Browsing by Subject "LAND-USE"

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  • Kiuru, Petri; Ojala, Anne; Mammarella, Ivan; Heiskanen, Jouni; Kämäräinen, Matti; Vesala, Timo; Huttula, Timo (2018)
    Climate change may have notable impacts on carbon cycling in freshwater ecosystems, especially in the boreal zone. Higher atmospheric temperature and changes in annual discharge patterns and carbon loading from the catchment affect the thermal and biogeochemical conditions in a lake. We developed an extension of a one-dimensional process-based lake model MyLake for simulating carbon dioxide (CO2 ) dynamics of a boreal lake. We calibrated the model for Lake Kuivajarvi, a small humic boreal lake, for the years 2013-2014, using the extensive data available on carbon inflow and concentrations of water column CO2 and dissolved organic carbon. The lake is a constant source of CO2 to the atmosphere in the present climate. We studied the potential effects of climate change-induced warming on lake CO2 concentration and air-water flux using downscaled air temperature data from three recent-generation global climate models with two alternative representative concentration pathway forcing scenarios. Literature estimates were used for climate change impacts on the lake inflow. The scenario simulations showed a 20-35% increase in the CO2 flux from the lake to the atmosphere in the scenario period 2070-2099 compared to the control period 1980-2009. In addition, we estimated possible implications of different changes in terrestrial inorganic and organic carbon loadings to the lake. The scenarios with plausible increases of 10% and 20% in CO2 and dissolved organic carbon loadings, respectively, produced increases of 2.1-2.5% and 2.2-2.3% in the annual CO2 flux.
  • Milicic, Marija; Vujic, Ante; Cardoso, Pedro (2018)
    Climate change presents a serious threat to global biodiversity. Loss of pollinators in particular has major implications, with extirpation of these species potentially leading to severe losses in agriculture and, thus, economic losses. In this study, we forecast the effects of climate change on the distribution of hoverflies in Southeast Europe using species distribution modelling and climate change scenarios for two time-periods. For 2041-2060, 19 analysed species were predicted to increase their areas of occupancy, with the other 25 losing some of their ranges. For 2061-2080, 55% of species were predicted to increase their area of occupancy, while 45% were predicted to experience range decline. In general, range size changes for most species were below 20%, indicating a relatively high resilience of hoverflies to climate change when only environmental variables are considered. Additionally, range-restricted species are not predicted to lose more area proportionally to widespread species. Based on our results, two distributional trends can be established: the predicted gain of species in alpine regions, and future loss of species from lowland areas. Considering that the loss of pollinators from present lowland agricultural areas is predicted and that habitat degradation presents a threat to possible range expansion of hoverflies in the future, developing conservation management strategy for the preservation of these species is crucial. This study represents an important step towards the assessment of the effects of climate changes on hoverflies and can be a valuable asset in creating future conservation plan, thus helping in mitigating potential consequences.
  • Rimhanen, Karoliina; Ketoja, Elise; Yli-Halla, Markku; Kahiluoto, Helena (2016)
    More than half of the cultivation-induced carbon loss from agricultural soils could be restored through improved management. To incentivise carbon sequestration, the potential of improved practices needs to be verified. To date, there is sparse empirical evidence of carbon sequestration through improved practices in East-Africa. Here, we show that agroforestry and restrained grazing had a greater stock of soil carbon than their bordering pair-matched controls, but the difference was less obvious with terracing. The controls were treeless cultivated fields for agroforestry, on slopes not terraced for terracing, and permanent pasture for restrained grazing, representing traditionally managed agricultural practices dominant in the case regions. The gain by the improved management depended on the carbon stocks in the control plots. Agroforestry for 6-20 years led to 11.4 Mg ha(-1) and restrained grazing for 6-17 years to 9.6 Mg ha(-1) greater median soil carbon stock compared with the traditional management. The empirical estimates are higher than previous process-model-based estimates and indicate that Ethiopian agriculture has greater potential to sequester carbon in soil than previously estimated.
  • Carstensen, Jacob; Conley, Daniel J.; Almroth-Rosell, Elin; Asmala, Eero; Bonsdorff, Erik; Fleming-Lehtinen, Vivi; Gustafsson, Bo G.; Gustafsson, Camilla; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Janas, Urzsula; Norkko, Alf; Slomp, Caroline; Villnäs, Anna; Voss, Maren; Zilius, Mindaugas (2020)
    The coastal zone of the Baltic Sea is diverse with strong regional differences in the physico-chemical setting. This diversity is also reflected in the importance of different biogeochemical processes altering nutrient and organic matter fluxes on the passage from land to sea. This review investigates the most important processes for removal of nutrients and organic matter, and the factors that regulate the efficiency of the coastal filter. Nitrogen removal through denitrification is high in lagoons receiving large inputs of nitrate and organic matter. Phosphorus burial is high in archipelagos with substantial sedimentation, but the stability of different burial forms varies across the Baltic Sea. Organic matter processes are tightly linked to the nitrogen and phosphorus cycles. Moreover, these processes are strongly modulated depending on composition of vegetation and fauna. Managing coastal ecosystems to improve the effectiveness of the coastal filter can reduce eutrophication in the open Baltic Sea.
  • Santangeli, Andrea; Toivonen, Tuuli; Pouzols, Federico Montesino; Pogson, Mark; Hastings, Astley; Smith, Pete; Moilanen, Atte (2016)
    Reliance on fossil fuels is causing unprecedented climate change and is accelerating environmental degradation and global biodiversity loss. Together, climate change and biodiversity loss, if not averted urgently, may inflict severe damage on ecosystem processes, functions and services that support the welfare of modern societies. Increasing renewable energy deployment and expanding the current protected area network represent key solutions to these challenges, but conflicts may arise over the use of limited land for energy production as opposed to biodiversity conservation. Here, we compare recently identified core areas for the expansion of the global protected area network with the renewable energy potential available from land-based solar photovoltaic, wind energy and bioenergy (in the form of Miscanthusxgiganteus). We show that these energy sources have very different biodiversity impacts and net energy contributions. The extent of risks and opportunities deriving from renewable energy development is highly dependent on the type of renewable source harvested, the restrictions imposed on energy harvest and the region considered, with Central America appearing at particularly high potential risk from renewable energy expansion. Without restrictions on power generation due to factors such as production and transport costs, we show that bioenergy production is a major potential threat to biodiversity, while the potential impact of wind and solar appears smaller than that of bioenergy. However, these differences become reduced when energy potential is restricted by external factors including local energy demand. Overall, we found that areas of opportunity for developing solar and wind energy with little harm to biodiversity could exist in several regions of the world, with the magnitude of potential impact being particularly dependent on restrictions imposed by local energy demand. The evidence provided here helps guide sustainable development of renewable energy and contributes to the targeting of global efforts in climate mitigation and biodiversity conservation.
  • Navarro, J. C. Acosta; Smolander, S.; Struthers, H.; Zorita, E.; Ekman, A. M. L.; Kaplan, J. O.; Guenther, A.; Arneth, A.; Riipinen, I. (2014)
  • Singh, Jaswinder; Cameron, Erin; Reitz, Thomas; Schädler, Martin; Eisenhauer, Nico (2021)
    Abstract The impacts of climate change on biodiversity can be modulated by other changing environmental conditions, e.g. induced by land-use change. The potential interactive effects of climate change and land use have rarely been studied for soil organisms. To test the effects of changing climatic conditions and land use on soil invertebrates, we examined earthworm communities across different seasons in different grassland-use types (intensively managed grassland, extensively managed meadow, and extensively managed sheep pasture).We predicted that the strength of climate change effects would vary with season and land use. Overall, extracted earthworm populations showed the strongest variations in response to the season, indicating major differences in activity patterns and extraction efficiency, while climate change and different grassland-use types had fewer and weaker effects. Future climate, characterized by slightly higher precipitation in spring and fall but a strong reduction during the summer, had positive effects on the abundance of extracted adult earthworms in spring but then reduced the abundance of active earthworms across the remaining seasons. In contrast, the total biomass of juveniles tended to be consistently lower under future climate conditions. Earthworm species responded differently to the climate change and different grassland management types, and these species-specific responses further varied strongly across seasons. Intensive grassland management had negative effects, due to plant community composition, while sheep grazing favoured earthworm populations, due to dung deposition. There were only limited interactive effects between climate and land use, which thus did not support our main hypothesis. Nevertheless, these results highlight the complex and context-dependent responses of earthworm communities and activity patterns to climate change, with potential consequences for long-term population dynamics and crucial ecosystem functions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
  • Riikonen, Anu; Pumpanen, Jukka; Mäki, Mari Jasmiina; Nikinmaa, Eero (2017)
    We assessed the net carbon (C) sequestration dynamics of street tree plantings based on 10 years of measurements at two case study sites each with different tree species in Helsinki, Finland. We assessed C loss from tree soils and tree C accumulation, tested the applicability of pre-existing growth and biomass equations against observations, and estimated the time point for the beginning of net C sequestration for the studied street tree plantings. The tree woody biomass C accumulation in the first 10 years after planting was 18-32 kg per tree. At the same time the C loss from the growth media was at least 170 kg per growth media volume (25 m(3)) per tree. If this soil C loss was accounted for, the net C sequestration would begin, at best, approximately 30 years after planting. Biomass equations developed for traditional forests predicted more stem biomass and less leaf and branch biomass than measured for the species examined, but total aboveground biomass was generally well predicted.
  • Raymond, Christopher M.; Fagerholm, Nora; Kyttä, Marketta (2020)
    This commentary honours the seminal and foundational contributions of Professor Gregory G. (Greg) Brown to the fields of public participation geographic information systems (PPGIS), natural resource management and spatial planning. We synthesise his work into four theses that underpinned his three decades of research: 1) The mapping of place values provides place-specific information about sense of place which can aid in the assessment of the risks associated with landscape modification; 2) PPGIS analysis techniques can support socially acceptable and scientifically defensible land-use decisions in multiple planning contexts; 3) Issues of representation and data quality can be systematically investigated and managed; and 4) While PPGIS is increasingly being applied by cities and other organisations globally, there remains multiple challenges regarding the use of PPGIS findings in land-use decision making. We then briefly summarise his future visions for PPGIS research into: improving participation, and identifying and controlling threats to spatial data quality; turning PPGIS from a participation tool to a political force that can engage with the politics of place and, related to the previous vision; building capacity and champions for those who see the value in participatory mapping methods and are willing to articulate publicly how participatory contributions will be used. The co-authors and all signatories to this commentary are deeply grateful for the many ways that Greg has touched our lives over the years. He will be sadly missed.
  • Alenius, Teija Helena; Gerasimov, Dmitry; Sapelko, Tatiana V; Ludikova, Anna; Kuznetsov, Denis; Golyeva, A; Nordqvist, Kerkko (2020)
    This paper presents the results of pollen, diatom, charcoal, and sediment analyses from Lake Bol'shoye Zavetnoye, situated between the Gulf of Finland and Lake Ladoga on the Karelian Isthmus, north-western Russia. The main goal is to contribute to the discussion of Neolithic land use in north-eastern Europe. The article aims to answer questions related to Stone Age hunter-gatherer economy, ecology, and anthropogenic environmental impact through a comprehensive combination of multiple types of palaeoecological data and archaeological material. According to diatom data, Lake Bol'shoye Zavetnoye was influenced by the water level oscillations of Ancient Lake Ladoga during much of the Holocene. Intensified human activity and prolonged human occupation become visible in the Lake Bol'shoye Zavetnoye pollen data between 4480 BC and 3250 BC. During the final centuries of the Stone Age, a new phase of land use began, as several anthropogenic indicators, such asTriticum, Cannabis, andPlantago lanceolataappear in the pollen data and a decrease inPinusvalues is recorded. In general, the results indicate that socio-cultural transformations could have taken place already from the mid-5th millennium BC onwards, including new ways of utilizing the environment, perhaps also in the field of subsistence, even though the livelihood was based on foraging throughout the period.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Brooks, Thomas; Toivonen, Tuuli; Butchart, Stuart; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Watson, James; Burgess, Neil; Challender, Daniel; Goettsch, Barbara; Jenkins, Richard; Moilanen, Atte (2019)
    Overexploitation is one of the main threats to biodiversity, but the intensity of this threat varies geographically. We identified global concentrations, on land and at sea, of 4543 species threatened by unsustainable commercial harvesting. Regions under high-intensity threat (based on accessibility on land and on fishing catch at sea) cover 4.3% of the land and 6.1% of the seas and contain 82% of all species threatened by unsustainable harvesting and > 80% of the ranges of Critically Endangered species threatened by unsustainable harvesting. Currently, only 16% of these regions are covered by protected areas on land and just 6% at sea. Urgent actions are needed in these centers of unsustainable harvesting to ensure that use of species is sustainable and to prevent further species' extinctions.
  • Jilbert, Thomas Stephen; Asmala, Eero; Schröder, Christian; Tiihonen, Rosa Maria Elina; Myllykangas, Jukka-Pekka; Kotilainen, Aarno; Virtasalo, Joonas; Peltola, Pasi; Ekholm, Päivi Inkeri; Hietanen, Siru Susanna (2018)
    Iron (Fe) plays a key role in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal systems, participating in various redox reactions and influencing the burial of organic carbon. Large amounts of Fe enter the marine environment from boreal river catchments associated with dissolved organic matter (DOM) and as colloidal Fe oxyhydroxides, principally ferrihydrite. However, the fate of this Fe pool in estuarine sediments has not been extensively studied. Here we show that flocculation processes along a salinity gradient in an estuary of the northern Baltic Sea efficiently transfer Fe and OM from the dissolved phase into particulate material that accumulates in the sediments. Flocculation of Fe and OM is partially decoupled. This is likely due to the presence of discrete colloidal ferrihydrite in the freshwater Fe pool, which responds differently from DOM to estuarine mixing. Further decoupling of Fe from OM occurs during sedimentation. While we observe a clear decline with distance offshore in the proportion of terrestrial material in the sedimentary particulate organic matter (POM) pool, the distribution of flocculated Fe in sediments is modulated by focusing effects. Labile Fe phases are most abundant at a deep site in the inner basin of the estuary, consistent with input from flocculation and subsequent focusing. The majority of the labile Fe pool is present as Fe (II), including both acid-volatile sulfur (AVS)-bound Fe and unsulfidized phases. The ubiquitous presence of unsulfidized Fe (II) throughout the sediment column suggests Fe (II)-OM complexes derived from reduction of flocculated Fe (III)-OM, while other Fe (II) phases are likely derived from the reduction of flocculated ferrihydrite. Depth-integrated rates of Fe (II) accumulation (AVS-Fe + unsulfidized Fe (II) + pyrite) for the period 1970-2015 are greater in the inner basin of the estuary with respect to a site further offshore, confirming higher rates of Fe reduction in near-shore areas. Mossbauer Fe-57 spectroscopy shows that refractory Fe is composed largely of superparamagnetic Fe (III), high-spin Fe (II) in silicates, and, at one station, also oxide minerals derived from past industrial activities. Our results highlight that the cycling of Fe in boreal estuarine environments is complex, and that the partial decoupling of Fe from OM during flocculation and sedimentation is key to understanding the role of Fe in sedimentary diagenetic processes in coastal areas.
  • Jogiste, Kalev; Frelich, Lee E.; Laarmann, Diana; Vodde, Floortje; Baders, Endijs; Donis, Janis; Jansons, Arts; Kangur, Ahto; Korjus, Henn; Köster, Kajar; Kusmin, Jurgen; Kuuluvainen, Timo; Marozas, Vitas; Metslaid, Marek; Metslaid, Sandra; Polyachenko, Olga; Poska, Anneli; Rebane, Sille; Stanturf, John A. (2018)
    In the Baltic States region, anthropogenic disturbances at different temporal and spatial scales mostly determine dynamics and development phases of forest ecosystems. We reviewed the state and condition of hemiboreal forests of the Baltic States region and analyzed species composition of recently established and permanent forest (PF). Agricultural deforestation and spontaneous or artificial conversion back to forest is a scenario leading to ecosystems designated as recent forest (RF, age up to two hundred years). Permanent forest (PF) was defined as areas with no records of agricultural activity during the last 200 yr, including mostly forests managed by traditional even-aged (clear-cut) silviculture and salvage after natural disturbances. We hypothesized that RF would have distinctive composition, with higher dominance by hardwoods (e.g., aspen and birch), compared to PF. Ordination revealed divergence in the RF stands; about half had the hypothesized composition distinct from PF, with a tight cluster of stands in the part of the ordination space with high hardwood dominance, while the remaining RF stands were scattered throughout the ordination space occupied by PF with highly variable species composition. Planting of conifers, variability in site quality, and variability in spatial proximity to PF with relatively natural ecosystem legacies likely explained the variable compositions of this latter group of RF. We positioned the observations of RF in a classic quantification of site type conditions (based on Estonian forest vegetation survey previously carried out by LA mu hmus), which indicated that RF was more likely to occur on areas of higher soil fertility (in ordination space). Climatic and anthropogenic changes to RF create complex dynamic trends that are difficult to project into the future. Further research in tracing land use changes (using pollen analysis and documented evidence) should be utilized to refine the conceptual framework of ecosystem legacy and memory. Occurrence and frequency of deforestation and its characteristics as a novel disturbance regime are of particular interest.
  • Lehikoinen, Petteri; Tiusanen, Maria; Santangeli, Andrea; Rajasärkkä, Ari; Jaatinen, Kim; Valkama, Jari; Virkkala, Raimo; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2021)
    Climate change has ubiquitous impacts on ecosystems and threatens biodiversity globally. One of the most recognized impacts are redistributions of species, a process which can be hindered by habitat degradation. Protected areas (PAs) have been shown to be beneficial for preserving and reallocating species occurrences under climate change. Yet, studies investigating effects of PA networks on species' range shifts under climate change remain scarce. In theory, a well-connected network of PAs should promote population persistence under climate change and habitat degradation. To study this, we evaluated the effects of PA coverage on avian communities in Finland between two study periods of 1980-1999 and 2000-2015. Climate-driven community impacts were investigated by using community temperature index (CTI). We used linear models to study the association of PA coverage and the CTI changes in southern, central and northern Finland. In northern and central Finland, higher PA coverage was associated with lower changes in CTI and 45% PA coverage in northern and 13% in central Finland corresponded with complete mitigation of CTI increase. These results indicate that higher PA coverage strongly increases community resilience to warming climate. However a similar association between PA coverage and changes in CTI was not apparent in southern Finland. The PA coverage in southern Finland was much lower than in the two other sections and thus, may be too sparse to favour community resilience against climate change. The results provide empirical evidence for the international need to rapidly expand PA networks and halt biodiversity loss.
  • Sumasgutner, Petra; Terraube, Julien; Coulon, Aurélie; Villers, Alexandre; Chakarov, Nayden; Kruckenhauser, Luise; Korpimäki, Erkki (2019)
    Selecting high-quality habitat and the optimal time to reproduce can increase individual fitness and is a strong evolutionary factor shaping animal populations. However, few studies have investigated the interplay between land cover heterogeneity, limitation in food resources, individual quality and spatial variation in fitness parameters. Here, we explore how individuals of different quality respond to possible mismatches between a cue for prey availability (land cover heterogeneity) and the actual fluctuating prey abundance.
  • Ylöstalo, Pasi; Seppälä, Jukka; Kaitala, Seppo; Maunula, Petri; Simis, Stefan (2016)
    We studied the loadings of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and nutrients from the Neva River into the Eastern Gulf of Finland, as well as their distribution within the salinity gradient. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ranged from 390 to 840 mu M, and were related to absorption of colored DOM (CDOM) at 350 nm, a(CDOM)(350), ranging from 2.70 to 17.8 m(-1). With increasing salinity both DOC and a(CDOM) decreased, whereas the slope of a(CDOM) spectra, S-CDOM(300-700), ranging from 14.3 to 21.2 mu m(-1), increased with salinity. Deviations of these properties from conservative mixing models were occasionally observed within the salinity range of approximately 1-4, corresponding to the region between 27 and 29 degrees E. These patterns are suggested to mostly reflect seasonal changes in properties of river end-member and hydrodynamics of the estuary, rather than non-conservative processes. On the other hand, observed nonlinear relationships observed between a(CDOM)*(350) and S-CDOM(275-295) emphasized the importance of photochemistry among various transformation processes of DOM. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen was effectively transformed in the estuary into particulate organic nitrogen (PON) and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), of which DON was mostly exported from the estuary, enhancing productivity in nitrogen limited parts of the Gulf of Finland. DON concentrations ranged from 12.4 to 23.5 mu M and its estuarine dynamics were clearly uncoupled from DOC. In contrast to DOC, estuarine DON dynamics suggest that its production exceeds losses in the estuary. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) loadings from the Neva River and St. Petersburg were estimated as 73.5 Gg N yr(-1) and 4.2 Gg P yr(-1), respectively. Approximately 59% of TN and 53% of TP loads were in organic forms. DOC and DON loadings were estimated as 741.4 Gg C yr(-1) and 19.0 Gg N yr(-1), respectively. Our estimate for DOC loading was evaluated against a previously published carbon budget of the Baltic Sea. According to the updated model, the Baltic Sea could be identified as a weak source of carbon into the atmosphere. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Brown, Greg; Reed, Pat; Raymond, Christopher M. (2020)
    The concept of “place” links people to their environment and is foundational to disciplines such as geography, environmental psychology, and urban studies. With growth in geographic information systems (GIS) in the 1990s, research began to operationalize place concepts using GIS to better inform land use decisions. After two decades, participatory mapping has emerged as an important method to identify place values. This article summarizes lessons from empirical research completed in diverse social and geographic contexts. Specifically, we find that mapped place values: (1) are best understood as relationship values, (2) reflect participant spatial/geographic discounting, (3) are closely related to place attachment and “sense of place” concepts, (4) are correlated with participant attitudes and preferences toward land use, (5) are predictive of land use conflict, (6) are associated with physical landscape features, (7) are generally stable over time, (8) are valid at multiple geographic scales, (9) exhibit greater similarity than differences across geographic areas and populations, and (10) show little evidence of actually influencing land use decisions. Despite research validity and the potential to improve social acceptability of land use decisions, place values will have limited social impact without elevating the importance of broader public participation in current socio-political systems.
  • Raza, Ahsan; Ahrends, Hella; Habib-Ur-Rahman, Muhammad; Gaiser, Thomas (2021)
    Information on soil erosion and related sedimentation processes are very important for natural resource management and sustainable farming. Plenty of models are available for studying soil erosion but only a few are suitable for dynamic soil erosion assessments at the field-scale. To date, there are no field-scale dynamic models available considering complex agricultural systems for the simulation of soil erosion. We conducted a review of 51 different models evaluated based on their representation of the processes of soil erosion by water. Secondly, we consider their suitability for assessing soil erosion for more complex field designs, such as patch cropping, strip cropping and agroforestry (alley-cropping systems) and other land management practices. Several models allow daily soil erosion assessments at the sub-field scale, such as EPIC, PERFECT, GUEST, EPM, TCRP, SLEMSA, APSIM, RillGrow, WaNuLCAS, SCUAF, and CREAMS. However, further model development is needed with respect to the interaction of components, i.e., rainfall intensity, overland flow, crop cover, and their scaling limitations. A particular shortcoming of most of the existing field scale models is their one-dimensional nature. We further suggest that platforms with modular structure, such as SIMPLACE and APSIM, offer the possibility to integrate soil erosion as a separate module/component and link to GIS capabilities, and are more flexible to simulate fluxes of matter in the 2D/3D dimensions. Since models operating at daily scales often do not consider a horizontal transfer of matter, such modeling platforms can link erosion components with other environmental components to provide robust estimations of the three-dimensional fluxes and sedimentation processes occurring during soil erosion events.
  • Asmala, Eero; Carstensen, Jacob; Räike, Antti (2019)
    Increases of riverine organic carbon concentrations have been observed across the northern hemisphere over the past few decades. These increases are the result of multiple environmental drivers, but the relative importance of the drivers is still unclear. We analyzed a dataset of >10 000 observations of riverine total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations and associated water chemistry and hydrological observations from 1993 to 2017. The observations span a ~600 km north–south gradient from 30 individual river systems in Finland. Our data show significantly increasing TOC concentrations in 25 out of 30 systems, with an average increase from 12.0 to 15.1 mg l−1. The observed increase in riverine TOC concentrations led to an increase of 0.28 Mt in annual TOC load to the Baltic Sea from 1993 level to 2017 level. We analyzed the role of three putative environmental drivers of the observed TOC trends. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the most common driver was discharge, which alone explained TOC increases in 13 rivers, whereas pH and temperature were less important drivers (sole predictor in one and zero rivers, respectively). Different permutations of these three drivers were also found to be significant; the combination of discharge and pH being the most common (4 rivers). Land use was not in general linked with trends in TOC, except for the proportion of ditched land in the catchment, which was significantly correlated with increases in TOC concentration. Land use showed significant relationships with trends in discharge and pH. We also found that catchment characteristics are regulating the extent of these regional or global environmental changes causing the upward trends of riverine organic carbon.
  • Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Virkkala, Raimo (2016)
    There is increasing evidence that climate change shifts species distributions towards poles and mountain tops. However, most studies are based on presence-absence data, and either abundance or the observation effort has rarely been measured. In addition, hardly any studies have investigated the direction of shifts and factors affecting them. Here, we show using count data on a 1000km south-north gradient in Finland, that between 1970-1989 and 2000-2012, 128 bird species shifted their densities, on average, 37km towards the north north-east. The species-specific directions of the shifts in density were significantly explained by migration behaviour and habitat type. Although the temperatures have also moved on average towards the north north-east (186km), the species-specific directions of the shifts in density and temperature did not correlate due to high variation in density shifts. Findings highlight that climate change is unlikely the only driver of the direction of species density shifts, but species-specific characteristics and human land-use practices are also influencing the direction. Furthermore, the alarming results show that former climatic conditions in the north-west corner of Finland have already moved out of the country. This highlights the need for an international approach in research and conservation actions to mitigate the impacts of climate change.