Browsing by Subject "India"

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  • Nevgi, Anne; Tella, Seppo; Nishimura, Shoji (2010)
    The purpose of this study was to explore what salient characteristics can be found in some university teachers’ approaches to teaching in Finland, Japan and India, and in what ways university teachers in Finland, India and Japan use ICTs (information and communication technologies) in their own teaching. Furthermore, this study aimed to investigate what ICT applications these same teachers use in their teaching. The data were collected via an electronic survey and interviews. The participants (N=21) were university teachers from Finland (N=8), Japan (N=10) and India (N=3). Their approaches to teaching were explored by applying the ATI (approaches to teaching inventory) and its modified version focusing on the use of ICTs in teaching. The study reported in this paper was a pilot study, thus the results are based on the limited number of respondents. The ATI and ATI_ICT subscales and ICT inventory applied in this study have been confirmed to be valid. The university teachers in Japan and Finland differed in their approaches to teaching: The Finnish teachers scored higher on the CCSF (conceptual change orientated, student-focused) approach to teaching than the Japanese teachers, while the Japanese teachers scored higher on the ITTF information transmitting, teacher-focused) approach to teaching. Two Indian teachers were classified as having a teacher-focused approach to teaching, while the third was classified as having a student-focused approach to teaching. The teachers’ differences in their use of ICTs related more to their disciplinary status than to their cultural background. approaches to teaching; use of ICT in teaching; Japan; Finland; India
  • Lyytikainen, Minna; Yadav, Punam; Wibben, Annick T. R.; Jauhola, Marjaana; Cecilia Confortini, Catia (2021)
    Feminist scholars and activists have historically been written out of peace research, despite their strong presence in the early stages of the field. In this article, we develop the concept of "wifesization" to illustrate the process through which feminist and feminized interventions have been reduced to appendages of the field, their contributions appropriated for its development but unworthy of mention as independent producers of knowledge. Wifesization has trickle-down effects, not just for knowledge production, but also for peacebuilding practice. We propose new feminist genealogies for peace research that challenge and redefine the narrow boundaries of the field, in the form of a patchwork quilt including early theorists, utopian writing, oral history, and indigenous knowledge production. Reflections draw on the authors' engagements with several archives rich in cultures and languages of peace, not reducible to a "single story." Recovering wifesized feminist contributions to peace research, our article offers a new way of constructing peace research canons that gives weight to long-standing, powerful, and plural feminist voices, in order to make peace scholarship more inclusive and ultimately richer.
  • Pathan, Alina (2010)
    The study examines India’s National Action Plan on Climate Change and in particular its National Water Mission (NWM) draft. The objective is to examine how climate policy has been formulated, what kind of water-related climate change governance exists in India and how different actors are engaged in water-related climate policy-making. The objectives are examined especially through the NWM, as water is one of the sectors highly vulnerable to climate change in India. Environmental governance in general and in the context of water and climate change governance forms the theoretical framework for the thesis. The study is based on qualitative methodology and the main data collection methods were thematic interviews, literature review and content analysis of newspaper and web articles. Goals of the NWM were considered to include both positive and negative objectives. Issues related to more research on climate impacts, improving water quality, rainwater harvesting, and groundwater recharge were considered in principle as positive steps. In addition, regulation of water consumption, efficient use of water and waste water treatment were considered positive aspects. On the other hand, there were several issues in the NWM, which were considered business as usual plans, which would be implemented despite the NWM such the emphasis of surface water storages. The study concludes that there are several long-term, unsolved water governance issues hindering the potentials of the NWM to succeed, such as an overall governance crisis, inadequate involvement of actors, groundwater governance problems, disputes between different actors and stakeholders, and poor policy and law enforcement. Future actions on dealing with these aspects and the challenges ahead depend on the pathways; the Indian government wants to take.
  • Joseph, Jacquleen; Jauhola, Marjaana; Shanbhogue Arvind, Lavanya; Gadhavi, Shyam (2021)
    In this paper, we suggest that theorising on gendered structural violence and inequalities in disaster recovery would benefit from the in-depth focus on intersections of social relations and processes as they manifest in everyday lives. Drawing from the theorising on neoliberal states, we propose a new theoretical approach of "wounded attachments to disaster recovery". This theoretical position is informed by the lives of three women survivors from three diverse disasters in India. Five perspectives on gendered disaster recovery experience is then presented: firstly, how the recovery beneficiary categories are an extension of the neoliberal subject position; secondly, how recovery reinforces gendered responsibilities as "building oneself back better", a respectable mother and provider; thirdly, how recovery causes pain, suffering, and ressentiment; fourthly, how complex inequalities and social relations are lived through and negotiated in the aftermath of disasters; and finally, how women narrate counter cultural everydayness to disaster recovery in their life histories. We suggest that an understanding of intersectionality, or interlocking systems of oppression, as a form of injury, allows to understand power and structures of disaster recovery. Reiterations of such injuries suggest that instead of reducing vulnerability, and injustice, recovery efforts reiterate these very structures of inequality. The failure to operationalize and capture the complexities of structural inequality and injustice in the context of disaster recovery could be overcome by drawing on the work of scholars who recognise the limits of the concept of intersectionality and engage in alternate conceptualizations, such as pain, suffering, trauma and wounded attachments.
  • Kupias, Teppo (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    In this study the religious representations in the Facebook following of India’s current Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, are explored and analysed. The study is a theoretically informed netnographic study and its background is in the previous studies of charisma and the concept of natural religion or natural cognitions related to religion. On the essentialist–social constructionism scale the study situates itself in the essentialist end, treating the research material as an expression of the reality behind it, not just as socially constructed. As far as is known, this study is the first study using online material to analyse religious representations in the following of a secular leader figure. The research material, or data, for this study comes from Narendra Modi’s official Facebook fan page http://www.facebook.com/narendramodi.official and the comments on it. A total of of 6,617 comments were manually collected from the fan page on four separate dates: 6 November 2012, 20 November 2012, 20 July 2014 and 6 August 2014. After the collection of the comments, a software tool in python language was written to index the comments. The nature of social media, and the Internet in general, makes it mandatory to treat the research material as a mere snapshot of Modi’s rapidly changing Facebook fan page and not as a continuously existing mass of data. The different years for the material gathering represent two different political and social positions of Modi. In 2012 he was the Chief Minister of the state of Gujarat and a popular Prime Minister candidate. In 2014 his party, the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), won the general election, which consequently made Modi the Prime Minister of India. The analysis of the comments and the religious representations in them thus also includes a comparative aspect, taking note of his changed social position. The analysis of the research material shows that while some of the commenters are passionate haters of Modi, the majority of his Facebook followers are big supporters of him and are charismatically oriented in their following. On his fan page, Modi is treated as a god, as a messenger of god and compared to religious figures such as Buddha and Swami Vivekananda. A savior belief in Modi is also strongly present in the comments. Some comments also show deep emotional commitment to Modi. As a new finding the study also shows that online charismatic following includes belief in reaching the leader personally through the comments despite there being hundreds of thousands of messages: some of the comments contain very personal requests and messages to Modi. As a conclusion, this study clearly supports earlier findings on charismatically oriented following drawing from natural cognitions related to religion, and shows that even in the following of a non-religious leader religious representations are clearly present. The study also reveals that social media provides a fruitful platform for the study of non-reflective beliefs. The main references for this study are: Kimmo Ketola’s The Founder of the Hare Krishnas as Seen by Devotees. A Cognitive Study of Religious Charisma (2008), Ann Ruth Willner’s The Spellbinders: Charismatic Political Leadership (1984), Justin Barrett’s Cognitive Science, Religion, and Theology: From Human Minds to Divine Minds (2011), Lee A. Kirkpatrick’s Attachment, evolution and the psychology of religion (2005), Kingshuk Nag’s The NaMo story: A Political Life (2014), Edward Luce’s In Spite of the Gods: The Strange Rise of Modern India (2011) and Robert V. Kozinets’s Netnography: Doing Ethnographic Research Online (2010).