Browsing by Subject "MIGRATION"

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  • Miettinen, Simo S. A.; Makinen, Tatu J.; Laaksonen, Inari; Mäkelä, Keijo; Huhtala, Heini; Kettunen, Jukka; Remes, Ville (2017)
    Purpose Early aseptic loosening of cementless monoblock acetabular components is a rare complication of total hip arthroplasty (THA) and hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for early aseptic loosening of the cementless monoblock acetabular components. Methods This retrospective analysis consisted of 4,043 cementless hip devices (3,209 THAs and 834 HRAs). We identified 41 patients with early aseptic loosening of the acetabular component. A control group of 123 patients without acetabular component loosening was randomly selected. The demographic data and risk factors for loosening of the acetabular component were evaluated. The mean follow-up time was 4.6 years (range, 1.7-7.8). The end-point was acetabular revision. Results The incidence of early acetabular component loosening was 1.0 %. Mean time to revision was 1.2 years (SD 1.6, range 0.0-5.4). There was significantly more Dorr type A and C acetabular morphology in patients with early loosening (P = 0.014). The loosened components were implanted to more vertical (P <0.001) and less anteverted (P = 0.001) position than those of the control group. Presence of acetabular dysplasia or acetabular component type did not associate to early loosening. Conclusions Acetabular morphology (Dorr type A and C) and component positioning vertically and less anteverted were more common in patients with early aseptic loosening of cementless acetabular components. Suboptimal cup position most likely reflects challenges to obtain sufficient stability during surgery. We hypothesize that errors in surgical technique are the main reason for early loosening of monoblock acetabular components.
  • Teixidó, Joaquin; Hidalgo, Andres; Fagerholm, Susanna (2019)
  • Pflugmacher, Stephan; Huttunen, Johanna; van Wollf, Marya-Anne; Penttinen, Olli-Pekka; Kim, Yongjun; Kim, Sanghun; Mitrovic, Simon; Esterhuizen, Maranda (2020)
    Microplastics (MPs) of varying sizes are widespread pollutants in our environment. The general opinion is that the smaller the size, the more dangerous the MPs are due to enhanced uptake possibilities. It would be of considerable ecological significance to understand the response of biota to microplastic contamination both physically and physiologically. Here, we report on an area choice experiment (avoidance test) using Enchytraeus crypticus, in which we mixed different amounts of high-density polyethylene microplastic particles into the soil. In all experimental scenarios, more Enchytraeids moved to the unspiked sections or chose a lower MP-concentration. Worms in contact with MP exhibited an enhanced oxidative stress status, measured as the induced activity of the antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione S-transferase. As plastic polymers per se are nontoxic, the exposure time employed was too short for chemicals to leach from the microplastic, and as the microplastic particles used in these experiments were too large (4 mm) to be consumed by the Enchytraeids, the likely cause for the avoidance and oxidative stress could be linked to altered soil properties.
  • Alho, Rolle Julius; Sippola, Markku Matias (2019)
    The consequences of immigration for the welfare states has received increased attention by scholars and in political and media debates in Europe. However, migrants' subjective understandings of the welfare state remains an understudied research topic. This study aims to address the topic by analysing the question in the Nordic context by looking at Estonian labour migrants' understandings of the Finnish welfare state. Our data consists of 51 biographical interviews with Estonian migrants in Finland. Based on the interviews, we traced interviewees' attitudes towards the Finnish welfare state. In Finland, Estonians aspire for social citizenship, which in their case refers to gaining economic welfare and embracing Finnish welfare state institutions. This aspiration for social citizenship is revealed in Estonians' identity talk', which takes two forms: embracement and distancing. By embracement, we mean their positive sentiments towards the institutions and norms of the Finnish welfare state. The interviewees highlight their participation in the labour market, diligent payment of taxes, justified use of the welfare benefits and services offered by the Finnish state, and membership in trade unions and unemployment funds. The interviewees underline the link between work and the deservingness of welfare benefits. They describe themselves as deserving, which, they claim, should put them on par with native Finns. Moreover, by means of distancing, the interviewed Estonians distinguish themselves from others'in their opinionnon-deserving' migrants who do not contribute' to the Finnish welfare state.
  • Stefani, Caroline; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, David; Senju, Yosuke; Doye, Anne; Efimova, Nadia; Janel, Sebastien; Lipuma, Justine; Tsai, Meng Chen; Hamaoui, Daniel; Maddugoda, Madhavi P.; Cochet-Escartin, Olivier; Prevost, Coline; Lafont, Frank; Svitkina, Tatyana; Lappalainen, Pekka; Bassereau, Patricia; Lemichez, Emmanuel (2017)
    Transendothelial cell macroaperture (TEM) tunnels control endothelium barrier function and are triggered by several toxins from pathogenic bacteria that provoke vascular leakage. Cellular dewetting theory predicted that a line tension of uncharacterized origin works at TEM boundaries to limit their widening. Here, by conducting high-resolution microscopy approaches we unveil the presence of an actomyosin cable encircling TEMs. We develop a theoretical cellular dewetting framework to interpret TEM physical parameters that are quantitatively determined by laser ablation experiments. This establishes the critical role of ezrin and non-muscle myosin II (NMII) in the progressive implementation of line tension. Mechanistically, fluorescence-recovery-after-photobleaching experiments point for the upstream role of ezrin in stabilizing actin filaments at the edges of TEMs, thereby favouring their crosslinking by NMIIa. Collectively, our findings ascribe to ezrin and NMIIa a critical function of enhancing line tension at the cell boundary surrounding the TEMs by promoting the formation of an actomyosin ring.
  • Woestmann, Luisa; Kvist, Jouni Antero; Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina (2017)
    Flight represents a key trait in most insects, being energetically extremely demanding, yet often necessary for foraging and reproduction. Additionally, dispersal via flight is especially important for species living in fragmented landscapes. Even though, based on life-history theory, a negative relationship may be expected between flight and immunity, a number of previous studies have indicated flight to induce an increased immune response. In this study, we assessed whether induced immunity (i.e. immune gene expression) in response to 15-min forced flight treatment impacts individual survival of bacterial infection in the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). We were able to confirm previous findings of flight-induced immune gene expression, but still observed substantially stronger effects on both gene expression levels and life span due to bacterial infection compared to flight treatment. Even though gene expression levels of some immunity-related genes were elevated due to flight, these individuals did not show increased survival of bacterial infection, indicating that flight-induced immune activation does not completely protect them from the negative effects of bacterial infection. Finally, an interaction between flight and immune treatment indicated a potential trade-off: flight treatment increased immune gene expression in naive individuals only, whereas in infected individuals no increase in immune gene expression was induced by flight. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of immune genes upon flight is based on a general stress response rather than reflecting an adaptive response to cope with potential infections during flight or in new habitats.
  • Duckworth, James; O'Brien, Susan; Väisänen, Roni; Lehikoinen, Petteri; Petersen, I. B. Krag; Daunt, Francis; Green, Jonathan A. (2020)
    Recently, Red-throated Loons Gavia stellata (RTL) have been the subject of increased interest due to their negative interactions with shipping, offshore wind farms, and other marine industry activities. This has driven a desire to quantify the behaviour and ecology of this understudied species, particularly during the non-breeding season. To achieve this, Time Depth Recorder (TDR) and Global Location Sensor (GLS) tags were deployed on individuals from several European locations. Due to an incidental mortality, one set of tags was retrieved early. The single set of tags recorded activity from June to August 2018. The TDR collected records for 14 d, providing the first ever biologging data on RTL foraging in Europe. The bird was tagged 90 km from the coast; therefore, it only used freshwater lakes and was never recorded entering saltwater. The individual mostly undertook shallow dives, with maximum and mean depths of 20 m and 5.4 m, respectively. Foraging constituted 22.9% of total activity during the sampling period. The RTL had diel foraging patterns. with dives being shallower and more frequent at times of "twilight" compared to "daylight." These results provide novel information on an RTL's diurnal patterns of water depth usage and foraging effort during the summer, demonstrating the potential of data loggers to provide key insights into the foraging ecology of this species
  • Tripathi, Shankar; Subedi, Rajan; Adhikari, Hari (2020)
    An account of widespread degradation and deforestation in Nepal has been noticed in various literature sources. Although the contribution of community forests (CF) on the improvement of forest cover and condition in the Mid-hill of Nepal is positive, detailed study to understand the current situation seems important. The study area (Tanahun District) lies in the Gandaki Province of western Nepal. The objective of this study was to estimate the forest cover change over the specified period and to identify factors influencing the change. We used Landsat images from the years 1976, 1991, and 2015 to classify land use and land cover. We considered community perception in addition to the forest cover map to understand the different causes of forest cover change. Forest cover decreased from 1976 to 1991 annually at a rate of 0.96%. After 1991, the forest increased annually at a rate of 0.63%. The overall forest cover in the district regained its original status. Factors related to increasing forest cover were emigration, occupation shift, agroforestry practices, as well as particularly by plantation on barren lands, awareness among forest users, and conservation activities conducted by local inhabitants after the government forest was handed over to community members as a community forest management system.
  • Heuser, Vanina D.; Mansuri, Naziha; Mogg, Jasper; Kurki, Samu; Repo, Heli; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Carpen, Olli; Gardberg, Maria (2018)
    Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options. The subgroup can be identified immunohistochemically, by lack of hormone receptor expression combined with expression of basal markers such as CK5/6 and/or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In vitro, several regulators of the actin cytoskeleton are essential for efficient invasion of basal-like breast cancer cell lines. Whether these proteins are expressed in vivo determines the applicability of these findings in clinical settings. The actin-regulating formin protein FHOD1 participates in invasion of the triple-negative breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. Here, we measure the expression of FHOD1 protein in clinical triple-negative breast cancers by using immunohistochemistry and further characterize the expression of another formin protein, INF2. We report that basal-like breast cancers frequently overexpress formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2. In cell studies using basal-like breast cancer cell lines, we show that knockdown of FHOD1 or INF2 interferes with very similar processes: maintenance of cell shape, migration, invasion, and proliferation. Inhibition of EGFR, PI3K, or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity does not alter the expression of FHOD1 and INF2 in these cell lines. We conclude that the experimental studies on these formins have implications in the clinical behavior of basal-like breast cancer.
  • Platzer, Konrad; Yuan, Hongjie; Schuetz, Hannah; Winschel, Alexander; Chen, Wenjuan; Hu, Chun; Kusumoto, Hirofumi; Heyne, Henrike O.; Helbig, Katherine L.; Tang, Sha; Willing, Marcia C.; Tinkle, Brad T.; Adams, Darius J.; Depienne, Christel; Keren, Boris; Mignot, Cyril; Frengen, Eirik; Stromme, Petter; Biskup, Saskia; Doecker, Dennis; Strom, Tim M.; Mefford, Heather C.; Myers, Candace T.; Muir, Alison M.; LaCroix, Amy; Sadleir, Lynette; Scheffer, Ingrid E.; Brilstra, Eva; van Haelst, Mieke M.; van der Smagt, Jasper J.; Bok, Levinus A.; Moller, Rikke S.; Jensen, Uffe B.; Millichap, John J.; Berg, Anne T.; Goldberg, Ethan M.; De Bie, Isabelle; Fox, Stephanie; Major, Philippe; Jones, Julie R.; Zackai, Elaine H.; Abou Jamra, Rami; Rolfs, Arndt; Leventer, Richard J.; Lawson, John A.; Roscioli, Tony; Jansen, Floor E.; Ranza, Emmanuelle; Korff, Christian M.; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Courage, Carolina; Linnankivi, Tarja; Smith, Douglas R.; Stanley, Christine; Mintz, Mark; McKnight, Dianalee; Decker, Amy; Tan, Wen-Hann; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Brady, Lauren I.; Wolff, Markus; Dondit, Lutz; Pedro, Helio F.; Parisotto, Sarah E.; Jones, Kelly L.; Patel, Anup D.; Franz, David N.; Vanzo, Rena; Marco, Elysa; Ranells, Judith D.; Di Donato, Nataliya; Dobyns, William B.; Laube, Bodo; Traynelis, Stephen F.; Lemke, Johannes R. (2017)
    Background We aimed for a comprehensive delineation of genetic, functional and phenotypic aspects of GRIN2B encephalopathy and explored potential prospects of personalised medicine. Methods Data of 48 individuals with de novo GRIN2B variants were collected from several diagnostic and research cohorts, as well as from 43 patients from the literature. Functional consequences and response to memantine treatment were investigated in vitro and eventually translated into patient care. Results Overall, de novo variants in 86 patients were classified as pathogenic/likely pathogenic. Patients presented with neurodevelopmental disorders and a spectrum of hypotonia, movement disorder, cortical visual impairment, cerebral volume loss and epilepsy. Six patients presented with a consistent malformation of cortical development (MCD) intermediate between tubulinopathies and polymicrogyria. Missense variants cluster in transmembrane segments and ligand-binding sites. Functional consequences of variants were diverse, revealing various potential gain-of-function and loss-of-function mechanisms and a retained sensitivity to the use-dependent blocker memantine. However, an objectifiable beneficial treatment response in the respective patients still remains to be demonstrated. Conclusions In addition to previously known features of intellectual disability, epilepsy and autism, we found evidence that GRIN2B encephalopathy is also frequently associated with movement disorder, cortical visual impairment and MCD revealing novel phenotypic consequences of channelopathies.
  • Mobley, Kenyon B.; Granroth-Wilding, Hanna; Ellmen, Mikko; Vaha, Juha-Pekka; Aykanat, Tutku; Johnston, Susan E.; Orell, Panu; Erkinaro, Jaakko; Primmer, Craig R. (2019)
    A long-held, but poorly tested, assumption in natural populations is that individuals that disperse into new areas for reproduction are at a disadvantage compared to individuals that reproduce in their natal habitat, underpinning the eco-evolutionary processes of local adaptation and ecological speciation. Here, we capitalize on fine-scale population structure and natural dispersal events to compare the reproductive success of local and dispersing individuals captured on the same spawning ground in four consecutive parent-offspring cohorts of wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Parentage analysis conducted on adults and juvenile fish showed that local females and males had 9.6 and 2.9 times higher reproductive success than dispersers, respectively. Our results reveal how higher reproductive success in local spawners compared to dispersers may act in natural populations to drive population divergence and promote local adaptation over microgeographic spatial scales without clear morphological differences between populations.
  • Eskelä, Elina (2018)
    Although relatively understudied, the role of affordable and acceptable housing in the accelerating global competition for talent is of utmost importance, especially if highly skilled migrants are to be absorbed into the permanent labour force. This paper concerns the housing of skilled Indian migrants in the Helsinki metropolitan area in Finland, and contributes to the literature on international migration and the housing of ethnic minorities. It presents a case study on how to analyse migrants' housing pathways, examining the meaning of housing in the transnational lives of this relatively affluent migrant group. The results show that homeownership is a not a simple indicator of commitment to the host society, and that those responsible for national housing policy need to ensure the supply, quality and reasonable price of accommodation in order to fulfil the housing needs of skilled migrants.
  • Oversti, Sanni; Majander, Kerttu; Salmela, Elina; Salo, Kati; Arppe, Laura; Belskiy, Stanislav; Etu-Sihvola, Heli; Laakso, Ville; Mikkola, Esa; Pfrengle, Saskia; Putkonen, Mikko; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Vuoristo, Katja; Wessman, Anna; Sajantila, Antti; Oinonen, Markku; Haak, Wolfgang; Schuenemann, Verena J.; Krause, Johannes; Palo, Jukka U.; Onkamo, Paivi (2019)
    Human ancient DNA studies have revealed high mobility in Europe's past, and have helped to decode the human history on the Eurasian continent. Northeastern Europe, especially north of the Baltic Sea, however, remains less well understood largely due to the lack of preserved human remains. Finland, with a divergent population history from most of Europe, offers a unique perspective to hunter-gatherer way of life, but thus far genetic information on prehistoric human groups in Finland is nearly absent. Here we report 103 complete ancient mitochondrial genomes from human remains dated to AD 300-1800, and explore mtDNA diversity associated with hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers. The results indicate largely unadmixed mtDNA pools of differing ancestries from Iron-Age on, suggesting a rather late genetic shift from hunter-gatherers towards farmers in North-East Europe. Furthermore, the data suggest eastern introduction of farmer-related haplogroups into Finland, contradicting contemporary genetic patterns in Finns.
  • Darki, Fahimeh; Massinen, Satu; Salmela, Elina; Matsson, Hans; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Klingberg, Torkel; Kere, Juha (2017)
    The axon guidance receptor, Robo1, controls the pathfinding of callosal axons in mice. To determine whether the orthologous ROBO1 gene is involved in callosal development also in humans, we studied polymorphisms in the ROBO1 gene and variation in the white matter structure in the corpus callosum using both structural magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. We found that five polymorphisms in the regulatory region of ROBO1 were associated with white matter density in the posterior part of the corpus callosum pathways. One of the polymorphisms, rs7631357, was also significantly associated with the probability of connections to the parietal cortical regions. Our results demonstrate that human ROBO1 may be involved in the regulation of the structure and connectivity of posterior part of corpus callosum.
  • Markkula, Niina; Lehti, Venla; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana (2017)
    Migrants appear to have a higher risk of mental disorders, but findings vary across country settings and migrant groups. We aimed to assess incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among immigrants and Finnish-born controls in a register-based cohort study. A register-based cohort study of 184.806 immigrants and 185.184 Finnish-born controls (1.412.117 person-years) was conducted. Information on mental disorders according to ICD-10 was retrieved from the Hospital Discharge Register, which covers all public health care use. The incidence of any mental disorder was lower among male (adjusted HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.87) and female (aHR 0.76, 95% CI 0.72-0.81) immigrants, being lowest among Asian and highest among North African and Middle Eastern immigrants. The incidence of bipolar, depressive and alcohol use disorders was lower among immigrants. Incidence of psychotic disorders was lower among female and not higher among male immigrants, compared with native Finns. Incidence of PTSD was higher among male immigrants (aHR 4.88, 95% CI 3.38-7.05). The risk of mental disorders varies significantly across migrant groups and disorders and is generally lower among immigrants than native Finns.
  • Massinen, Satu; Hokkanen, Marie-Estelle; Matsson, Hans; Tammimies, Kristiina; Tapia-Páez, Isabel; Dahlström-Heuser, Vanina; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Burghoorn, Jan; Jeppsson, Kristian E.; Swoboda, Peter; Peyrard-Janvid, Myriam; Toftgård, Rune; Castrén, Eero; Kere, Juha (2011)
  • Fountain, Toby; Husby, Arild; Nonaka, Etsuko; DiLeo, Michelle; Korhonen, Janne H.; Rastas, Pasi; Schulz, Torsti Michael; Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina; Hanski, Ilkka Aulis (2018)
    Dispersal is important for determining both species ecological processes, such as population viability, and its evolutionary processes, like gene flow and local adaptation. Yet obtaining accurate estimates in the wild through direct observation can be challenging or even impossible, particularly over large spatial and temporal scales. Genotyping many individuals from wild populations can provide detailed inferences about dispersal. We therefore utilized genomewide marker data to estimate dispersal in the classic metapopulation of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia L.), in the Aland Islands in SW Finland. This is an ideal system to test the effectiveness of this approach due to the wealth of information already available covering dispersal across small spatial and temporal scales, but lack of information at larger spatial and temporal scales. We sampled three larvae per larval family group from 3732 groups over a six-year period and genotyped for 272 SNPs across the genome. We used this empirical data set to reconstruct cases where full-sibs were detected in different local populations to infer female effective dispersal distance, that is, dispersal events directly contributing to gene flow. On average this was one kilometre, closely matching previous dispersal estimates made using direct observation. To evaluate our power to detect full-sib families, we performed forward simulations using an individual-based model constructed and parameterized for the Glanville fritillary metapopulation. Using these simulations, 100% of predicted full-sibs were correct and over 98% of all true full-sib pairs were detected. We therefore demonstrate that even in a highly dynamic system with a relatively small number of markers, we can accurately reconstruct full-sib families and for the first time make inferences on female effective dispersal. This highlights the utility of this approach in systems where it has previously been impossible to obtain accurate estimates of dispersal over both ecological and evolutionary scales.
  • Lynch, Robert; Lummaa, Virpi; Panchanathan, Karthik; Middleton, Kevin; Rotkirch, Anna; Danielsbacka, Mirkka; O'Brien, David; Loehr, John (2019)
    Understanding how refugees integrate into host societies has broad implications for researchers interested in intergroup conflict and for governments concerned with promoting social cohesion. Using detailed records tracking the movements and life histories of Finnish evacuees during World War II, we find that evacuees who intermarry are more likely to be educated, work in professional occupations, marry someone higher in social status and remain in the host community. Evacuees who intermarry before the war have fewer children, whereas those who marry into their host community after the war have more children. These results indicate that life-history and assimilation outcomes depend on key differences between pre-war environments—when migrants are living in their own communities—and post-war environments—when migrants are living in the host community. Overall, this suggests that integration involves a trade-off between reproduction and status such that evacuees who integrate gain social status, whereas those who maintain stronger bonds with their natal communities have higher fertility. We discuss these results within the framework of social capital, intergroup conflict and life-history theory and suggest how they can inform our understanding of evolutionary adaptations that affect tribalism.
  • Karimi, Zeinab (2019)
    This article focuses on the process through which intergenerational ambivalence is experienced by a group of adult children and their parents with an Iranian refugee background living in Finland. This ethnographic study provides an insight into how the families' struggles to mobilize capital in different forms can contribute to their experience of intergenerational ambivalence. The study indicates that when the parents' social, economic and cultural capitals accumulated prior to migration are not accessible or valuable in Finland, they become dependent on their children's conduct. This produces a contradictory demand on the participants roles as parents and children, where they face difficulties in navigating their role expectations. The families in this study expressed a significant ambivalence in their intergenerational relationships associated with these stressful conditions.