10–77) active military training days due to exemptions from duty. Conscripts reporting regular (> 2 times/week) physical activity before entering the military had significantly fewer (p = 0.017) fatigue fractures. Regular physical activity before entering the service was the only strong explanatory, protective factor in the model [IRR = 0.41 (95% CI: 0.20 to 0.85)]. The other measured parameters did not contribute significantly to the incidence of stress fractures. Conclusion Regular and recurrent high-intensity physical activity before entering military service seems to be an important preventive measure against developing fatigue fractures. Fatigue fractures should be considered in conscripts seeking medical advice for complaints of musculoskeletal pain, and taken into consideration in planning military and other physical training programs.
  • Rauma, Ilkka; Mustonen, Tiina; Seppä, Juha Matti; Ukkonen, Maritta; Mannikko, Marianne; Verkkoniemi-Ahola, Auli; Kartau, Marge; Saarinen, Jukka T.; Luostarinen, Liisa; Simula, Sakari; Ryytty, Mervi; Ahmasalo, Riitta; Sipilä, Jussi O. T.; Pieninkeroinen, Ilkka; Tapiola, Tero; Remes, Anne M.; Kuusisto, Hanna (2022)
    Background Alemtuzumab is an effective disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for highly active multiple sclerosis (MS). However, safety concerns limit its use in clinical practice. Objectives To evaluate the safety of alemtuzumab in a nationwide cohort of Finnish MS patients. Methods In this retrospective case series study, we analyzed the data of all but two MS patients who had received alemtuzumab in Finland until 2019. Data were systematically collected from patient files. Results Altogether 121 patients were identified, most of whom had received previous DMTs (82.6%). Median follow-up time after treatment initiation was 30.3 months and exceeded 24 months in 78 patients. Infusion-associated reactions (IARs) were observed in 84.3%, 57.3%, and 57.1% of patients during alemtuzumab courses 1-3, respectively. Serious adverse events (SAEs) were observed in 32.2% of patients, serious IARs in 12.4% of patients, and SAEs other than IARs in 23.1% of patients. Autoimmune adverse events were observed in 30.6% of patients. One patient died of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, and one patient died of pneumonia. A previously unreported case of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura was documented. Conclusions SAEs were more frequent in the present cohort than in previous studies. Even though alemtuzumab is a highly effective therapy for MS, vigorous monitoring with a long enough follow-up time is advised.
  • Pitkäniemi, Janne; Heikkinen, Sanna; Jousilahti, Pekka; Laaksonen, Maarit; Seppä, Karri (2017)
  • Kinnunen, Susanna; Karhapää, Pauli; Juutilainen, Auni; Finne, Patrik; Helanterä, Ilkka (2018)
    Background and objectives Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012). Risk factors for infectious deaths were analyzed with Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Results Altogether, 953 patients (29%) died during the follow-up, with 204 infection-related deaths. Mortality rate (per 1000 patient-years) due to infections was lower in the more recent cohort (4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 6.1) compared with the older cohort (9.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.7); the incidence rate ratio of infectious mortality was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.68). The main causes of infectious deaths were common bacterial infections: septicemia in 38% and pulmonary infections in 45%. Viral and fungal infections caused only 2% and 3% of infectious deaths, respectively (such as individual patients with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia, Herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis, Varicella zoster virus encephalitis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection). Similarly, opportunistic bacterial infections rarely caused death; only one deathwas caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and two were caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 23 (11%) of infection-related deaths occurred during the first post-transplant year. Older recipient age, higher plasma creatinine concentration at the end of the first post-transplant year, diabetes as a cause of ESKD, longer pretransplant dialysis duration, acute rejection, low albumin level, and earlier era of transplantation were associated with increased risk of infectious death in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The risk of death due to infectious causes after kidney transplantation in Finland dropped by one half since the 1990s. Common bacterial infections remained the most frequent cause of infection-related mortality, whereas opportunistic viral, fungal, or unconventional bacterial infections rarely caused deaths after kidney transplantation.
  • Savijärvi, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Suolistosyöpä on kolmanneksi yleisin syöpä Suomessa. Vuonna 2014 maailman standardiväestön mukaan ikävakioitu ilmaantuvuus oli miehillä 28.3 ja naisilla 20.6 100000 henkilövuotta kohti. Korkean sosioekonomisen aseman on aikaisemmissa, ennen 2000-lukua, Suomessa tehdyissä tutkimuksessa havaittu olevan yhteydessä korkeampaan suolistosyövän ilmaantuvuuteen kuin matalan sosioekonomisen aseman. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli vertailla suolistosyövän ilmaantuvuutta ja ilmaantuvuustrendejä kalenteriajassa sosioekonomisen aseman ja koulutustason mukaan erikseen paksusuolen, distaalisen ja proksimaalisen paksusuolen ja peräsuolen osalta. Tutkimusaineistona käytettiin Suomen Syöpärekisterin syöpätapauksia (n=78099) ja Tilastokeskuksen tietoja sosioekonomisesta asemasta ja koulutustasosta Suomen väestössä vuosina 1976–2014. Sosioekonomisen aseman osalta tarkastelu rajattiin lisäksi alle 85-vuotiaaseen väestöön vuosina 1995–2014, jotta useimmille pystyttiin määrittämään eläköitymistä edeltävä asema. Koulutusmuuttujan analyysissä mukana oli 77641 tapausta ja sosioekonomisen aseman tarkastelussa 40675. Syöpätapausmäärä suhteutettiin vastaavan väestöryhmän henkilövuosimäärään. Ryhmien välisiä eroja ja niiden muutoksia vertailtiin Poisson-regressiomallien avulla. Tarkastelujakson alussa (1976–1979) sekä keskiasteen että korkeakoulutettujen miesten paksusuolen syövän ilmaantuvuus oli suurempi kuin peruskoulun käyneillä (30% ja 55%). Viimeisellä periodilla (2010–2014) vastaavat erot olivat enää -3% ja 0%. Koulutusryhmien väliset ilmaantuvuuserot kapenivat tilastollisesti merkitsevästi miehillä paksusuolen (p=1.76x10-8) ja distaalisen paksusuolen (p=4.5x10-7) osalta. Naisilla ja peräsuolen osalta molemmilla sukupuolilla koulutusryhmien väliset erot olivat vähäisiä tarkasteluperiodin alussa, eikä tilastollisesti merkitseviä ilmaantuvuuden muutoksia havaittu. Sosioekonomisen aseman osalta suolistosyövän ilmaantuvuudessa ei tapahtunut tilastollisesti merkitseviä muutoksia ryhmien välillä. Paksusuolen syövän ilmaantuvuus kasvoi koko tarkastelujakson ajan etenkin peruskoulutetuilla miehillä. Tulos korostaa suolistosyövän elintapoihin liittyviin riskitekijöihin perustuvan ehkäisyn merkitystä erityisesti tässä ryhmässä.
  • Kotkansalo, Anna; Leinonen, Ville; Korajoki, Merja; Salmenkivi, Jyrki; Korhonen, Katariina; Malmivaara, Antti (2019)
    Background The incidence of surgery for degenerative cervical spine disease (DCSD) has risen by almost 150% in the USA in the last three decades and stabilized at slightly over 70 operations/100,000 people. There has been significant regional variation in the operation incidences. We aim to assess the diagnosis-based, age-adjusted trends in the operation incidences and the regional variation in Finland between 1999 and 2015. Methods Data from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register (FHDR), the Cause of Death Register, and the registers of the Social Insurance Institution were combined to analyze all the primary operations for DCSD or rheumatoid atlanto-axial subluxation (rAAS). Combinations of the operative and the diagnosis codes were used to classify the patients into five diagnostic groups. Results A total of 19,701 primary operations were included. The age-adjusted operation incidence rose from 21.0 to 36.5/100,000 people between 1999 and 2013 and plateaued thereafter. The incidence of surgery for radiculopathy increased from 13.1 to 23.3 operations/100,000 people, and the incidence of surgery for DCM increased from 5.8 to 7.0 operations/100,000 people. The rise was especially pronounced in surgery for foraminal stenosis, which increased from 5.3 to 12.4 operations/100,000 people. Of the five diagnostic groups, only operations for rAAS declined. Operations increased especially in the 40- to 65-year-old age group. The overall operation incidences varied from 18.3 to 43.1 operations/100,000 people between the university hospitals. Conclusions The age-adjusted incidence of surgery for DCSD has risen in Finland by 76%, but the rise has plateaued. Surgery for radiculopathy, especially for foraminal stenosis, increased more steeply than surgery for degenerative medullopathy, with vast regional differences in the operation incidences.
  • Salo, Tuula; Rautava, Jaana; Hirvonen, Jussi; Mäkitie, Antti; Niskanen, Mirka; Pöllänen, Marja; Saarilahti, Kauko; Siponen, Maria; Soukka, Tero (2019)
  • Filatova, Svetlana; Upadhyaya, Subina; Kronstrom, Kim; Suominen, Auli; Chudal, Roshan; Luntamo, Terhi; Sourander, Andre; Gyllenberg, David (2019)
    Background: Knowledge of time trends for depression is important for disease prevention and healthcare planning. Only a few studies have addressed these questions regarding the incidence and cumulative incidence of diagnosed depression from childhood to early adulthood and findings have been inconclusive. Aim: The aim of this national register-based Finnish study was to report the time trends of the age-specific and gender-specific incidence and cumulative incidence of diagnosed depression. Methods: The study sample included all 1,245,502 singletons born in Finland between 1 January 1987 and 31 December 2007 and still living in Finland at the end of 2012. The participants were divided into three cohorts by birth year: 1987-1993, 1994-2000 and 2001-2007. Depression diagnoses (ICD-9: 2961; ICD-10: F32, F33) given in 1995-2012 were available and identified from the Care Register for Health Care. Results: Ten percent of the females and five percent of the males were diagnosed with depression in specialized services by age 25 years. The cumulative incidence of depression by age 15 years rose from 1.8% (95% CI 1.8-1.9) to 2.9% (95% CI 2.8-3.0) in females and from 1.0% (95% CI 1.1-1.2) to 1.6% (95% CI 1.6-1.7) in males when the cohorts born 1987-1993 and 1994-2000 were compared. Conclusions: A larger proportion of young people in Finland are diagnosed with depression in specialized services than before. This can be due to better identification, more positive attitudes to mental health problems and increased availability of the services.