Browsing by Subject "LUNG-CANCER"

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  • Korhonen, Tellervo; Loukola, Anu; Wedenoja, Juho; Nyman, Emma; Latvala, Antti; Broms, Ulla; Happola, Anja; Paunio, Tiina; Schrage, Andrew J.; Vink, Jaqueline M.; Mbarek, Hamdi; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2014)
  • Liu, Jingjing; Loncar, Ivona; Collee, J. Margriet; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Wang, Qin; Andrulis, Irene L.; Barile, Monica; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Behrens, Sabine; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Boeckx, Bram; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Burwinkel, Barbara; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chen, Shou-Tung; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Cheng, Ching Y.; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Cuk, Katarina; Czene, Kamila; Doerk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Fasching, Peter A.; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Giles, Graham G.; Glendon, Gord; Goldberg, Mark S.; Gonzalez-Neira, Anna; Guenel, Pascal; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hamann, Ute; Hart, Steven N.; Hartman, Mikael; Hatse, Sigrid; Hopper, John L.; Ito, Hidemi; Nevanlinna, Heli; NBCS Collaborators (2016)
    NBS1, also known as NBN, plays an important role in maintaining genomic stability. Interestingly, rs2735383 G > C, located in a microRNA binding site in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of NBS1, was shown to be associated with increased susceptibility to lung and colorectal cancer. However, the relation between rs2735383 and susceptibility to breast cancer is not yet clear. Therefore, we genotyped rs2735383 in 1,170 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 1,077 controls using PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP-PCR) analysis, but found no association between rs2735383CC and breast cancer risk (OR = 1.214, 95% CI = 0.936-1.574, P = 0.144). Because we could not exclude a small effect size due to a limited sample size, we further analyzed imputed rs2735383 genotypes (r(2) > 0.999) of 47,640 breast cancer cases and 46,656 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). However, rs2735383CC was not associated with overall breast cancer risk in European (OR = 1.014, 95% CI = 0.969-1.060, P = 0.556) nor in Asian women (OR = 0.998, 95% CI = 0.905-1.100, P = 0.961). Subgroup analyses by age, age at menarche, age at menopause, menopausal status, number of pregnancies, breast feeding, family history and receptor status also did not reveal a significant association. This study therefore does not support the involvement of the genotype at NBS1 rs2735383 in breast cancer susceptibility.
  • Hendriksen, L. C.; van der Linden, P. D.; Lagro-Janssen, A. L. M.; van den Bemt, P. M. L. A.; Siiskonen, S. J.; Teichert, M.; Kuiper, J. G.; Herings, R. M. C.; Stricker, B. H.; Visser, L. E. (2021)
    Background Adverse drug events, including adverse drug reactions (ADRs), are responsible for approximately 5% of unplanned hospital admissions: a major health concern. Women are 1.5-1.7 times more likely to develop ADRs. The main objective was to identify sex differences in the types and number of ADRs leading to hospital admission. Methods ADR-related hospital admissions between 2005 and 2017 were identified from the PHARMO Database Network using hospital discharge diagnoses. Patients aged >= 16 years with a drug possibly responsible for the ADR and dispensed within 3 months before admission were included. Age-adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95% CIs for drug-ADR combinations for women versus men were calculated. Results A total of 18,469 ADR-related hospital admissions involving women (0.35% of all women admitted) and 14,678 admissions involving men (0.35% of all men admitted) were included. Most substantial differences were seen in ADRs due to anticoagulants and diuretics. Anticoagulants showed a lower risk of admission with persistent haematuria (ORadj 0.31; 95%CI 0.21, 0.45) haemoptysis (ORadj 0.47, 95%CI 0.30,0.74) and subdural haemorrhage (ORadj 0.61; 95%CI 0.42,0.88) in women than in men and a higher risk of rectal bleeding in women (ORadj 1.48; 95%CI 1.04,2.11). Also, there was a higher risk of admission in women using thiazide diuretics causing hypokalaemia (ORadj 3.03; 95%CI 1.58, 5.79) and hyponatraemia (ORadj 3.33, 95%CI 2.31, 4.81) than in men. Conclusions There are sex-related differences in the risk of hospital admission in specific drug-ADR combinations. The most substantial differences were due to anticoagulants and diuretics.
  • Jiang, Xia; Finucane, Hilary K.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Schmit, Stephanie L.; Tyrer, Jonathan P.; Han, Younghun; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Lesseur, Corina; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B.; Dennis, Joe; Conti, David V.; Casey, Graham; Gaudet, Mia M.; Huyghe, Jeroen R.; Albanes, Demetrius; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Andrew, Angeline S.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antoniou, Antonis C.; Antonenkova, Natalia N.; Arnold, Susanne M.; Aronson, Kristan J.; Arun, Banu K.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Barkardottir, Rosa B.; Barnes, Daniel R.; Batra, Jyotsna; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Benitez, Javier; Benlloch, Sara; Berchuck, Andrew; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bickeboeller, Heike; Bien, Stephanie A.; Blomqvist, Carl; Boccia, Stefania; Bogdanova, Natalia V.; Bojesen, Stig E.; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Brenton, James D.; Brook, Mark N.; Brunet, Joan; Brunnstrom, Hans; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Burwinkel, Barbara; Butzow, Ralf; Cadoni, Gabriella; Caldes, Trinidad; Caligo, Maria A.; Campbell, Ian; Campbell, Peter T.; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Campa, Daniele; Caporaso, Neil; Carvalho, Andre L.; Chan, Andrew T.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Christiani, David C.; Claes, Kathleen B. M.; Claessens, Frank; Clements, Judith; Collee, J. Margriet; Correa, Marcia Cruz; Couch, Fergus J.; Cox, Angela; Cunningham, Julie M.; Cybulski, Cezary; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B.; defazio, Anna; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela; Donovan, Jenny L.; Doerk, Thilo; Duell, Eric J.; Dunning, Alison M.; Dwek, Miriam; Eccles, Diana M.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Ellberg, Carolina; Evans, D. Gareth; Fasching, Peter A.; Ferris, Robert L.; Liloglou, Triantafillos; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Fletcher, Olivia; Fortner, Renee T.; Fostira, Florentia; Franceschi, Silvia; Friedman, Eitan; Gallinger, Steven J.; Ganz, Patricia A.; Garber, Judy; Garcia-Saenz, Jose A.; Gayther, Simon A.; Giles, Graham G.; Godwin, Andrew K.; Goldberg, Mark S.; Goldgar, David E.; Goode, Ellen L.; Goodman, Marc T.; Goodman, Gary; Grankvist, Kjell; Greene, Mark H.; Gronberg, Henrik; Gronwald, Jacek; Guenel, Pascal; Hakansson, Niclas; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Hamilton, Robert J.; Hampe, Jochen; Haugen, Aage; Heitz, Florian; Herrero, Rolando; Hillemanns, Peter; Hoffmeister, Michael; Hogdall, Estrid; Hong, Yun-Chul; Hopper, John L.; Houlston, Richard; Hulick, Peter J.; Hunter, David J.; Huntsman, David G.; Idos, Gregory; Imyanitov, Evgeny N.; Ingles, Sue Ann; Isaacs, Claudine; Jakubowska, Anna; James, Paul; Jenkins, Mark A.; Johansson, Mattias; Johansson, Mikael; John, Esther M.; Joshi, Amit D.; Kaneva, Radka; Karlan, Beth Y.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Kuhl, Tabea; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Kibel, Adam S.; Kiemeney, Lambertus A.; Kim, Jeri; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Knight, Julia A.; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Koutros, Stella; Kristensen, Vessela N.; Kupryjanczyk, Jolanta; Lacko, Martin; Lam, Stephan; Lambrechts, Diether; Landi, Maria Teresa; Lazarus, Philip; Le, Nhu D.; Lee, Eunjung; Lejbkowicz, Flavio; Lenz, Heinz-Josef; Leslie, Goska; Lessel, Davor; Lester, Jenny; Levine, Douglas A.; Li, Li; Li, Christopher I.; Lindblom, Annika; Lindor, Noralane M.; Liu, Geoffrey; Loupakis, Fotios; Lubinski, Jan; Maehle, Lovise; Maier, Christiane; Mannermaa, Arto; Le Marchand, Loic; Margolin, Sara; May, Taymaa; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Middha, Pooja; Miller, Austin; Milne, Roger L.; MacInnis, Robert J.; Modugno, Francesmary; Montagna, Marco; Moreno, Victor; Moysich, Kirsten B.; Mucci, Lorelei; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Neal, David E.; Ness, Andrew R.; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Nevanlinna, Heli; Newcomb, Polly A.; Newcomb, Lisa F.; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Nikitina-Zake, Liene; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nussbaum, Robert L.; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Al Olama, Ali Amin; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Olsson, Hakan; Osorio, Ana; Pandha, Hardev; Park, Jong Y.; Pashayan, Nora; Parsons, Michael T.; Pejovic, Tanja; Penney, Kathryn L.; Peters, Wilbert H. M.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Phipps, Amanda I.; Plaseska-Karanfilska, Dijana; Pring, Miranda; Prokofyeva, Darya; Radice, Paolo; Stefansson, Kari; Ramus, Susan J.; Raskin, Leon; Rennert, Gad; Rennert, Hedy S.; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J.; Riggan, Marjorie J.; Risch, Harvey A.; Risch, Angela; Roobol, Monique J.; Rosenstein, Barry S.; Rossing, Mary Anne; De Ruyck, Kim; Saloustros, Emmanouil; Sandler, Dale P.; Sawyer, Elinor J.; Schabath, Matthew B.; Schleutker, Johanna; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Setiawan, V. Wendy; Shen, Hongbing; Siegel, Erin M.; Sieh, Weiva; Singer, Christian F.; Slattery, Martha L.; Sorensen, Karina Dalsgaard; Southey, Melissa C.; Spurdle, Amanda B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Stintzing, Sebastian; Stone, Jennifer; Sundfeldt, Karin; Sutphen, Rebecca; Swerdlow, Anthony J.; Tajara, Eloiza H.; Tangen, Catherine M.; Tardon, Adonina; Taylor, Jack A.; Teare, M. Dawn; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Terry, Mary Beth; Terry, Kathryn L.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; Thomassen, Mads; Bjorge, Line; Tischkowitz, Marc; Toland, Amanda E.; Torres, Diana; Townsend, Paul A.; Travis, Ruth C.; Tung, Nadine; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Usmani, Nawaid; Vachon, Celine M.; Van Nieuwenhuysen, Els; Vega, Ana; Aguado-Barrera, Miguel Elias; Wang, Qin; Webb, Penelope M.; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Weinstein, Stephanie; Weissler, Mark C.; Weitzel, Jeffrey N.; West, Catharine M. L.; White, Emily; Whittemore, Alice S.; Wichmann, H-Erich; Wiklund, Fredrik; Winqvist, Robert; Wolk, Alicja; Woll, Penella; Woods, Michael; Wu, Anna H.; Wu, Xifeng; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Zheng, Wei; Zienolddiny, Shanbeh; Ziogas, Argyrios; Zorn, Kristin K.; Lane, Jacqueline M.; Saxena, Richa; Thomas, Duncan; Hung, Rayjean J.; Diergaarde, Brenda; Mckay, James; Peters, Ulrike; Hsu, Li; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Brennan, Paul J.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Simard, Jacques; Easton, Douglas F.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Price, Alkes L.; Pasaniuc, Bogdan; Amos, Christopher I.; Kraft, Peter; Lindstrom, Sara (2019)
    Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (r(g) = 0.57, p = 4.6 x 10(-8)), breast and ovarian cancer (r(g) = 0.24, p = 7 x 10(-5)), breast and lung cancer (r(g) = 0.18, p = 1.5 x 10(-6)) and breast and colorectal cancer (r(g) = 0.15, p = 1.1 x 10(-4)). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.
  • Tsai, Pei-Chien; Glastonbury, Craig A.; Eliot, Melissa N.; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Yet, Idil; Castillo-Fernandez, Juan E.; Carnero-Montoro, Elena; Hardiman, Thomas; Martin, Tiphaine C.; Vickers, Alice; Mangino, Massimo; Ward, Kirsten; Pietilaeinen, Kirsi H.; Deloukas, Panos; Spector, Tim D.; Vinuela, Ana; Loucks, Eric B.; Ollikainen, Miina; Kelsey, Karl T.; Small, Kerrin S.; Bell, Jordana T. (2018)
    Background: Tobacco smoking is a risk factor for multiple diseases, including cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Many smoking-associated signals have been detected in the blood methylome, but the extent to which these changes are widespread to metabolically relevant tissues, and impact gene expression or metabolic health, remains unclear. Methods: We investigated smoking-associated DNA methylation and gene expression variation in adipose tissue biopsies from 542 healthy female twins. Replication, tissue specificity, and longitudinal stability of the smoking-associated effects were explored in additional adipose, blood, skin, and lung samples. We characterized the impact of adipose tissue smoking methylation and expression signals on metabolic disease risk phenotypes, including visceral fat. Results: We identified 42 smoking-methylation and 42 smoking-expression signals, where five genes (AHRR, CYP1A1, CYP1B1, CYTL1, F2RL3) were both hypo-methylated and upregulated in current smokers. CYP1A1 gene expression achieved 95% prediction performance of current smoking status. We validated and replicated a proportion of the signals in additional primary tissue samples, identifying tissue-shared effects. Smoking leaves systemic imprints on DNA methylation after smoking cessation, with stronger but shorter-lived effects on gene expression. Metabolic disease risk traits such as visceral fat and android-to-gynoid ratio showed association with methylation at smoking markers with functional impacts on expression, such as CYP1A1, and at tissue-shared smoking signals, such as NOTCH1. At smoking-signals, BHLHE40 and AHRR DNA methylation and gene expression levels in current smokers were predictive of future gain in visceral fat upon smoking cessation. Conclusions: Our results provide the first comprehensive characterization of coordinated DNA methylation arid gene expression markers of smoking in adipose tissue. The findings relate to human metabolic health and give insights into understanding the widespread health consequence of smoking outside of the lung.
  • Aula, Hanna; Skyttä, Tanja; Tuohinen, Suvi; Luukkaala, Tiina; Hämäläinen, Mari; Virtanen, Vesa; Raatikainen, Pekka; Moilanen, Eeva; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa (2020)
    Objectives: To search for biomarkers of RT-induced cardiotoxicity, we studied the behavior of ST2 during RT and three years after RT, and the associations with echocardiographic changes. Materials and methods: We measured soluble ST2 (ng/ml) in serum samples from 63 patients receiving RT for early breast cancer. Sampling and echocardiography were performed at baseline, after RT and at the three-year follow-up. Patients were grouped by >15% (group 1) and Results: ST2 levels tended to increase during RT, from a median (interquartile range; IQR) of 17.9 (12.4 - 22.4) at baseline to 18.2 (14.1-23.5) after RT (p = 0.075). By the three-year follow up, ST2 levels increased to 18.7 (15.8-24.2), p = 0.018. The increase in ST2 level was associated with worsening cardiac systolic function at three-year follow-up, GLS (rho = 0.272, p = 0.034) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) (rho = -0.343, p = 0.006). Group 1 (n = 14) had a significant increase in ST2 levels from 17.8 (12.3-22.5) at baseline to 18.4 (15.6-22.6) after RT, p = 0.035 and to 19.9 (16.0-25.1) three years after RT, p = 0.005. ST2 levels were stable in group 2 (n = 47): 17.8 (12.3-22.0) at baseline, 17.7 (12.6-23.5) after RT and 18.0 (15.5-22.4) at three years. Conclusion: ST2 may be useful for determining which patients are at risk for long-term cardiovascular toxicity following adjuvant breast cancer RT, but prospective clinical studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis. (C) 2019 Elsevier Ltd.
  • El Dib, Regina; Tikkinen, Kari A. O.; Akl, Elie A.; Gomaa, Huda A.; Mustafa, Reem A.; Agarwal, Arnav; Carpenter, Christopher R.; Zhang, Yuchen; Jorge, Eliane C.; Almeida, Ricardo A. M. B.; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Doles, Joao Vitor P.; Mustafa, Ahmad A.; Sadeghirad, Behnam; Lopes, Luciane C.; Bergamaschi, Cristiane C.; Suzumura, Erica A.; Cardoso, Marilia M. A.; Corrente, Jose Eduardo; Stone, Samuel B.; Schunemann, Holger J.; Guyatt, Gordon H. (2017)
    Objectives: To provide a perspective on the current practice of randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of diagnostic strategies focusing on patient-important outcomes. Study Design and Setting: We conducted a comprehensive search of MEDLINE and included RCTs published in full-text reports that evaluated alternative diagnostic strategies. Results: Of 56,912 unique citations, we sampled 7,500 and included 103 eligible RCTs, therefore suggesting that MEDLINE includes approximately 781 diagnostic RCTs. The 103 eligible trials reported on: mortality (n = 41; 39.8%); morbidities (n = 63; 61.2%); symptoms/quality of life/functional status (n = 14; 13.6%); and on composite end points (n = 10; 9.7%). Of the studies that reported statistically significant results (n = 12; 11.6%), we judged 7 (58.3%) as at low risk of bias with respect to missing outcome data and 4 (33.3%) as at low risk of bias regarding blinding. Of the 41 RCTs that reported on mortality, only one (2.4%) reported statistically significant results. Of 63 RCTs addressing morbidity outcomes, 11 (17.5%) reported statistically significant results, all of which reported relative effects of greater than 20%. Conclusion: RCTs of diagnostic tests are not uncommon, and sometimes suggest benefits on patient-important outcomes but often suffer from limitations in sample size and conduct. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Hemilä, Harri (2020)
    A previous analysis of the Alpha-Tocopherol Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Study on male smokers found that beta-carotene supplementation increased the risk of pneumonia 4-fold in those who started smoking at the age of >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d (a subgroup of 7 % of the study population). The present study hypothesised that beta-carotene increases mortality in the same subgroup. The ATBC Study (1985-1993) recruited 29 133 Finnish male smokers (>= 5 cigarettes/d) aged 50-69 years. Cox regression models were constructed to estimate the effect of beta-carotene supplementation in subgroups. beta-Carotene increased mortality (risk ratio 1 center dot 56; 95 % CI 1 center dot 06, 2 center dot 3) in those who started to smoke at >= 21 years and smoked >= 21 cigarettes/d. Within this subgroup, there was strong evidence of further heterogeneity. The effect of beta-carotene supplementation was further modified by dietary vitamin C intake, fruit and vegetable intake (P = 0 center dot 0004), and by vitamin E supplementation (P = 0 center dot 011). Thus, harm from beta-carotene was not uniform within the study population. Interactions between beta-carotene and vitamins C and E were seen only within a subgroup of 7 % of the ATBC participants, and therefore should not be extrapolated to the general population. Heterogeneity of the beta-carotene effect on mortality challenges the validity of previous meta-analyses that have pooled many diverse antioxidants for one single estimate of effect using the assumption that a single estimate equally applies to all antioxidants and all people. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00342992.
  • Fagerholm, Rainer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Khan, Sofia; Rafiq, Sajjad; Tapper, William; Aittomaki, Kristiina; Greco, Dario; Heikkinen, Tuomas; Muranen, Taru A.; Fasching, Peter A.; Janni, Wolfgang; Weinshilboum, Richard; Loehberg, Christian R.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Keeman, Renske; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Lambrechts, Diether; Wildiers, Hans; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Seibold, Petra; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Hooning, Maartje J.; Jager, Agnes; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Luben, Robert; Hamann, Ute; Kabisch, Maria; Czene, Kamila; Hall, Per; Easton, Douglas F.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Liu, Jianjun; Eccles, Diana; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli; kConFab Investigators (2015)
    We have utilized a two-stage study design to search for SNPs associated with the survival of breast cancer patients treated with adjuvant chemotherapy. Our initial GWS data set consisted of 805 Finnish breast cancer cases (360 treated with adjuvant chemotherapy). The top 39 SNPs from this stage were analyzed in three independent data sets: iCOGS (n=6720 chemotherapy-treated cases), SUCCESS-A (n=3596), and POSH (n=518). Two SNPs were successfully validated: rs6500843 (any chemotherapy; per-allele HR 1.16, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.26, p=0.0001, p((adjusted))=0.0091), and rs11155012 (anthracycline therapy; per-allele HR 1.21, 95% C.I. 1.08-1.35, p=0.0010, p((adjusted))=0.0270). The SNP rs6500843 was found to specifically interact with adjuvant chemotherapy, independently of standard prognostic markers (p((interaction))=0.0009), with the rs6500843-GG genotype corresponding to the highest hazard among chemotherapy-treated cases (HR 1.47, 95% C.I. 1.20-1.80). Upon trans-eQTL analysis of public microarray data, the rs6500843 locus was found to associate with the expression of a group of genes involved in cell cycle control, notably AURKA, the expression of which also exhibited differential prognostic value between chemotherapy-treated and untreated cases in our analysis of microarray data. Based on previously published information, we propose that the eQTL genes may be connected to the rs6500843 locus via a RBFOX1-FOXM1 -mediated regulatory pathway.
  • Raasmaja, Atso; Stenius, Ulla; Ghalali, Aram (2019)
    Juniper (Juniperus communis L.) is a northern coniferous plant generally used as a spice and for nutritional purposes in foods and drinks. It was previously reported that juniper extract (JE) affects p53 activity, cellular stress, and gene expression induced cell death in human neuroblastoma cells. Therefore, the effects of juniper on p53 and Akt signaling was examined further in A549 lung, 22RV1 and DU145 prostate, and HepG2 liver cancer cells using Western blot, confocal microscopy, and MTT analysis. We found that juniper simultaneously decreased cell viability, activated the p53 pathway, and inactivated the PI3K/Akt pathway. The p53 activation was associated with increased nuclear p53 level. Akt was dephosphorylated, and its inactivation was associated with increased levels of PHLPP1 and PHLPP2 phosphatases. Parallel increases of PARP suggest that JE decreased cell viability by activating cell death. In addition, JE potentiated the effects of gemcitabine and 5-fluorouracil anticancer drugs. Thus, JE can activate cell death in different cancer cell lines through p53 and Akt pathways.
  • Jouhi, Lauri; Mohamed, Hesham; Makitie, Antti; Remes, Satu Maria; Haglund, Caj; Atula, Timo; Hagstrom, Jaana (2017)
    A large subset of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) is associated with HPV infection and has better outcome than non-viral-related tumors. Various malignancies also carry a role for TLRs, key activators of inflammation and innate immunity. We examined the expression of TLRs in OPSCC, and their association with HPV status and treatment outcome. TLR 5, 7, 9, and p16 were studied by immunohistochemistry and HPV status was detected with in situ hybridization in 202 tumors of consecutively treated OPSCC patients using tissue microarray method. The relations between TLR expression and HPV status, p16 expression, clinicopathological factors, and survival were analyzed. TLR 5, 7, and 9 expression patterns differed between HPV-positive and -negative tumors, and they were statistically significantly associated with history of smoking, heavy drinking, tumor site, grade, size (T), metastasis (N), and stage. Moreover, in HPV-positive tumors the expression of TLR 5 and 7 correlated with tumor recurrence. After adjustment, among HPV-positive OPSCC patients, high TLR 5 and low TLR 7 expression were associated with poor disease-specific survival. Our results indicate that TLR 5 and 7 may have a role in the prognostication of HPV-positive OPSCC, however, further studies are needed to clarify the comprehensive role of these TLRs in OPSCC.
  • Polini, Beatrice; Carpi, Sara; Doccini, Stefano; Citi, Valentina; Martelli, Alma; Feola, Sara; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Cerullo, Vincenzo; Romanini, Antonella; Nieri, Paola (2020)
    Background: Remarkable deregulation of several microRNAs (miRNAs) is demonstrated in cutaneous melanoma. hsa-miR-193a-3p is reported to be under-expressed in tissues and in plasma of melanoma patients, but the role of both miR-193a arms in melanoma is not known yet. Methods: After observing the reduced levels of miR-193a arms in plasma exosomes of melanoma patients, the effects of hsa-miR-193a-3p and -5p transfection in cutaneous melanoma cell lines are investigated. Results: In melanoma cell lines A375, 501Mel, and MeWo, the ectopic over-expression of miR-193a arms significantly reduced cell viability as well as the expression of genes involved in proliferation (ERBB2, KRAS, PIK3R3, and MTOR) and apoptosis (MCL1 and NUSAP1). These functional features were accompanied by a significant downregulation of Akt and Erk pathways and a strong increase in the apoptotic process. Since in silico databases revealed TROY, an orphan member of the tumor necrosis receptor family, as a potential direct target of miR-193a-5p, this possibility was investigated using the luciferase assay and excluded by our results. Conclusions: Our results underline a relevant role of miR-193a, both -3p and -5p, as tumor suppressors clarifying the intracellular mechanisms involved and suggesting that their ectopic over-expression could represent a novel treatment for cutaneous melanoma patients.
  • Magnussen, Synnove; Hadler-Olsen, Elin; Latysheva, Nadezhda; Pirila, Emma; Steigen, Sonja E.; Hanes, Robert; Salo, Tuula; Winberg, Jan-Olof; Uhlin-Hansen, Lars; Svineng, Gunbjorg (2014)
  • Kjaerheim, Kristina; Haldorsen, Tor; Lynge, Elsebeth; Martinsen, Jan Ivar; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Grimsrud, Tom K. (2018)
    Background: Alcohol and tobacco strongly increases the risk of cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, larynx, and oesophagus, and are also established risk factors for cancer of the liver, colon, and rectum. It is well documented that these habits are unequally distributed among occupational groups. Most occupational cohort studies lack information on these potentially important confounders, and may therefore be prone to bias. Aim: The aim of the study is to present Nordic standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for alcohol and tobacco related cancer by occupation, after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco, and to compare to the unadjusted SIRs. Material and Methods: The study is based on the Nordic Occupational Cancer (NOCCA) database. We used confirmatory factor analysis models for simultaneous analysis of the cancer sites related to alcohol and tobacco, to obtain factors that allow for computation of adjusted expected numbers from the reference rates. We then calculated adjusted SIRs for the relevant cancer sites for each occupation. Results: For some occupations and cancers, the changes of risk estimates were striking, from significantly high to significantly low and vice versa. Among Nordic farmers, unadjusted SIRs for cancer of the mouth and oesophagus were 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51-0.61) and 0.67 (CI 0.63-0.70), respectively. After adjustment, estimates changed to 1.10 (CI 1.01-1.21) and 1.16 (CI 1.10-1.22). Unadjusted SIR for pharynx cancer among wood workers was 0.83 (CI 0.75-0.91), adjusted SIR was 1.14 (CI 1.03-1.25). For larynx cancer, results in the opposite direction were seen: unadjusted SIR for economically inactive was 1.38 (CI 1.31-1.46) while the adjusted SIR was 0.91 (CI 0.86-0.96). Conclusions: Adjustment for the latent indicators of alcohol and tobacco consumption changed risk estimates for several occupations, gave a less confounded description of risk, and may guide in the identification of true risk factors.