Browsing by Subject "Microbiota"

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  • Santos-Cortez, R.L.P.; Bhutta, M.F.; Earl, J.P.; Hafrén, Lena; Jennings, M.; Mell, J.C.; Pichichero, M.E.; Ryan, A.F.; Tateossian, Hilda; Ehrlich, G.D. (2020)
    Objective: To review the most recent advances in human and bacterial genomics as applied to pathogenesis and clinical management of otitis media. Data sources: PubMed articles published since the last meeting in June 2015 up to June 2019. Review methods: A panel of experts in human and bacterial genomics of otitis media was formed. Each panel member reviewed the literature in their respective fields and wrote draft reviews. The reviews were shared with all panel members, and a merged draft was created. The panel met at the 20th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2019, discussed the review and refined the content. A final draft was made, circulated, and approved by the panel members. Conclusion: Trans-disciplinary approaches applying pan-omic technologies to identify human susceptibility to otitis media and to understand microbial population dynamics, patho-adaptation and virulence mechanisms are crucial to the development of novel, personalized therapeutics and prevention strategies for otitis media. Implications for practice: In the future otitis media prevention strategies may be augmented by mucosal immunization, combination vaccines targeting multiple pathogens, and modulation of the middle ear microbiome. Both treatment and vaccination may be tailored to an individual's otitis media phenotype as defined by molecular profiles obtained by using rapidly developing techniques in microbial and host genomics. © 2020 Elsevier B.V.
  • Aho, Velma T. E.; Houser, Madelyn C.; Pereira, Pedro A. B.; Chang, Jianjun; Rudi, Knut; Paulin, Lars; Hertzberg, Vicki; Auvinen, Petri; Tansey, Malu G.; Scheperjans, Filip (2021)
    Background Previous studies have reported that gut microbiota, permeability, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and inflammation are altered in Parkinson's disease (PD), but how these factors are linked and how they contribute to disease processes and symptoms remains uncertain. This study sought to compare and identify associations among these factors in PD patients and controls to elucidate their interrelations and links to clinical manifestations of PD. Methods Stool and plasma samples and clinical data were collected from 55 PD patients and 56 controls. Levels of stool SCFAs and stool and plasma inflammatory and permeability markers were compared between patients and controls and related to one another and to the gut microbiota. Results Calprotectin was increased and SCFAs decreased in stool in PD in a sex-dependent manner. Inflammatory markers in plasma and stool were neither intercorrelated nor strongly associated with SCFA levels. Age at PD onset was positively correlated with SCFAs and negatively correlated with CXCL8 and IL-1 beta in stool. Fecal zonulin correlated positively with fecal NGAL and negatively with PD motor and non-motor symptoms. Microbiota diversity and composition were linked to levels of SCFAs, inflammatory factors, and zonulin in stool. Certain relationships differed between patients and controls and by sex. Conclusions Intestinal inflammatory responses and reductions in fecal SCFAs occur in PD, are related to the microbiota and to disease onset, and are not reflected in plasma inflammatory profiles. Some of these relationships are distinct in PD and are sex-dependent. This study revealed potential alterations in microbiota-host interactions and links between earlier PD onset and intestinal inflammatory responses and reduced SCFA levels, highlighting candidate molecules and pathways which may contribute to PD pathogenesis and clinical presentation and which warrant further investigation.
  • Aho, Velma T E; Houser, Madelyn C; Pereira, Pedro A B; Chang, Jianjun; Rudi, Knut; Paulin, Lars; Hertzberg, Vicki; Auvinen, Petri; Tansey, Malú G; Scheperjans, Filip (BioMed Central, 2021)
    Abstract Background Previous studies have reported that gut microbiota, permeability, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and inflammation are altered in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but how these factors are linked and how they contribute to disease processes and symptoms remains uncertain. This study sought to compare and identify associations among these factors in PD patients and controls to elucidate their interrelations and links to clinical manifestations of PD. Methods Stool and plasma samples and clinical data were collected from 55 PD patients and 56 controls. Levels of stool SCFAs and stool and plasma inflammatory and permeability markers were compared between patients and controls and related to one another and to the gut microbiota. Results Calprotectin was increased and SCFAs decreased in stool in PD in a sex-dependent manner. Inflammatory markers in plasma and stool were neither intercorrelated nor strongly associated with SCFA levels. Age at PD onset was positively correlated with SCFAs and negatively correlated with CXCL8 and IL-1β in stool. Fecal zonulin correlated positively with fecal NGAL and negatively with PD motor and non-motor symptoms. Microbiota diversity and composition were linked to levels of SCFAs, inflammatory factors, and zonulin in stool. Certain relationships differed between patients and controls and by sex. Conclusions Intestinal inflammatory responses and reductions in fecal SCFAs occur in PD, are related to the microbiota and to disease onset, and are not reflected in plasma inflammatory profiles. Some of these relationships are distinct in PD and are sex-dependent. This study revealed potential alterations in microbiota-host interactions and links between earlier PD onset and intestinal inflammatory responses and reduced SCFA levels, highlighting candidate molecules and pathways which may contribute to PD pathogenesis and clinical presentation and which warrant further investigation.
  • Ventura, Marco; O'Toole, Paul W.; de Vos, Willem M.; van Sinderen, Douwe (2018)
    The gut microbiota represents a highly complex assembly of microbes, which interact with each other and with their host. These interactions have various implications in terms of health and disease, and this multi-author review issue will address a number of selected aspects pertaining to gut microbiota research.
  • Kock, Kirsti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Akuutti nielutulehdus on kaikkialla maailmassa yleinen infektiotauti, jota aiheuttavat niin virukset kuin bakteeritkin. Tärkein tautia aiheuttava bakteeri on A-tyypin beetahemolyyttinen streptokokki, mutta myös muita antibioottihoitoa vaativia aiheuttajia on. Suun ja nielun alueella tiedetään olevan runsas ja monipuolinen bakteeristo, jonka ajatellaan olevan monimutkaisessa vuorovaikutuksessa sekä keskenään että isäntäelimistön kanssa. Sylkeen on ajateltu kertyvän suun ja nielun eri alueilla ja pinnoilla eläviä bakteereita niin, että syljen bakteeristoa tarkastelemalla saadaan informaatiota eri bakteeripopulaatioiden muodostamasta kokonaisuudesta. Tässä tutkimuksessa analysoitiin akuuttia nielutulehdusta sairastavien potilaiden ja terveiden kontrollihenkilöiden syljen sisältämiä bakteereita. Tavoitteena oli tutkia tonsilliittia sairastavien potilaiden ja terveiden kontrollien syljen bakteerien välisiä eroja sekä selvittää, voiko akuutin nielutulehduksen aiheuttajaa selvittää sylkinäytteestä. Tutkimuksessa käytettiin analyysimenetelmänä virtaussytometriaa, jota on käytetty paljon esimerkiksi hematologian alalla. Lääketieteellisessä mikrobiologiassa sitä on käytetty hyvin niukasti, ja yhtenä tutkimuksen tavoitteista oli selvittää menetelmän soveltuvuutta tälle alalle. Tutkimuksessa havaittiin tonsilliittipotilaiden syljessä olevan merkittävästi enemmän eri streptokokkilajeja kuin terveillä kontrolleilla. Muitakin tutkittuja bakteereita vaikutti esiintyvän tonsilliittipotilailla enemmän kuin kontrollihenkilöillä, mutta löydökset olivat tilastollisesti merkityksettömiä. Koehenkilöiden bakteerimäärissä oli erittäin suurta vaihtelua, mikä voi johtua sekä tutkimusmenetelmän ongelmista että yksilöllisistä eroista ihmisten välillä. Sylkinäytteen bakteereita tutkimalla ei voitu päätellä tonsilliitin aiheuttajabakteeria. Virtaussytometriaan menetelmänä liittyy vielä ongelmia, mutta se on lupaava menetelmä suurten bakteerimäärien laskemiseen ja identifioimiseen.