Browsing by Subject "MEMBRANE"

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Now showing items 21-29 of 29
  • Haapanen, Outi; Sharma, Vivek (2021)
    Respiratory complex I is a key enzyme in the electron transport chains of mitochondria and bacteria. It transfers two electrons to quinone and couples this redox reaction to proton pumping to electrically charge the membrane it is embedded in. The charge and pH gradient across the membrane drives the synthesis of ATP. The redox reaction and proton pumping in complex I are separated in space and time, which raises the question of how the two reactions are coupled so efficiently. Here, we focus on the unique similar to 35 angstrom long tunnel of complex I, which houses the binding site of quinone reduction. We discuss the redox and protonation reactions that occur in this tunnel and how they influence the dynamics of protein and substrate. On the basis of recent structural data and results from molecular simulations, we review how quinone reduction and dynamics may be coupled to proton pumping in complex I.
  • Schollenberger, Lukas; Gronemeyer, Thomas; Huber, Christoph M.; Lay, Dorothee; Wiese, Sebastian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Warscheid, Bettina; Saffrich, Rainer; Peränen, Johan; Gorgas, Karin; Just, Wilhelm W. (2010)
  • Pulli, Ilari; Lof, C.; Blom, T.; Asghar, M. Y.; Lassila, T.; Back, N.; Lin, K-L; Nystrom, J. H.; Kemppainen, K.; Toivola, D. M.; Dufour, E.; Sanz, A.; Cooper, H. M.; Parys, J. B.; Tornquist, K. (2019)
    Sphingosine kinase 1 (SKI) converts sphingosine to the bioactive lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (SIP). SW binds to G-protein-coupled receptors (S1PR(1-5)) to regulate cellular events, including Ca2+ signaling. The SK1/S1P axis and Ca2+ signaling both play important roles in health and disease. In this respect, Ca2+ microdomains at the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes (MAMs) are of importance in oncogenesis. Mitofusin 2 (MFN2) modulates ER-mitochondria contacts, and dysregulation of MFN2 is associated with malignancies. We show that overexpression of SKI augments agonist-induced Ca2+ release from the ER resulting in increased mitochondria] matrix Ca2+. Also, overexpression of SK1 induces MFN2 fragmentation, likely through increased calpain activity. Further, expressing putative calpain-cleaved MFN2 N- and C-terminal fragments increases mitochondrial matrix Ca2+ during agonist stimulation, mimicking the SK1 overexpression in cells. Moreover, SK1 overexpression enhances cellular respiration and cell migration. Thus, SK1 regulates MFN2 fragmentation resulting in increased mitochondrial Ca2+ and downstream cellular effects.
  • Savijoki, Kirsi; Myllymäki, Henna; Luukinen, Hanna; Paulamäki, Lauri; Vanha-aho, Leena-Maija; Svorjova, Aleksandra; Miettinen, Ilkka; Fallarero, Adyary; Ihalainen, Teemu O; Yli-Kauhaluoma, Jari; Nyman, Tuula A.; Parikka, Mataleena (2021)
    The complex cell wall and biofilm matrix (ECM) act as key barriers to antibiotics in mycobacteria. Here, the ECM and envelope proteins of Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927, a nontuberculous mycobacterial model, were monitored over 3 months by label-free proteomics and compared with cell surface proteins on planktonic cells to uncover pathways leading to virulence, tolerance, and persistence. We show that ATCC 927 forms pellicle-type and submerged-type biofilms (PBFs and SBFs, respectively) after 2 weeks and 2 days of growth, respectively, and that the increased CelA1 synthesis in this strain prevents biofilm formation and leads to reduced rifampicin tolerance. The proteomic data suggest that specific changes in mycolic acid synthesis (cord factor), Esx1 secretion, and cell wall adhesins explain the appearance of PBFs as ribbon-like cords and SBFs as lichen-like structures. A subpopulation of cells resisting 64x MIC rifampicin (persisters) was detected in both biofilm subtypes and already in 1-week-old SBFs. The key forces boosting their development could include subtype-dependent changes in asymmetric cell division, cell wall biogenesis, tricarboxylic acid/glyoxylate cycle activities, and energy/redox/iron metabolisms. The effect of various ambient oxygen tensions on each cell type and nonclassical protein secretion are likely factors explaining the majority of the subtype-specific changes. The proteomic findings also imply that Esx1-type protein secretion is more efficient in planktonic (PL) and PBF cells, while SBF may prefer both the Esx5 and nonclassical pathways to control virulence and prolonged viability/persistence. In conclusion, this study reports the first proteomic insight into aging mycobacterial biofilm ECMs and indicates biofilm subtype-dependent mechanisms conferring increased adaptive potential and virulence of nontuberculous mycobacteria. IMPORTANCE Mycobacteria are naturally resilient, and mycobacterial infections are notoriously difficult to treat with antibiotics, with biofilm formation being the main factor complicating the successful treatment of tuberculosis (TB). The present study shows that nontuberculous Mycobacterium marinum ATCC 927 forms submergedand pellicle-type biofilms with lichen- and ribbon-like structures, respectively, as well as persister cells under the same conditions. We show that both biofilm subtypes differ in terms of virulence-, tolerance-, and persistence-conferring activities, highlighting the fact that both subtypes should be targeted to maximize the power of antimycobacterial treatment therapies.
  • Quirin, Tania; Chen, Yu; Pietilä, Maija K.; Guo, Deyin; Ahola, Tero (2018)
    The nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) and the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) show evolutionarily intriguing similarities in their replication complexes and RNA capping enzymes. In this study, we first established an efficient FHV trans-replication system in mammalian cells, which disjoins protein expression from viral RNA synthesis. Following transfection, FHV replicase protein A was associated with mitochondria, whose outer surface displayed pouch-like invaginations with a ‘neck’ structure opening towards the cytoplasm. In mitochondrial pellets from transfected cells, high-level synthesis of both genomic and subgenomic RNA was detected in vitro and the newly synthesized RNA was of positive polarity. Secondly, we initiated the study of the putative RNA capping enzyme domain in protein A by mutating the conserved amino acids H93, R100, D141, and W215. RNA replication was abolished for all mutants inside cells and in vitro except for W215A, which showed reduced replication. Transfection of capped RNA template did not rescue the replication activity of the mutants. Comparing the efficiency of SFV and FHV trans-replication systems, the FHV system appeared to produce more RNA. Using fluorescent marker proteins, we demonstrated that both systems could replicate in the same cell. This work may facilitate the comparative analysis of FHV and SFV replication.
  • Wikstrom, Marten; Springett, Roger (2020)
    The protonmotive mitochondrial respiratory chain, comprising complexes I, III and IV, transduces free energy of the electron transfer reactions to an electrochemical proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This gradient is used to drive synthesis of ATP and ion and metabolite transport. The efficiency of energy conversion is of interest from a physiological point of view, since the energy transduction mechanisms differ fundamentally between the three complexes. Here, we have chosen actively phosphorylating mitochondria as the focus of analysis. For all three complexes we find that the thermodynamic efficiency is about 80-90% and that the degree of coupling between the redox and proton translocation reactions is very high during active ATP synthesis. However, when net ATP synthesis stops at a high ATP/ADP(Pi)(.)ratio, and mitochondria reach "State 4" with an elevated proton gradient, the degree of coupling drops substantially. The mechanistic cause and the physiological implications of this effect are discussed. Wikstrom and Springett analyze the thermodynamic efficiency of redox reactions and proton translocation by the complexes of mitochondrial respiratory chain. They report that the thermodynamic efficiency is about 80-90% and that the degree of coupling between the redox and proton translocation reactions is very high during active ATP synthesis, but decreases when ATP synthesis stops.
  • Yong, Tuying; Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Bie, Nana; Zhang, Hongbo; Zhang, Xuting; Li, Fuying; Hakeem, Abdul; Hu, Jun; Gan, Lu; Santos, Hélder A.; Yang, Xiangliang (2019)
    Developing biomimetic nanoparticles without loss of the integrity of proteins remains a major challenge in cancer chemotherapy. Here, we develop a biocompatible tumor-cell-exocytosed exosome-biomimetic porous silicon nanoparticles (PSiNPs) as drug carrier for targeted cancer chemotherapy. Exosome-sheathed doxorubicin-loaded PSiNPs (DOX@E-PSiNPs), generated by exocytosis of the endocytosed DOX-loaded PSiNPs from tumor cells, exhibit enhanced tumor accumulation, extravasation from blood vessels and penetration into deep tumor parenchyma following intravenous administration. In addition, DOX@E-PSiNPs, regardless of their origin, possess significant cellular uptake and cytotoxicity in both bulk cancer cells and cancer stem cells (CSCs). These properties endow DOX@E-PSiNPs with great in vivo enrichment in total tumor cells and side population cells with features of CSCs, resulting in anticancer activity and CSCs reduction in subcutaneous, orthotopic and metastatic tumor models. These results provide a proof-of-concept for the use of exosome-biomimetic nanoparticles exocytosed from tumor cells as a promising drug carrier for efficient cancer chemotherapy.
  • Nickerson, Michael L.; Kostiha, Brittany N.; Brandt, Wolfgang; Fredericks, William; Xu, Ke-Ping; Yu, Fu-Shin; Gold, Bert; Chodosh, James; Goldberg, Marc; Lu, Da Wen; Yamada, Masakazu; Tervo, Timo M.; Grutzmacher, Richard; Croasdale, Chris; Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Sutphin, John; Malkowicz, S. Bruce; Wessjohann, Ludger; Kruth, Howard S.; Dean, Michael; Weiss, Jayne S. (2010)