Browsing by Subject "LIFE"

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  • Kouvonen, Anne; Kemppainen, Laura; Ketonen, Eeva-Leena; Kemppainen, Teemu; Olakivi, Antero; Wrede, Sirpa (2021)
    Background: Previous studies have found that in general, poor health is associated with a lower likelihood of internet use in older adults, but it is not well known how different indicators of health are associated with different types of digital information technology (DIT) use. Moreover, little is known about the relationship between health and the types of DIT use in older ethnic minority and migrant populations. Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the associations among depressive symptoms and self-rated health (SRH) with different dimensions of DIT use in older migrants. Methods: We analyzed data from the Care, Health and Ageing of Russian-speaking Minority (CHARM) study, which is based on a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling, Russian-speaking adults aged 50 years or older residing permanently in Finland (men: 616/1082, 56.93%; age: mean 63.2 years, SD 8.4 years; response rate: 1082/3000, 36.07%). Data were collected in 2019 using a postal survey. Health was measured using depressive symptoms (measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale) and SRH. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the associations between the two health indicators and the following six outcomes: daily internet use, smartphone ownership, the use of the internet for messages and calls, social media use, the use of the internet for personal health data, and obtaining health information from the internet. A number of sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors were controlled for in the logistic regression regression analysis. Analyses were performed with weights accounting for the survey design and nonresponse. Results: After adjusting for sociodemographic and socioeconomic factors, depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] 2.68, 95% CI 1.37-5.24; P=.004) and poor SRH (OR 7.90, 95% CI 1.88-33.11; P=.005) were associated with a higher likelihood of not using the internet daily. Depressive symptoms (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.06-3.35; P=.03) and poor SRH (OR 5.05, 95% CI 1.58-16.19; P=.006) also increased the likelihood of smartphone nonuse. Depressive symptoms were additionally associated with a lower likelihood of social media use, and poor SRH was associated with a lower likelihood of using the internet for messaging and calling. Conclusions: Poor SRH and depressive symptoms are associated with a lower likelihood of DIT use in older adults. Longitudinal studies are required to determine the directions of these relationships.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Savini, Silvia; Guarini, Annalisa; Caselli, Maria Cristina; Matomäki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa; Alessandroni, Rosina; Faldella, Giacomo; Sansavini, Alessandra (2017)
    This cross-linguistic study investigated whether the native language has any influence on lexical composition among Italian (N = 125) and Finnish (N = 116) very preterm (born at
  • KC, Prakash; Virtanen, Marianna; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2021)
    Objective This study aimed to compare the development of self-rated health, psychological distress and physical functioning between those retired on time and those who continued working beyond the individual retirement age. Methods The study population consisted of 2340 public sector employees from the Finnish Retirement and Aging study. Participants were categorised into no extension of employment (retired at the individual retirement date or = 12 months). Propensity score matching (1:1 ratio) was used to identify comparable group of participants in the no-extension (n=574) and extension (n=574) groups by taking into account preretirement characteristics and their interactions. Results The prevalence of suboptimal self-rated health and psychological distress changed a little among the extension group during the follow-up from 1 year before (T1) to 18 months (T2) and 30 months (T3) after individual pensionable date. Compared with no extension, the risk of having suboptimal self-rated health in the extension group was 0.89 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.17) at T1, 1.16 (95% CI 0.88 to 1.53) at T2 and 0.96 (95% CI 0.68 to 1.37) at T3. For psychological distress, the corresponding risk ratios were 0.93 (0.65 to 1.32), 1.15 (0.78 to 1.69) and 1.04 (0.61 to 1.79). The mean differences in the number of physical functioning difficulties between the extension and no-extension groups were 0.06 (-0.16 to 0.29) at T1, 0.05 (-0.18 to 0.27) at T2 and -0.11 (-0.39 to 0.17) at T3. Conclusions This study found no evidence that voluntarily extending the working career beyond retirement age would pose a risk to health and physical functioning among ageing workers.
  • Stolt, Suvi; Korja, Riikka; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa (2014)
    Background: It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). Aims: We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. Study design: A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. Methods: The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Results: Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. Conclusions: The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Ala-Mutka, Eero M.; Rimpelä, Jenni M.; Fyhrquist, Frej; Kontula, Kimmo K.; Hiltunen, Timo P. (2018)
    Aim: To recognize genetic associations of hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in serum uric acid (SUA) concentration. Patients & methods: We conducted a genome-wide association study on hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in SUA in 214 Finnish men from the GENRES study. Replication analyses were performed in 465 Finns from the LIFE study. Results: In GENRES, we identified 31 loci associated with hydrochlorothiazide-induced change in SUA at p <5 x 10(-5). rs1002976 near VEGFC associated with the change in GENRES and in LIFE. rs950569 near BRINP3 associated with the change in SUA in GENRES and LIFE. The analysis of previously reported SNPs and candidate genes provided some proof for PADI4 and ABCC4. Conclusion: We report genetic markers that may predict the increase in SUA concentration during thiazide treatment.
  • Kuula, Liisa; Partonen, Timo; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina (2020)
    Objective: Early-stage romantic involvement may resemble hypomania in its manifestation on behavioral, physiological, and psychological levels. Previous research suggests that self-reported sleep duration may diminish as a result of falling in love during adolescence. We investigated how feelings of infatuation are related to subjective and objective measures of sleep duration, quality, and timing. Methods: 1374 adolescents (66% girls; mean age: 16.9, SD=0.6 years) selected from the population register responded to online questionnaires regarding romantic love, mental well-being, and sleep behavior. A sub-sample (n=309) underwent a week-long actigraphy measurement (GENEActiv Original). We compared the sleep duration, quality, and timing of those who reported being in the early stages of love to those who were not. Results: 11% of all participants reported being in the early stages of romantic love. Those girls and boys who were in love had higher scores of depression and anxiety than others. Girls who were in love reported poorer sleep quality, later sleep timing, and shorter sleep duration both on weekdays (mean difference: 32 minutes, p Conclusions: We conclude that romantic love is one further cause for short or poor quality sleep in girls and may relate to symptoms of depression and anxiety in both sexes. However, feelings of infatuation contain important developmental lessons. (C) 2020 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Halonen, Jaana I.; Shiri, Rahman; Mänty, Minna; Sumanen, Hilla; Solovieva, Svetlana; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T.; Lallukka, Tea (2019)
    Objectives To examine whether exposure to heavy physical work from early to later adulthood is associated with primary healthcare visits due to cause-specific musculoskeletal diseases in midlife. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nationally representative Young Finns Study cohort, Finland. Participants 1056 participants of the Young Finns Study cohort. Exposure measure Physical work exposure was surveyed in early (18-24years old, 1986 or 1989) and later adulthood (2007 and 2011), and it was categorised as: 'no exposure', 'early exposure only', 'later exposure only' and 'early and later exposure'. Primary and secondary outcome measures Visits due to any musculoskeletal disease and separately due to spine disorders, and upper extremity disorders were followed up from national primary healthcare register from the date of the third survey in 2011 until 2014. Results Prevalence of any musculoskeletal disease during the follow-up was 20%, that for spine disorders 10% and that for upper extremity disorders 5%. Those with physically heavy work in early adulthood only had an increased risk of any musculoskeletal disease (risk ratio (RR) 1.55, 95% CI 1.05 to 2.28) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, body mass index, physical activity and parental occupational class. Later exposure only was associated with visits due to any musculoskeletal disease (RR 1.46, 95%CI 1.01 to 2.12) and spine disorders (RR 2.40, 95%CI 1.41 to 4.06). Early and later exposure was associated with all three outcomes: RR 1.99 (95% CI 1.44 to 2.77) for any musculoskeletal disease, RR 2.43 (95% CI 1.42 to 4.14) for spine disorders and RR 3.97 (95% CI 1.86 to 8.46) for upper extremity disorders. Conclusions To reduce burden of musculoskeletal diseases, preventive actions to reduce exposure to or mitigate the consequences of physically heavy work throughout the work career are needed.
  • Lilja, Markus Jukka; Koskinen, Anni; Virkkula, Paula; Vento, Seija Inkeri; Myller, Jyri; Hammaren-Malmi, Sari; Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Hytönen, Maija; Mäkitie, Antti; Numminen, Jura; Sillanpää, Saara; Raitiola, Hannu; Rautiainen, Markus; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna Katriina (2021)
    Objectives: The aim was to compare the control of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS), in patients with/without nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug exacerbated respiratory disease (NERD). Study Desing: A retrospective hospital-based sample of CRSwNP patients with/without NERD with follow-up. Setting: Tertiary rhinology centers. Methods: Electronic patient record data from 116 CRSwNP patients (46 with NERD and 70 without NERD) undergoing ESS during 2001-17 were studied. Mean follow-up time was 9.9 years (range 1.1-15.3). Endpoints reflecting uncontrolled CRSwNP were revision ESS, and need for rescue/advanced therapy (e.g. antibiotics, oral corticosteroids and/or biological therapy) during follow-up. NERD was variable of interest and gender, age, asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), smoking, Lund-Mackay (LM) score of sinus computed tomography scans previous ESS and baseline total ethmoidectomy were used as covariates. Results: Twenty-one (49.7%) NERD patients and 18 (25.7%) non-NERD patients underwent revision ESS within a mean +/- SD of 4.3 +/- 2.8 and 3.7 +/- 2.6 years, respectively (p = .013, by Logrank test). In Cox ' s regression models, NERD, female gender, young age, asthma, AR, previous ESS, and lack of total ethmoidectomy were associated with revision-ESS. In adjusted model, only the total ethmoidectomy predicted revision-free survival. In adjusted logistic regression model, there was an insignificant trend that NERD and LM score were associated with the need for rescue/advanced therapy in the follow-up. Conclusions: Patients with NERD had higher risk of uncontrolled CRSwNP than patient group without NERD, as measured by revision ESS and/or need for rescue/advanced therapy in the follow-up. In addition, baseline total ethmoidectomy was associated with revision-free survival.
  • Rytkönen, Seppo; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Westerduin, Coen; Leviäkangas, Tiina; Vatka, Emma; Mutanen, Marko; Välimäki, Panu; Hukkanen, Markku; Suokas, Marko; Orell, Markku (2019)
    Diets play a key role in understanding trophic interactions. Knowing the actual structure of food webs contributes greatly to our understanding of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. The research of prey preferences of different predators requires knowledge not only of the prey consumed, but also of what is available. In this study, we applied DNA metabarcoding to analyze the diet of 4 bird species (willow tits Poecile montanus, Siberian tits Poecile cinctus, great tits Parus major and blue tits Cyanistes caeruleus) by using the feces of nestlings. The availability of their assumed prey (Lepidoptera) was determined from feces of larvae (frass) collected from the main foraging habitat, birch (Betula spp.) canopy. We identified 53 prey species from the nestling feces, of which 11 (21%) were also detected from the frass samples (eight lepidopterans). Approximately 80% of identified prey species in the nestling feces represented lepidopterans, which is in line with the earlier studies on the parids' diet. A subsequent laboratory experiment showed a threshold for fecal sample size and the barcoding success, suggesting that the smallest frass samples do not contain enough larval DNA to be detected by high-throughput sequencing. To summarize, we apply metabarcoding for the first time in a combined approach to identify available prey (through frass) and consumed prey (via nestling feces), expanding the scope and precision for future dietary studies on insectivorous birds.
  • Mammola, Stefano; Amorim, Isabel R.; Bichuette, Maria E.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Cheeptham, Naowarat; Cooper, Steven J. B.; Culver, David C.; Deharveng, Louis; Eme, David; Ferreira, Rodrigo Lopes; Fiser, Cene; Fiser, Ziga; Fong, Daniel W.; Griebler, Christian; Jeffery, William R.; Jugovic, Jure; Kowalko, Johanna E.; Lilley, Thomas M.; Malard, Florian; Manenti, Raoul; Martinez, Alejandro; Meierhofer, Melissa B.; Niemiller, Matthew L.; Northup, Diana E.; Pellegrini, Thais G.; Pipan, Tanja; Protas, Meredith; Reboleira, Ana Sofia P. S.; Venarsky, Michael P.; Wynne, J. Judson; Zagmajster, Maja; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Five decades ago, a landmark paper inSciencetitledThe Cave Environmentheralded caves as ideal natural experimental laboratories in which to develop and address general questions in geology, ecology, biogeography, and evolutionary biology. Although the 'caves as laboratory' paradigm has since been advocated by subterranean biologists, there are few examples of studies that successfully translated their results into general principles. The contemporary era of big data, modelling tools, and revolutionary advances in genetics and (meta)genomics provides an opportunity to revisit unresolved questions and challenges, as well as examine promising new avenues of research in subterranean biology. Accordingly, we have developed a roadmap to guide future research endeavours in subterranean biology by adapting a well-established methodology of 'horizon scanning' to identify the highest priority research questions across six subject areas. Based on the expert opinion of 30 scientists from around the globe with complementary expertise and of different academic ages, we assembled an initial list of 258 fundamental questions concentrating on macroecology and microbial ecology, adaptation, evolution, and conservation. Subsequently, through online surveys, 130 subterranean biologists with various backgrounds assisted us in reducing our list to 50 top-priority questions. These research questions are broad in scope and ready to be addressed in the next decade. We believe this exercise will stimulate research towards a deeper understanding of subterranean biology and foster hypothesis-driven studies likely to resonate broadly from the traditional boundaries of this field.
  • Odriozola, Inaki; Abrego, Nerea; Tlaskal, Vojtech; Zrustova, Petra; Morais, Daniel; Vetrovsky, Tomas; Ovaskainen, Otso; Baldrian, Petr (2021)
    Fungal-bacterial interactions play a key role in the functioning of many ecosystems. Thus, understanding their interactive dynamics is of central importance for gaining predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, it is challenging to disentangle the mechanisms behind species associations from observed co occurrence patterns, and little is known about the directionality of such interactions. Here, we applied joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal and bacterial communities in deadwood to ask whether fungal and bacterial co-occurrences result from shared habitat use (i.e., deadwood's properties) or whether there are fungal-bacterial interactive associations after habitat characteristics are taken into account. Moreover, we tested the hypothesis that the interactions are mainly modulated through fungal communities influencing bacterial communities. For that, we quantified how much the predictive power of the joint species distribution models for bacterial and fungal community improved when accounting for the other community. Our results show that fungi and bacteria form tight association networks (i.e., some species pairs co-occur more frequently and other species pairs co-occur less frequently than expected by chance) in deadwood that include common (or opposite) responses to the environment as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Additionally, we show that information about the fungal occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the bacterial abundances substantially, whereas information about the bacterial occurrences and abundances increased the power to predict the fungal abundances much less. Our results suggest that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. IMPORTANCE Understanding the interactive dynamics between fungal and bacterial communities is important to gain predictive knowledge on ecosystem functioning. However, little is known about the mechanisms behind fungal-bacterial associations and the directionality of species interactions. Applying joint species distribution modeling to high-throughput sequencing data on co-occurring fungal-bacterial communities in deadwood, we found evidence that nonrandom fungal-bacterial associations derive from shared habitat use as well as (potentially) biotic interactions. Importantly, the combination of cross-validations and conditional cross-validations helped us to answer the question about the directionality of the biotic interactions, providing evidence that suggests that fungal communities may mainly affect bacteria in deadwood. Our modeling approach may help gain insight into the directionality of interactions between different components of the microbiome in other environments.
  • Huang, Yisong; Ollikainen, Miina; Sipilä, Pyry; Mustelin, Linda; Wang, Xin; Su, Shaoyong; Huan, Tianxiao; Levy, Daniel; Wilson, James; Snieder, Harold; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wang, Xiaoling (2018)
    Recently, 2 transcriptome-wide studies identified 40 genes that were differentially expressed in relation to blood pressure. However, to what extent these BP-related gene expression signatures and their associations with BP are driven by genetic or environmental factors has not been investigated. In this study of 391 twins (193 twin pairs and 5 singletons; age 55-69 years; 40% male; 57% monozygous) recruited from the Finnish Twin Cohort, transcriptome-wide data on peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Illumina HT12 V4 array. Our transcriptome-wide analysis identified 1 gene (MOK [MAPK/MAK/MRK overlapping kinase], P=7.16x10(-8)) with its expression levels associated with systolic BP at the cutoff of false-discovery rate
  • GBD 2019 Fracture Collaborators; Wu, Ai-Min; Bisignano, Catherine; James, Spencer L.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2021)
    Background Bone fractures are a global public health issue; however, to date, no comprehensive study of their incidence and burden has been done. We aimed to measure the global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) of fractures from 1990 to 2019. Methods Using the framework of the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2019, we compared numbers and age-standardised rates of global incidence, prevalence, and YLDs of fractures across the 21 GBD regions and 204 countries and territories, by age, sex, and year, from 1990 to 2019. We report estimates with 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs). Findings Globally, in 2019, there were 178 million (95% UI 162-196) new fractures (an increase of 33.4% [30.1-37.0] since 1990), 455 million (428-484) prevalent cases of acute or long-term symptoms of a fracture (an increase of 70.1% [67.5-72.5] since 1990), and 25.8 million (17.8-35.8) YLDs (an increase of 65.3% [62.4-68.0] since 1990). The age-standardised rates of fractures in 2019 were 2296.2 incident cases (2091.1-2529.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 9.6% [8.1-11.1] since 1990), 5614.3 prevalent cases (5286.1-5977.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 6.7% [5.7-7.6] since 1990), and 319.0 YLDs (220.1-442.5) per 100 000 population (a decrease of 8.4% [7.2-9.5] since 1990). Lower leg fractures of the patella, tibia or fibula, or ankle were the most common and burdensome fracture in 2019, with an age-standardised incidence rate of 419.9 cases (345.8-512.0) per 100 000 population and an age-standardised rate of YLDs of 190.4 (125.0-276.9) per 100 000 population. In 2019, age-specific rates of fracture incidence were highest in the oldest age groups, with, for instance, 15 381.5 incident cases (11 245.3-20 651.9) per 100 000 population in those aged 95 years and older. Interpretation The global age-standardised rates of incidence, prevalence, and YLDs for fractures decreased slightly from 1990 to 2019, but the absolute counts increased substantially. Older people have a particularly high risk of fractures, and more widespread injury-prevention efforts and access to screening and treatment of osteoporosis for older individuals should help to reduce the overall burden. Copyright (C) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Åström, Max J.; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B.; Haanpää, Maija; Salonen, Minna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G. (2021)
    Aims: To assess if individuals with diabetes or prediabetes report more pain or have increased use of pain medication compared to normoglycaemic individuals. Methods: Using cross-sectional data, we studied 928 men and 1075 women from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study in 2001-2004 at a mean age of 61.5 years. Glucose regulation was assessed with a 2-h 75 g oral glucose tolerance test, and applying World Health Organization criteria, participants were defined as having normoglycaemia, prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance), newly diagnosed diabetes or previously diagnosed diabetes. Self-reported pain intensity and interference during the previous 4 weeks was estimated using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey 1.0. Information on use of pain medication during the past 12 months was obtained from the Social Insurance Institution of Finland. Results: There was no difference in pain intensity or interference between glucose regulation groups for neither men nor women after adjusting for covariates (age, body mass index, education years, Beck Depression Inventory and physical activity). In addition, use of pain medication was similar between glucose regulation groups. Conclusions: Although pain is a common symptom in the general population, impairments in glucose regulation alone does not seem to increase pain among older individuals. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Mäkelä, Pauliina M.; Immeli, Lotta; Leskinen, Markus; Rinta-Koski, Olli-Pekka; Sund, Reijo; Andersson, Sture; Luukkainen, Päivi (2020)
    Aim We examined actual fluid intake, and routes of administration, in very low birthweight (VLBW) infants during the first week of life in a neonatal intensive care unit. Methods This retrospective cohort study comprised 953 infants born at
  • Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Turpeinen, Heikki; Vento, Seija; Numminen, Jura; Sahlman, Johanna; Kauppi, Paula; Virkkula, Paula; Hytönen, Maija; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna (2020)
    BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) exacerbated respiratory disease (N-ERD) consists of chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRSwNP), asthma, and NSAID intolerance. Acetylsalicylic acid treatment after desensitization (ATAD) is a treatment option for uncontrolled N-ERD. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate peroral ATAD's long-term effectiveness on CRSwNP disease control. METHODS: The retrospective data (patient characteristics, sinus surgeries before ATAD, ATAD, follow-up data [20191) were collected from patient records of 171 patients with N-ERD (102 ATAD patients, 69 controls with CRSwNP-F N-ERD without ATAD) who underwent tertiary hospital consultation from 2001 to 2017. Outcome measurements were ATAD discontinuation, revision sinus surgery, and corticosteroid and antibiotic courses for airway infections during 2016-2019. Associations were analyzed by survival and nonparametric methods. RESULTS: The ATAD group had more tissue eosinophilia, symptoms, and sinus surgeries before ATAD than others. The ATAD discontinuation rate was 63%, independent of ATAD dose or duration, usually due to side effects. Compared with the N-ERD group without ATAD, ATAD (mean duration, 2.9 years) did not affect the revision endoscopic sinus surgery rate (P = .21, by the log-rank test) or the number of peroral corticosteroid courses per year (P > .05, by the Mann-Whitney U-test) during the follow-up (mean, 7.6 years) despite the dose or duration of ATAD. CONCLUSIONS: The discontinuation rate of ATAD was high (63%), and ATAD did not affect revision sinus surgery rate nor the need of peroral corticosteroids during follow-up. However, the remaining 37% of the ATAD group did continue the treatment, indicating that they may have benefited from ATAD. (C) 2020 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Seppala, Elina; Sillanpaa, Saara; Nurminen, Noora; Huhtala, Heini; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Sipila, Markku; Laranne, Jussi; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyoty, Heikki (2016)
    BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). OBJECTIVES:The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. STUDY DESIGN: The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms were recorded by a questionnaire every 3-6 months. RESULTS:Altogether 610 AOM episodes were reported during the follow-up. 9.8% of the stool samples were positive for HRV and 6.8% for HEV. HRV positivity peaked at the age of 3-6 months declining gradually after this age, whereas HEV positivity peaked later, at the age of 12-24 months. The risk of AOM was increased in children who were HEV positive at least once at the age of 6-12 months (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], P=0.023) or who were HRV positive at least once at the age of 18-24 months (OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.0-5.2], P=0.042). Having an older sibling, short breast-feeding and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also significantly associated with AOM. CONCLUSIONS: HRV and HEV infections are frequent during the first months of life. The observed trend for increased risk of AOM in HRV and HEV positive children is in line with the results from hospital series suggesting that these viruses may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of AOM. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Siren, Reijo; Eriksson, Johan G.; Peltonen, Markku; Vanhanen, Hannu (2014)
  • ESPGHAN; Jongsma, Maria M. E.; Winter, Dwight A.; Huynh, Hien Q.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; de Ridder, Lissy (2020)
    Infliximab (IFX) is administered intravenously using weight-based dosing (5 mg/kg) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our hypothesis is that especially young children need a more intensive treatment regimen than the current weight-based dose administration. We aimed to assess IFX pharmacokinetics (PK), based on existing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) data in IBD patients <10 years. TDM data were collected retrospectively in 14 centres. Children treated with IFX were included if IFX was started as IBD treatment at age <10 years (young patients, YP) and PK data were available. Older IBD patients aged 10-18 years were used as controls (older patients, OP). Two hundred and fifteen paediatric inflammatory bowel disease (PIBD) patients were eligible for the study (110 <10 year; 105 >= 10 years). Median age was 8.3 years (IQR 6.9-8.9) in YP compared with 14.3 years (IQR 12.8-15.6) in OP at the start of IFX. At the start of maintenance treatment, 72% of YP had trough levels below therapeutic range (<5.4 mu g/mL). After 1 year of scheduled IFX maintenance treatment, YP required a significantly higher dose per 8 weeks compared with OP (YP; 9.0 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-12.9) vs. OP; 5.5 mg/kg (IQR 5.0-9.3);p <0.001). The chance to develop antibodies to infliximab was relatively lower in OP than YP (0.329 (95% CI - 1.2 to - 1.01);p <0.001), while the overall duration of response to IFX was not significantly different (after 2 years 53% (n = 29) in YP vs. 58% (n = 45) in OP;p = 0.56). Conclusion: Intensification of the induction scheme is suggested for PIBD patients aged <10 years. What is Known?
  • Tiira, Katriina; Tikkanen, Antti; Vainio, Outi (2020)
    Working dogs are used for a range of important operational tasks. Identifying potentially successful working dogs as early as possible is important as rejection rates are high and training is costly. Earlier research has mainly concentrated on personality traits such as boldness, and there is only little knowledge on the possible association between cognitive traits and the actual working dog performance. This study investigated whether motor inhibition, persistence, problem-solving strategies, and spatial problem-solving are associated with explosive detection success in specially trained police dogs. Dogs (N = 24) were tested with a cognitive test battery, and subsequently they participated in an explosive detection test. The explosive searching situation and the location of the test was such that it would reflect as much as possible a real-life situation. Canine handlers also filled in a questionnaire regarding their dog's working behaviour. We found that those dogs that were more successful in explosive detection task had better motor inhibition in a cylinder task compared to dogs with lower success in an explosive search task. Furthermore, we found that dogs that made more errors in the cylinder task were generally more likely to give up searching sooner, as reported by their handlers, and also abandon sooner the problem-solving task in behavioural test. This study suggests that inhibitory control, specifically motor inhibition, may be an important aspect to consider when selecting suitable dogs for explosive detection tasks. Cylinder task is an easy and quick way to assess inhibitory control, although a larger dataset is needed to verify its association with working performance.