Browsing by Subject "LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT"

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  • Vehkavuori, Suvi-Maria; Stolt, Suvi (2018)
    Early screening of children at risk for language difficulties is challenging. This study aimed to analyze the specificity and sensitivity of two screening methods at 2;0 years of age. In addition, the matter of what kind of information the use of word combinations and parental concern provide for screening was analyzed. The subjects were 78 children. The screening methods used were the Finnish versions of the short-form version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (FinCDI-SF) and the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales, Developmental Profile, Infant-Toddler Checklist (FinCSBS). The specificity and sensitivity of the screening methods were analyzed based on result of the Reynell Developmental Language Scales III. Both screening methods had high specificity but only moderate sensitivity. The use of word combinations and parental concern provided relevant information on early language development. The results imply that it is important to take into consideration receptive language development in early screening.
  • Pyhala, Riikka; Wolford, Elina; Kautiainen, Hannu; Andersson, Sture; Bartmann, Peter; Baumann, Nicole; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero; Lahti, Marius; Van Lieshout, Ryan J.; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A.; Indredavik, Marit S.; Wolke, Dieter; Nat, Rer H. C.; Räikkönen, Katri (2017)
    CONTEXT: Preterm birth increases the risk for mental disorders in adulthood, yet findings on abstract self-reported or subclinical mental health problems are mixed. OBJECTIVE: To study self-reported mental health problems among adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; DATA SOURCES: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration. STUDY SELECTION: Studies that compared self-reported mental health problems using the Achenbach Young Adult Self Report or Adult Self Report between adults born preterm at VLBW (n = 747) and at term (n = 1512). DATA EXTRACTION: We obtained individual participant data from 6 study cohorts and compared preterm and control groups by mixed random coefficient linear and Tobit regression. RESULTS: Adults born preterm reported more internalizing (pooled beta =.06; 95% confidence interval.01 to.11) and avoidant personality problems (.11;.05 to.17), and less externalizing (-.10;-. 15 to-. 06), rule breaking (-.10;-. 15 to-. 05), intrusive behavior (-.14;-. 19 to-.09), and antisocial personality problems (-.09;-. 14 to-.04) than controls. Group differences did not systematically vary by sex, intrauterine growth pattern, neurosensory impairments, or study cohort. LIMITATIONS: Exclusively self-reported data are not confirmed by alternative data sources. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reports of adults born preterm at VLBW reveal a heightened risk for internalizing problems and socially avoidant personality traits together with a lowered risk for externalizing problem types. Our findings support the view that preterm birth constitutes an early vulnerability factor with long-term consequences on the individual into adulthood.
  • Oldereid, Nan B.; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Laivuori, Hannele; Petzold, Max; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Soderstrom-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.
  • Heinonen, Kati; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Andersson, Sture; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G.; Vartia, Timo; Wolke, Dieter; Lano, Aulikki (2011)
  • CORtisol Network CORNET Consortium; Crawford, Andrew A.; Bankier, Sean; Altmaier, Elisabeth; Lahti, Jari; Eriksson, Johan; Walker, Brian R. (2021)
    The stress hormone cortisol modulates fuel metabolism, cardiovascular homoeostasis, mood, inflammation and cognition. The CORtisol NETwork (CORNET) consortium previously identified a single locus associated with morning plasma cortisol. Identifying additional genetic variants that explain more of the variance in cortisol could provide new insights into cortisol biology and provide statistical power to test the causative role of cortisol in common diseases. The CORNET consortium extended its genome-wide association meta-analysis for morning plasma cortisol from 12,597 to 25,314 subjects and from similar to 2.2 M to similar to 7 M SNPs, in 17 population-based cohorts of European ancestries. We confirmed the genetic association with SERPINA6/SERPINA1. This locus contains genes encoding corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) and alpha 1-antitrypsin. Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) analyses undertaken in the STARNET cohort of 600 individuals showed that specific genetic variants within the SERPINA6/SERPINA1 locus influence expression of SERPINA6 rather than SERPINA1 in the liver. Moreover, trans-eQTL analysis demonstrated effects on adipose tissue gene expression, suggesting that variations in CBG levels have an effect on delivery of cortisol to peripheral tissues. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation analyses provided evidence that each genetically-determined standard deviation (SD) increase in morning plasma cortisol was associated with increased odds of chronic ischaemic heart disease (0.32, 95% CI 0.06-0.59) and myocardial infarction (0.21, 95% CI 0.00-0.43) in UK Biobank and similarly in CARDIoGRAMplusC4D. These findings reveal a causative pathway for CBG in determining cortisol action in peripheral tissues and thereby contributing to the aetiology of cardiovascular disease.
  • PIPARI Study Grp; Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Laasonen, Marja; Vorobyev, Victor; Haataja, Leena (2020)
    Background: The objective of this study was to examine how nonverbal skills at age five years relate to visual perception and brain activation during visual perception tasks at age 12 years in very preterm subjects without visual or other neurodevelopmental impairments or major brain pathologies. Methods: At age five years, 36 prematurely born (birth weight Results: Test performance at age five years was significantly poorer in the very preterm group than the control subjects, but at age 12 years performance was similar in both groups. In the very preterm group, better nonverbal skills at age five years were significantly associated with stronger neural activation during the visual perception task at age 12 years. No associations between nonverbal skills at age five years and brain activation at age 12 years appeared in the control group. Conclusions: The associations between better nonverbal skills and stronger neural activation during visual perception task only observed in the very preterm group may reflect delayed development of the visual perception network and/or prematurity-related neural plasticity. The developmental follow-up of very preterm children should include psychological assessment of nonverbal skills at least until age five years. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.