Browsing by Subject "MEMORY"

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  • Tikker, Laura; Casarotto, Plinio; Singh, Parul; Biojone, Caroline; Piepponen, T. Petteri; Estartus, Nuri; Seelbach, Anna; Sridharan, Ravindran; Laukkanen, Liina; Castren, Eero; Partanen, Juha (2020)
    Serotonergic neurons in the dorsal raphe (DR) nucleus are associated with several psychiatric disorders including depression and anxiety disorders, which often have a neurodevelopmental component. During embryonic development, GATA transcription factors GATA2 and GATA3 operate as serotonergic neuron fate selectors and regulate the differentiation of serotonergic neuron subtypes of DR. Here, we analyzed the requirement of GATA cofactor ZFPM1 in the development of serotonergic neurons using Zfpm1 conditional mouse mutants. Our results demonstrated that, unlike the GATA factors, ZFPM1 is not essential for the early differentiation of serotonergic precursors in the embryonic rhombomere 1. In contrast, in perinatal and adult male and female Zfpm1 mutants, a lateral subpopulation of DR neurons (ventrolateral part of the DR) was lost, whereas the number of serotonergic neurons in a medial subpopulation (dorsal region of the medial DR) had increased. Additionally, adult male and female Zfpm1 mutants had reduced serotonin concentration in rostral brain areas and displayed increased anxiety-like behavior. Interestingly, female Zfpm1 mutant mice showed elevated contextual fear memory that was abolished with chronic fluoxetine treatment. Altogether, these results demonstrate the importance of ZFPM1 for the development of DR serotonergic neuron subtypes involved in mood regulation. It also suggests that the neuronal fate selector function of GATAs is modulated by their cofactors to refine the differentiation of neuronal subtypes.
  • Kullberg-Turtiainen, Marjo; Vuorela, Kaisa; Huttula, Lilli; Turtiainen, Petri; Koskinen, Sanna (2019)
    Few long-term studies report late outcomes after severe traumatic brain injury. New rehabilitation techniques are needed for this heterogenous patient group. We present a dance intervention six and half years after an extreme severe TBI including excessive diffuse axonal injury, which disconnects the brain networks. Given the fact, that efficient brain function depends on the integrated operation of large-scale brain networks like default mode network (DMN), we created an intervention with multisensory and multimodal approach and goal-directed behavior. The intervention lasted four months including weekly one-hour dance lessons with the help of a physiotherapist and dance teacher. The measures included functional independence measure (FIM), repeated electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis of three subnets of DMN and clinical evaluations and observations. The results showed clear improvement after the intervention, and FIM stayed in elevated level during several years after the intervention. We present suggestion for further studies using larger patient groups.
  • Junttila, Katja; Ylinen, Sari (2020)
    To determine the best techniques to teach children foreign words, we compared the effectiveness of four different learning tasks on their foreign-word learning (i.e., learning word forms and word meanings). The tasks included incidental learning, intentional learning with production, intentional learning without production, and crosssituational statistical learning. We also analyzed whether children’s age and cognitive skills correlate with the learning of word forms and word meanings. Forty-four 5–8-yearold children participated in the study. The results reveal that the children were able to learn the correct word forms from all four tasks and no differences emerged between the effectiveness of the tasks on the learning of word-forms. The children also learned the word meanings with all four tasks, yet the intentional task with production was more effectivethantheincidentaltask. Thissuggeststhattheabilityofchildrentolearnforeign words benefited from them knowing that they were supposed to learn new words and producingthemaloudwhiletraining.Theageofthechildrencorrelatedwiththeirlearning results for word forms and meanings on the intentional task without production. The older children learned more effectively than the younger children in this task. Children’s phonological processing skills were correlated with learning the word meanings from the incidental task, suggesting that children with better phonological skills were able to benefit from incidental learning more than children with poorer phonological skills. Altogether, the results suggest that children’s foreign-language learning benefits from intentional training with speech production regardless of their age or cognitive skills.
  • Mennesson, Marie; Rydgren, Emilie; Lipina, Tatiana; Sokolowska, Ewa; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Morello, Francesca; Ivakine, Evgueni; Voikar, Vootele; Risbrough, Victoria; Partanen, Juha; Hovatta, Iiris (2019)
    NETO1 and NETO2 are auxiliary subunits of kainate receptors (KARs). They interact with native KAR subunits to modulate multiple aspects of receptor function. Variation in KAR genes has been associated with psychiatric disorders in humans, and in mice, knockouts of the Grik1 gene have increased, while Grik2 and Grik4 knockouts have reduced anxiety-like behavior. To determine whether the NETO proteins regulate anxiety and fear through modulation of KARs, we undertook a comprehensive behavioral analysis of adult Neto1(-/-) and Neto2(-/-) mice. We observed no differences in anxiety-like behavior. However, in cued fear conditioning, Neto2(-/-), but not Neto1(-/-) mice, showed higher fear expression and delayed extinction compared to wild type mice. We established, by in situ hybridization, that Neto2 was expressed in both excitatory and inhibitory neurons throughout the fear circuit including the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus. Finally, we demonstrated that the relative amount of synaptosomal KAR GLUK2/3 subunit was 20.8% lower in the ventral hippocampus and 36.5% lower in the medial prefrontal cortex in Neto2(-/-) compared to the Neto2(+/+) mice. The GLUK5 subunit abundance was reduced 23.8% in the ventral hippocampus and 16.9% in the amygdala. We conclude that Neto2 regulates fear expression and extinction in mice, and that its absence increases conditionability, a phenotype related to post-traumatic stress disorder and propose that this phenotype is mediated by reduced KAR subunit abundance at synapses of fear-associated brain regions.
  • Kruskopf, Milla; Hakkarainen, Kai; Li, Shupin; Lonka, Kirsti (2021)
    The rise of modern socio-digital technologies has fundamentally changed the everyday environments in which young people communicate with each other and cultivate interests. To gain a more sophisticated understanding of this phenomenon, this study provides in-depth, qualitative insights into adolescents’ experiences of their socio-digital developmental ecologies. The 15 interview participants were recruited based on a previously conducted questionnaire. The semi-structured theme interview addressed the socio-digital aspects of the participants’ interest-driven behaviours and related networks with the aid of participant-generated egocentric maps. The data not only qualitatively enrich the picture on adolescents’ friendship- and interest-driven socio-digital participation but also provide new perspectives on the phenomena through the added network-layer of analysis. The youth seem to vary in their motivational profiles related to their participation and the potential relevant psychological background factors for this variation are considered. Educational implications of these results are discussed when it comes to effective student engagement and connected learning.
  • Arnulfo, Gabriele; Wang, Sheng H.; Myrov, Vladislav; Toselli, Benedetta; Hirvonen, Jonni; Fato, MM; Nobili, L; Cardinale, F; Rubino, A; Zhigalov, Alexander; Palva, Satu; Palva, Matias (2020)
    Inter-areal synchronization of neuronal oscillations at frequencies below similar to 100Hz is a pervasive feature of neuronal activity and is thought to regulate communication in neuronal circuits. In contrast, faster activities and oscillations have been considered to be largely local-circuit-level phenomena without large-scale synchronization between brain regions. We show, using human intracerebral recordings, that 100-400Hz high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) may be synchronized between widely distributed brain regions. HFO synchronization expresses individual frequency peaks and exhibits reliable connectivity patterns that show stable community structuring. HFO synchronization is also characterized by a laminar profile opposite to that of lower frequencies. Importantly, HFO synchronization is both transiently enhanced and suppressed in separate frequency bands during a response-inhibition task. These findings show that HFO synchronization constitutes a functionally significant form of neuronal spike-timing relationships in brain activity and thus a mesoscopic indication of neuronal communication per se.
  • Gailus, Bjoern; Naundorf, Hannah; Welzel, Lisa; Johne, Marie; Roemermann, Kerstin; Kaila, Kai; Loescher, Wolfgang (2021)
    Objective: Birth asphyxia is a major cause of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates and often associated with mortality, neonatal seizures, brain damage, and later life motor, cognitive, and behavioral impairments and epilepsy. Preclinical studies on rodent models are needed to develop more effective therapies for preventing HIE and its consequences. Thus far, the most popular rodent models have used either exposure of intact animals to hypoxia-only, or a combination of hypoxia and carotid occlusion, for the induction of neonatal seizures and adverse outcomes. However, such models lack systemic hypercapnia, which is a fundamental constituent of birth asphyxia with major effects on neuronal excitability. Here, we use a recently developed noninvasive rat model of birth asphyxia with subsequent neonatal seizures to study later life adverse outcome. Methods: Intermittent asphyxia was induced for 30 min by exposing male and female postnatal day 11 rat pups to three 7 + 3-min cycles of 9% and 5% O-2 at constant 20% CO2. All pups exhibited convulsive seizures after asphyxia. A set of behavioral tests were performed systematically over 14 months following asphyxia, that is, a large part of the rat's life span. Video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring was used to determine whether asphyxia led to the development of epilepsy. Finally, structural brain alterations were examined. Results: The animals showed impaired spatial learning and memory and increased anxiety when tested at an age of 3-14 months. Video-EEG at similar to 10 months showed an abundance of spontaneous seizures, which was paralleled by neurodegeneration in the hippocampus and thalamus, and by aberrant mossy fiber sprouting. Significance: The present model of birth asphyxia recapitulates several of the later life consequences associated with human HIE. This model thus allows evaluation of the efficacy of novel therapies designed to prevent HIE and seizures following asphyxia, and of how such therapies might alleviate long-term adverse consequences.
  • Tarkka, Ina M.; Savic, Andrej; Pekkola, Elina; Rottensteiner, Mirva; Leskinen, Tuija; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M. (2016)
    Leisure-time physical activity is a key contributor to physical and mental health. Yet the role of physical activity in modulating cortical function is poorly known. We investigated whether precognitive sensory brain functions are associated with the level of physical activity. Physical activity history (3-yr-LTMET), physiological measures and somatosensory mismatch response (sMMR) in EEG were recorded in 32 young healthy twins. In all participants, 3-yr-LTMET correlated negatively with body fat%, r=0.77 and positively with VO2max, r=0.82. The fat% and VO2max differed between 15 physically active and 17 inactive participants. Trend toward larger sMMR was seen in inactive compared to active participants. This finding was significant in a pairwise comparison of 9 monozygotic twin pairs discordant for physical activity. Larger sMMR reflecting stronger synchronous neural activity may reveal diminished gating of precognitive somatosensory information in physically inactive healthy young men compared to the active ones possibly rendering them more vulnerable to somatosensory distractions from their surroundings. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Stanelle-Bertram, Stephanie; Walendy-Gnirss, Kerstin; Speiseder, Thomas; Thiele, Swantje; Asante, Ivy Asantewaa; Dreier, Carola; Kouassi, Nancy Mounogou; Preuss, Annette; Pilnitz-Stolze, Gundula; Mueller, Ursula; Thanisch, Stefanie; Richter, Melanie; Scharrenberg, Robin; Kraus, Vanessa; Doerk, Ronja; Schau, Lynn; Herder, Vanessa; Gerhauser, Ingo; Pfankuche, Vanessa Maria; Kaeufer, Christopher; Waltl, Inken; Moraes, Thais; Sellau, Julie; Hoenow, Stefan; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Jansen, Stephanie; Schattling, Benjamin; Ittrich, Harald; Bartsch, Udo; Renne, Thomas; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Arck, Petra; Cadar, Daniel; Friese, Manuel A.; Vapalahti, Olli; Lotter, Hanna; Benites, Sany; Rolling, Lane; Gabriel, Martin; Baumgaertner, Wolfgang; Morellini, Fabio; Hoelter, Sabine M.; Amarie, Oana; Fuchs, Helmut; de Angelis, Martin Hrabe; Loescher, Wolfgang; de Anda, Froylan Calderon; Gabriel, Guelsah (2018)
    Congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) syndrome may cause fetal microcephaly in -1% of affected newborns. Here, we investigate whether the majority of clinically inapparent newborns might suffer from long-term health impairments not readily visible at birth. Infection of immunocompetent pregnant mice with high-dose ZIKV caused severe offspring phenotypes, such as fetal death, as expected. By contrast, low-dose (LD) maternal ZIKV infection resulted in reduced fetal birth weight but no other obvious phenotypes. Male offspring born to LD ZIKV-infected mothers had increased testosterone (TST) levels and were less likely to survive in utero infection compared to their female littermates. Males also presented an increased number of immature neurons in apical and basal hippocampal dendrites, while female offspring had immature neurons in basal dendrites only. Moreover, male offspring with high but not very high (storm) TST levels were more likely to suffer from learning and memory impairments compared to females. Future studies are required to understand the impact of TST on neuropathological and neurocognitive impairments in later life. In summary, increased sex-specific vigilance is required in countries with high ZIKV prevalence, where impaired neurodevelopment may be camouflaged by a healthy appearance at birth.
  • Kaltiainen, Hanna; Liljeström, Mia; Helle, Liisa; Salo, Anne; Hietanen, Marja; Renvall, Hanna; Forss, Nina (2019)
    Despite the high prevalence of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), current diagnostic tools to objectively assess cognitive complaints after mTBI continue to be inadequate. Our aim was to identify neuronal correlates for cognitive difficulties in mTBI patients by evaluating the possible alterations in oscillatory brain activity during a behavioral task known to be sensitive to cognitive impairment after mTBI. We compared oscillatory brain activity during rest and cognitive tasks (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [PASAT] and a vigilance test [VT]) with magnetoencephalography between 25 mTBI patients and 20 healthy controls. Whereas VT induced no significant differences compared with resting state in either group, patients exhibited stronger attenuation of 8- to 14-Hz oscillatory activity during PASAT than healthy controls in the left parietotemporal cortex (p
  • Minkeviciene, Rimante; Hlushchenko, Iryna; Virenque, Anaïs; Lahti, Lauri; Khanal, Pushpa; Rauramaa, Tuomas; Koistinen, Arto; Leinonen, Ville; Noé, Francesco Mattia; Hotulainen, Pirta (2019)
    In this study, we performed a comprehensive behavioral and anatomical analysis of the Missing in Metastasis (Mtss1/MIM) knockout (KO) mouse brain. We also analyzed the expression of MIM in different brain regions at different ages. MIM is an I-BAR containing membrane curving protein, shown to be involved in dendritic spine initiation and dendritic branching in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. Behavioral analysis of MIM KO mice revealed defects in both learning and reverse-learning, alterations in anxiety levels and reduced dominant behavior, and confirmed the previously described deficiency in motor coordination and pre-pulse inhibition. Anatomically, we observed enlarged brain ventricles and decreased cortical volume. Although MIM expression was relatively low in hippocampus after early development, hippocampal pyramidal neurons exhibited reduced density of thin and stubby dendritic spines. Learning deficiencies can be connected to all detected anatomical changes. Both behavioral and anatomical findings are typical for schizophrenia mouse models.
  • Porkka-Heiskanen, Tarja; Wigren, Henna-Kaisa (2020)
    One of the key features of sleep is that if the duration of a waking period is prolonged, the following sleep period will be longer, including more slow-wave activity. This homeostasis is explained by production of sleep pressure that accumulates during the waking period. It is generally accepted that neuronal activity, in one way or other, is the driving force for accumulation of sleep pressure, both during spontaneous sleep-wake cycle and during prolonged wakefulness. Prolonged wakefulness is associated with increased energy consumption, production of danger signals and modulations in neural plasticity. Data derived from experiments with Drosophila melanogaster introduces a fascinating window to the basic mechanisms of sleep and sleep homeostasis, and undoubtedly sheds light to the mechanisms of sleep regulation also in humans. However, the existence of substantial cortex, which is regarded as a key actor in mammalian NREM sleep regulation, will add to the complexity of the regulatory circuits.
  • Kallio, Eeva-Liisa; Hietanen, Marja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2021)
    Effectiveness of a 12-week cognitive training (CT) programme for community-dwelling patients with dementia was evaluated on various cognitive functions (attention, memory, executive functions and reasoning) and psychological well-being (PWB). A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in adult day care centres in Helsinki, Finland. Participants (N = 147) were older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending day care (mean age 83 years, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia). The intervention group (n= 76) received systematic CT for 45 min twice a week while the control group (n = 71) attended day care as usual. The cognitive and psychological outcomes were measured at baseline, and followed up at 3 and 9 months. No differences between the two groups in changes of any of the cognitive functions, or PWB over time were found. We observed a positive trend at 3 months in the change for PWB favouring the intervention group, but no significant interaction effect was found (p = .079;d = -0.31). Thus, systematic CT appears to have no effect on neuropsychological outcomes of cognitive functioning and PWB in older adults who already have dementia.
  • Amaghnouje, Amal; Bohza, Serhii; Bohdan, Nathalie; Es-Safi, Imane; Kyrylchuk, Andrii; Achour, Sanae; El Fatemi, Hinde; Bousta, Dalila; Grafov, Andriy (2021)
    We report the design and synthesis of a new diazepine derivative, 4-(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-2,3-benzodiazepin-1-one (VBZ102), and the evaluation of its anxiolytic-like profile, memory impairment effect, and toxicity in Swiss mice. VBZ102 was evaluated for central nervous system effects in an open field, light-dark box, and novel object recognition tests under oral administration for acute and sub-acute treatment. We tested the VBZ102 toxicity in mice through a determination of LD50 values and examination of the biochemical and histopathological parameters. The VBZ102 induced an anxiolytic effect at different doses both in the light-dark box and open field tests. Unlike other benzodiazepines (e.g., bromazepam), a sedative effect was noted only after administration of the VBZ102 at 10.0 mg/kg.
  • Nikolakaros, Georgios; Ilonen, Tuula; Kurki, Timo; Paju, Janina; Papageorgiou, Sokratis G.; Vataja, Risto (2016)
    Wernicke's encephalopathy is often undiagnosed, particularly in non-alcoholics. There are very few reports of non-alcoholic patients diagnosed with Korsakoff syndrome in the absence of a prior diagnosis of Wernicke's encephalopathy and no studies of diffusion tensor imaging in non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome. We report on three non-alcoholic psychiatric patients (all women) with long-term non-progressive memory impairment that developed after malnutrition accompanied by at least one of the three Wemicke's encephalopathy manifestations: ocular abnormalities, ataxia or unsteadiness, and an altered mental state or mild memory impairment. In neuropsychological examination, all patients had memory impairment, including intrusions. One patient had mild cerebellar vermis atrophy in MRI taken after the second episode of Wemicke's encephalopathy. The same patient had mild hypometabolism in the lateral cortex of the temporal lobes. Another patient had mild symmetrical atrophy and hypometabolism of the superior frontal lobes. Two patients were examined with diffusion tensor imaging. Reduced fractional anisotropy values were found in the corona radiata in two patients, and the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus in one patient. Our results suggest that non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome is underdiagnosed. Psychiatric patients with long-term memory impairment may have Korsakoff syndrome and, therefore, they should be evaluated for a history of previously undiagnosed Wernicke's encephalopathy. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Franks, Victoria R.; Thorogood, Rose (2018)
    Birds use cues when foraging to help relocate food resources, but natural environments provide many potential cues and choosing which to use may depend on previous experience. Young animals have less experience of their environment compared to adults, so may be slower to learn cues or may need to sample the environment more. Whether age influences cue use and learning has, however, received little experimental testing in wild animals. Here we investigate effects of age in a wild population of hihi (Notiomystis cincta), a threatened New Zealand passerine. We manipulated bird feeders using a novel colour cue to indicate a food reward; once hihi learned its location, we rotated the feeder to determine whether the birds followed the colour or returned to the previous location. Both age groups made fewer errors over trials and learned the location of the food reward, but juveniles continued to sample unrewarding locations more than adults. Following a second rotation, more adults preferred to forage from the hole indicated by the colour cue than juveniles, despite this no longer being rewarding. Overall, juveniles spent longer in the feeder arena to reach the same proportion of foraging time as adults. Combined, these results suggest that juveniles and adults may use an “explore and exploit” foraging strategy differently, and this affects how efficiently they forage. Further work is needed to understand how juveniles may compensate for their inexperience in learning and foraging strategies.
  • Valtonen, Jussi; Karrasch, Mira (2020)
    Polypharmacy is common in patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. Although polypharmacy is known to increase the risk of iatrogenic neurological conditions, the recovery of cognitive function after drug withdrawal has been rarely documented in psychiatric patients using standardized neuropsychological methods. We present a neuropsychological case report of patient SN, a 41-year-old woman who developed a socially and occupationally detrimental condition of cognitive dysfunction likely induced by long-term exposure to lithium and other psychiatric medications. To shed light on SN’s cognitive deficits and their recovery after drug withdrawal, neuropsychological assessments were conducted before, and approximately 2 years after, lithium and other psychiatric drugs were discontinued. Selective cognitive impairments were observed before drug discontinuation in visuomotor speed, visuoperceptual reasoning and delayed visual memory. Partial, but not complete, recovery of function was observed 2 years after drug withdrawal.
  • Cheng, Ruoyu; Fontana, Flavia; Xiao, Junyuan; Liu, Zehua; Figueiredo, Patricia; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Wang, Shiqi; Jin, Jing; Torrieri, Giulia; Hirvonen, Jouni T.; Zhang, Hongbo; Chen, Tongtong; Cui, Wenguo; Lu, Yong; Santos, Helder A. (2020)
    Recently, there has been an increasing interest for utilizing the host immune system to fight against cancer. Moreover, cancer vaccines, which can stimulate the host immune system to respond to cancer in the long term, are being investigated as a promising approach to induce tumor-specific immunity. In this work, we prepared an effective cancer vaccine (denoted as vacosome) by reconstructing the cancer cell membrane, monophosphoryl lipid A as a toll-like receptor 4 agonist, and egg phosphatidylcholine. The vacosome triggered and enhanced bone marrow dendritic cell maturation as well as stimulated the antitumor response against breast cancer 4T1 cells in vitro. Furthermore, an immune memory was established in BALB/c mice after three-time preimmunization with the vacosome. After that, the immunized mice showed inhibited tumor growth and prolonged survival period (longer than 50 days). Overall, our results demonstrate that the vacosome can be a potential candidate for clinical translation as a cancer vaccine.
  • Aledavood, Talayeh; Torous, John; Hoyos, Ana Maria Triana; Naslund, John A.; Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Keshavan, Matcheri (2019)
    Purpose of ReviewSleep is an important feature in mental illness. Smartphones can be used to assess and monitor sleep, yet there is little prior application of this approach in depressive, anxiety, or psychotic disorders. We review uses of smartphones and wearable devices for sleep research in patients with these conditions.Recent FindingsTo date, most studies consist of pilot evaluations demonstrating feasibility and acceptability of monitoring sleep using smartphones and wearable devices among individuals with psychiatric disorders. Promising findings show early associations between behaviors and sleep parameters and agreement between clinic-based assessments, active smartphone data capture, and passively collected data. Few studies report improvement in sleep or mental health outcomes.SummarySuccess of smartphone-based sleep assessments and interventions requires emphasis on promoting long-term adherence, exploring possibilities of adaptive and personalized systems to predict risk/relapse, and determining impact of sleep monitoring on improving patients' quality of life and clinically meaningful outcomes.
  • PIPARI Study Grp; Lind, Annika; Parkkola, Riitta; Laasonen, Marja; Vorobyev, Victor; Haataja, Leena (2020)
    Background: The objective of this study was to examine how nonverbal skills at age five years relate to visual perception and brain activation during visual perception tasks at age 12 years in very preterm subjects without visual or other neurodevelopmental impairments or major brain pathologies. Methods: At age five years, 36 prematurely born (birth weight Results: Test performance at age five years was significantly poorer in the very preterm group than the control subjects, but at age 12 years performance was similar in both groups. In the very preterm group, better nonverbal skills at age five years were significantly associated with stronger neural activation during the visual perception task at age 12 years. No associations between nonverbal skills at age five years and brain activation at age 12 years appeared in the control group. Conclusions: The associations between better nonverbal skills and stronger neural activation during visual perception task only observed in the very preterm group may reflect delayed development of the visual perception network and/or prematurity-related neural plasticity. The developmental follow-up of very preterm children should include psychological assessment of nonverbal skills at least until age five years. (C) 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.