Browsing by Subject "MITOCHONDRIAL-DNA"

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  • Lilley, Thomas M.; Sävilammi, Tiina; Ossa, Gonzalo; Blomberg, Anna S.; Vasemägi, Anti; Yung, Veronica; Vendrami, David L. J.; Johnson, Joseph S. (2020)
    Despite its peculiar distribution, the biology of the southernmost bat species in the world, the Chilean myotis (Myotis chiloensis), has garnered little attention so far. The species has a north-south distribution of c. 2800 km, mostly on the eastern side of the Andes mountain range. Use of extended torpor occurs in the southernmost portion of the range, putting the species at risk of bat white-nose syndrome, a fungal disease responsible for massive population declines in North American bats. Here, we examined how geographic distance and topology would be reflected in the population structure of M. chiloensis along the majority of its range using a double digestion RAD-seq method. We sampled 66 individuals across the species range and discovered pronounced isolation-by-distance. Furthermore, and surprisingly, we found higher degrees of heterozygosity in the southernmost populations compared to the north. A coalescence analysis revealed that our populations may still not have reached secondary contact after the Last Glacial Maximum. As for the potential spread of pathogens, such as the fungus causing WNS, connectivity among populations was noticeably low, especially between the southern hibernatory populations in the Magallanes and Tierra del Fuego, and more northerly populations. This suggests the probability of geographic spread of the disease from the north through bat-to-bat contact to susceptible populations is low. The study presents a rare case of defined population structure in a bat species and warrants further research on the underlying factors contributing to this. See the graphical abstract here.
  • Lavikainen, Antti; Iwaki, Takashi; Haukisalmi, Voitto; Konyaev, Sergey V.; Casiraghi, Maurizio; Dokuchaev, Nikolai E.; Galimberti, Andrea; Halajian, Ali; Henttonen, Heikki; Ichikawa-Seki, Madoka; Itagaki, Tadashi; Krivopalov, Anton V.; Meri, Seppo; Morand, Serge; Nareaho, Anu; Olsson, Gert E.; Ribas, Alexis; Terefe, Yitagele; Nakao, Minoru (2016)
    The common cat tapeworm Hydatigera taeniaeformis is a complex of three morphologically cryptic entities, which can be differentiated genetically. To clarify the biogeography and the host spectrum of the cryptic lineages, 150 specimens of H. taeniaeformis in various definitive and intermediate hosts from Eurasia, Africa and Australia were identified with DNA barcoding using partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequences and compared with previously published data. Additional phylogenetic analyses of selected isolates were performed using nuclear DNA and mitochondrial genome sequences. Based on molecular data and morphological analysis, Hydatigera kamiyai n. sp. Iwaki is proposed for a cryptic lineage, which is predominantly northern Eurasian and uses mainly arvicoline rodents (voles) and mice of the genus Apodemus as intermediate hosts. Hydatigera taeniaeformis sensu stricto (s.s.) is restricted to murine rodents (rats and mice) as intermediate hosts. It probably originates from Asia but has spread worldwide. Despite remarkable genetic divergence between H. taeniaeformis s.s. and H. kamiyai, interspecific morphological differences are evident only in dimensions of rostellar hooks. The third cryptic lineage is closely related to H. kamiyai, but its taxonomic status remains unresolved due to limited morphological, molecular, biogeographical and ecological data. This Hydatigera sp. is confined to the Mediterranean and its intermediate hosts are unknown. Further studies are needed to classify Hydatigera sp. either as a distinct species or a variant of H. kamiyai. According to previously published limited data, all three entities occur in the Americas, probably due to human-mediated introductions. (C) 2016 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Wanke, Dominic; Krogmann, Lars; Murillo Ramos, Leidys Del Carmen; Sihvonen, Pasi; Rajaei, Hossein (2021)
    Within Iran, the Zagros Mountains show high biodiversity, with a wealth of endemic species. One of these is the geometrid moth Somatina wiltshirei Prout, 1938, originally described from Iran and Iraq. In the present study, one mitochondrial and up to nine protein-coding nuclear gene regions were used along with a comparative morphological examination to investigate the systematic position of this species. The results support the reclassification of this species as Problepsis wiltshirei comb. nov. Since the original species description is superficial, we provide a re-description supported by rich illustrations of morphological characters and distribution. In addition, Problepsis wiltshirei comb. nov. is reported as a new species for the fauna of Turkey. The importance of the habitat for the conservation of this species is discussed.
  • Varhaug, Kristin N.; Nido, Gonzalo S.; de Coo, Irenaeus; Isohanni, Pirjo; Suomalainen, Anu; Tzoulis, Charalampos; Knappskog, Per; Bindoff, Laurence A. (2020)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if urinary sediment cells offered a robust alternative to muscle biopsy for the diagnosis of single mtDNA deletions. Methods: Eleven adult patients with progressive external ophthalmoplegia and a known single mtDNA deletion were investigated. Urinary sediment cells were used to isolate DNA, which was then subjected to long-range polymerase chain reaction. Where available, the patient's muscle DNA was studied in parallel. Breakpoint and thus deletion size were identified using both Sanger sequencing and next generation sequencing. The level of heteroplasmy was determined using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Results: We identified the deletion in urine in 9 of 11 cases giving a sensitivity of 80%. Breakpoints and deletion size were readily detectable in DNA extracted from urine. Mean heteroplasmy level in urine was 38% +/- 26 (range 8 - 84%), and 57% +/- 28 (range 12 - 94%) in muscle. While the heteroplasmy level in urinary sediment cells differed from that in muscle, we did find a statistically significant correlation between these two levels (R = 0.714, P = 0.031(Pearson correlation)). Interpretation: Our findings suggest that urine can be used to screen patients suspected clinically of having a single mtDNA deletion. Based on our data, the use of urine could considerably reduce the need for muscle biopsy in this patient group.
  • Neuvonen, Anu M.; Putkonen, Mikko Tapani; Oversti, Sanni; Sundell, Tarja; Onkamo, Päivi; Sajantila, Antti; Palo, Jukka U. (2015)
    It has previously been demonstrated that the advance of the Neolithic Revolution from the Near East through Europe was decelerated in the northernmost confines of the continent, possibly as a result of space and resource competition with lingering Mesolithic populations. Finland was among the last domains to adopt a farming lifestyle, and is characterized by substructuring in the form of a distinct genetic border dividing the northeastern and southwestern regions of the country. To explore the origins of this divergence, the geographical patterns of mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups of Neolithic and Mesolithic ancestry were assessed in Finnish populations. The distribution of these uniparental markers revealed a northeastern bias for hunter-gatherer haplogroups, while haplogroups associated with the farming lifestyle clustered in the southwest. In addition, a correlation could be observed between more ancient mitochondrial haplogroup age and eastern concentration. These results coupled with prior archeological evidence suggest the genetic northeast/southwest division observed in contemporary Finland represents an ancient vestigial border between Mesolithic and Neolithic populations undetectable in most other regions of Europe.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Couchoux, Christelle; Hanski, Ilkka; van Nouhuys, Saskya (2015)
    The maternally transmitted bacterium Wolbachia pipientis is well known for spreading and persisting in insect populations through manipulation of the fitness of its host. Here, we identify three new Wolbachia pipientis strains, wHho, wHho2 and wHho3, infecting Hyposoter horticola, a specialist wasp parasitoid of the Glanville fritillary butterfly. The wHho strain (ST435) infects about 50% of the individuals in the Aland islands in Finland, with a different infection rate in the two mitochondrial (COI) haplotypes of the wasp. The vertical transmission rate of Wolbachia is imperfect, and lower in the haplotype with lower infection rate, suggesting a fitness trade-off. We found no association of the wHho infection with fecundity, longevity or dispersal ability of the parasitoid host. However, preliminary results convey spatial associations between Wolbachia infection, host mitochondrial haplotype and parasitism of H. horticola by its hyperparasitoid, Mesochorus cf. stigmaticus. We discuss the possibility that Wolbachia infection protects H. horticola against hyperparasitism.