Browsing by Subject "Mortality"

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  • Ojansuu, Ilkka; Putkonen, Hanna; Tiihonen, Jari (2018)
    Purpose: To analyze the causes of mortality among patients committed to compulsory forensic psychiatric hospital treatment in Finland during 1980-2009 by categorizing the causes of mortality into somatic diseases, suicides and other unnatural deaths.Materials and methods: The causes of mortality were analyzed among 351 patients who died during the follow-up. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) was calculated as the ratio of observed and expected number of deaths by using the subject-years methods with 95% confidence intervals, assuming a Poisson distribution. The expected number of deaths was calculated on the basis of sex-, age- and calendar-period-specific mortality rates for the Finnish population.Results: The vast majority (249/351) of deaths were due to a somatic disease with SMR of 2.6 (mean age at death 61 years). Fifty nine patients committed suicide with a SMR of 7.1 (mean age at death 40 years). Four patients were homicide victims (mean age at death 40 years) and 32 deaths were accidental (mean age at death 52 years). The combined homicides and accidental deaths resulted in a SMR of 1.7.Conclusions: The results of this study point out that the high risk for suicide should receive attention when the hospital treatment and the outpatient care is being organized for forensic psychiatric patients. In addition, the risk of accidents should be evaluated and it should be assured that the patients receive proper somatic healthcare during the forensic psychiatric treatment and that it continues also in the outpatient setting.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Kowalski, Luiz P; Nieminen, Pentti; Coletta, Ricardo D; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Cell-in-cell structures (caused by cell cannibalistic activity) have been related to prognosis of many cancers. This is the first multi-institutional study to assess the prognostic impact of cell-in-cell structures in a large cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC). Methods A total of 308 cases from five Finnish University Hospitals and from the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, São Paulo, Brazil, were included in this study. Cell-in-cell structures were evaluated on surgical postoperative sections that stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results We found that cell-in-cell structures associated with cancer-related mortality in univariable analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.99 (95%CI 1.52–5.88; P = 0.001). This association was confirmed in multivariable analysis (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.12–4.44; P = 0.024). In addition, statistically significant associations were observed between the cell-in-cell structures and other adverse histopathologic characteristics including deep invasion (P <  0.001), high index of tumor budding (P = 0.007), worst pattern of invasion (P <  0.001), perineural invasion (P = 0.01), and stroma-rich pattern (P = 0.001). Conclusions Our findings demonstrate a significant relationship between cell-in-cell formation and aggressive characteristics of early OTSCC. Cell-in-cell structures have a distinct impact as a novel prognostic indicator in early OTSCC and they can be easily assessed during routine pathology practice.
  • Almangush, Alhadi; Mäkitie, Antti A.; Hagström, Jaana; Haglund, Caj; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Nieminen, Pentti; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula; Leivo, Ilmo (2020)
    BackgroundCell-in-cell structures (caused by cell cannibalistic activity) have been related to prognosis of many cancers. This is the first multi-institutional study to assess the prognostic impact of cell-in-cell structures in a large cohort of early oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC).MethodsA total of 308 cases from five Finnish University Hospitals and from the A.C. Camargo Cancer Center, SAo Paulo, Brazil, were included in this study. Cell-in-cell structures were evaluated on surgical postoperative sections that stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining.ResultsWe found that cell-in-cell structures associated with cancer-related mortality in univariable analysis with a hazard ratio (HR) of 2.99 (95%CI 1.52-5.88; P=0.001). This association was confirmed in multivariable analysis (HR 2.22, 95%CI 1.12-4.44; P=0.024). In addition, statistically significant associations were observed between the cell-in-cell structures and other adverse histopathologic characteristics including deep invasion (P<0.001), high index of tumor budding (P=0.007), worst pattern of invasion (P<0.001), perineural invasion (P=0.01), and stroma-rich pattern (P=0.001).ConclusionsOur findings demonstrate a significant relationship between cell-in-cell formation and aggressive characteristics of early OTSCC. Cell-in-cell structures have a distinct impact as a novel prognostic indicator in early OTSCC and they can be easily assessed during routine pathology practice.
  • Suulamo, Ulla; Tarkiainen, Lasse; Remes, Hanna; Martikainen, Pekka (2021)
    Existing evidence suggests that within-country area variation in mortality has increased in several high-income countries. Little is known about the role of changes in the population composition of areas in these trends. In this study, we look at mortality variation across Finnish municipalities over five decades. We examine trends by sex, age categories and two broad cause of death groups and assess the role of individual-level compositional factors. Analyses rely on individual-level register data on the total Finnish population aged 30 years and over. We estimated two-level Weibull survival-models with individuals nested in areas for 10 periods between 1972 and 2018 to assess municipal-level variation in mortality. Median hazard ratio (MHR) was used as our summary measure and analyses were adjusted for age and socioeconomic characteristics. The results show a clear overall growth in area variation in mortality with MHR increasing from 1.14 (95% CI 1.12–1.15) to 1.28 (CI 1.26–1.30) among men and 1.17 (CI 1.15–1.18) to 1.30 (CI 1.27–1.32) among women. This growth, however, was fully attenuated by adjustment for age. Area differentials were largest and increased most among men at ages 30–49, and particularly for external causes. This increase was largely due to increasing differentiation in the socioeconomic composition of municipalities. In conclusion, our study shows increases in mortality differentials across municipalities that are mostly attributable to increasing differentiation between municipalities in terms of individual compositional factors.
  • Jäntti, Toni; Segersvärd, Heli; Tolppanen, Heli; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Devaux, Yvan; Vausort, Melanie; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Bayes-Genis, Antoni; Tikkanen, Ilkka; Lakkisto, Päivi; Harjola, Veli-Pekka (2019)
    Aims The role of microRNAs has not been studied in cardiogenic shock. We examined the potential role of miR-423-5p level to predict mortality and associations of miR-423-5p with prognostic markers in cardiogenic shock. Methods and results We conducted a prospective multinational observational study enrolling consecutive cardiogenic shock patients. Blood samples were available for 179 patients at baseline to determine levels of miR-423-5p and other biomarkers. Patients were treated according to local practice. Main outcome was 90 day all-cause mortality. Median miR-423-5p level was significantly higher in 90 day non-survivors [median 0.008 arbitrary units (AU) (interquartile range 0.003-0.017) vs. 0.004 AU (0.002-0.009), P = 0.003]. miR-423-5p level above median was associated with higher lactate (median 3.7 vs. 2.4 mmol/L, P = 0.001) and alanine aminotransferase levels (median 68 vs. 35 IU/L, P <0.001) as well as lower cardiac index (1.8 vs. 2.4, P = 0.04) and estimated glomerular filtration rate (56 vs. 70 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P = 0.002). In Cox regression analysis, miR-423-5p level above median was associated with 90 day all-cause mortality independently of established risk factors of cardiogenic shock [adjusted hazard ratio 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.2-3.2), P = 0.01]. Conclusions In cardiogenic shock patients, above median level of miR-423-5p at baseline is associated with markers of hypoperfusion and seems to independently predict 90 day all-cause mortality.
  • Satopaa, Jarno; Mustanoja, Satu; Meretoja, Atte; Putaala, Jukka; Kaste, Markku; Niemela, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Strbian, Daniel (2017)
    Background and aims: We evaluated the accuracy of 19 published prognostic scores to find the best tool for predicting mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Methods: A retrospective single-center analysis of consecutive patients with ICH (n = 1013). After excluding patients with missing data (n = 131), we analyzed 882 patients for 3-month (primary outcome), in-hospital, and 12-month mortality. We analyzed the strength of the individual score components and calculated the c-statistics, Youden index, sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive value (NPV and PPV) for the scores. Finally, we included every score component in a multivariable model to analyze the maximum predictive value of the data elements combined. Results: Observed in-hospital mortality was 23.6%, 3-month mortality was 31.0%, and 12-month mortality was 35.3%. For in-hospital mortality, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) performed equally good as the best score for the other outcomes, the ICH Functional Outcome Score (ICH-FOS). The c-statistics of the scores varied from 0.6293 (95% CI 0.587-0.672) to 0.8802 (0.855-0.906). With all variables from all the scores in a multivariable regression model, the c-statistics did not improve, being 0.89 (0.867-0.913). Using the Youden index cutoff for the ICH-FOS score, the sensitivity (73%), specificity (90%), PPV (76%), and NPV (88%) for the primary outcome were good. Conclusions: A plethora of scores exists to help clinicians estimate the prognosis of an acute ICH patient. The NIHSS can be used to quantify the risk of in-hospital death while the ICH-FOS performed best for the other outcomes. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Wickstrom, Jan-Erik; Jalkanen, Juho M.; Venermo, Maarit; Hakovirta, Harri H. (2017)
    Background and aims: Limited data exist on the association of the anatomical distribution of atherosclerotic lesions and the extent of atherosclerosis at defined arterial segments with life expectancy. We recently presented a new classification of the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels and showed that Crural Index (CIx) was associated with mid-term survival of symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients. This study evaluates the significance of the extent of crural atherosclerosis on long-term cardiovascular mortality. Methods: 887 consecutive patients with PAD, admitted for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) at Turku University Hospital Department of Vascular Surgery (Turku, Finland) between January 1st, 2009 and July 30th, 2011, were retrospectively analysed. Each crural angiographic image was graded according to CIx criteria. Aorto-iliac and femoro-popliteal arterial segments were similarly graded according to modified TASC II criteria. CIx was used as the categorical variable for the extent of atherosclerosis in crural vessels for survival analysis. Survival was also evaluated with respect to which arterial segment was most severely affected. Causes of death were provided by the Cause of Death Registry of Statistics Finland, updated on January 23rd, 2017. Results: Altogether, 408 (46%) patients died during follow-up. The majority of deaths were due to cardiovascular causes (n = 246, 60%). Cardiovascular mortality was strongly associated with a high CIx (CIx III (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.16, Confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.23-3.80, p = 0.007)) and CIx IV (HR 3.513, 95% CI 1.93-4.565, p <0.001), as compared to CIx 0. In patients having the crural segment as the most severely affected arterial segment, cardiovascular mortality was significantly increased (HR 2.321, 95% CI 1.45-3.73, p <0.001), as was overall mortality (HR 2.177, 95% CI 1.53-3.10, p <0.001). Conclusions: High Crural Index and extensive crural vessel atherosclerosis are associated with long-term cardiovascular mortality, and both may serve as useful indicators of survival among patients with symptomatic PAD. (c) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Varpula, Marjut; Sionis, Alessandro; Sund, Reijo; Kober, Lars; Spinar, Jindrich; Parissis, John; Banaszewski, Marek; Cardoso, Jose Silva; Carubelli, Valentina; Di Somma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; CardShock Study Investigators (2016)
    Background: Vasopressors and inotropes remain a cornerstone in stabilization of the severely impaired hemodynamics and cardiac output in cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study was to analyze current real-life use of these medications, and their impact on outcome and on changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time in CS. Methods: The multinational CardShock study prospectively enrolled 219 patients with CS. The use of vasopressors and inotropes was analyzed in relation to the primary outcome, i.e., 90-day mortality, with propensity score methods in 216 patients with follow-up data available. Changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time until 96 hours from baseline were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. Results: Patients were 67 (SD 12) years old, 26 % were women, and 28 % had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest prior to inclusion. On average, systolic blood pressure was 78 (14) and mean arterial pressure 57 (11) mmHg at detection of shock. 90-day mortality was 41 %. Vasopressors and/or inotropes were administered to 94 % of patients and initiated principally within the first 24 hours. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were given to 75 % and 21 % of patients, and 30 % received several vasopressors. In multivariable logistic regression, only adrenaline (21 %) was independently associated with increased 90-day mortality (OR 5.2, 95 % CI 1.88, 14.7, p = 0.002). The result was independent of prior cardiac arrest (39 % of patients treated with adrenaline), and the association remained in propensity-score-adjusted analysis among vasopressor-treated patients (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3, 7.2, p = 0.013); this was further confirmed by propensity-score-matched analysis. Adrenaline was also associated, independent of prior cardiac arrest, with marked worsening of cardiac and renal biomarkers during the first days. Dobutamine and levosimendan were the most commonly used inotropes (49 % and 24 %). There were no differences in mortality, whether noradrenaline was combined with dobutamine or levosimendan. Conclusion: Among vasopressors and inotropes, adrenaline was independently associated with 90-day mortality in CS. Moreover, adrenaline use was associated with marked worsening in cardiac and renal biomarkers. The combined use of noradrenaline with either dobutamine or levosimendan appeared prognostically similar.
  • Penttilä, Tero; Lehto, Mika; Niiranen, Jussi; Mehtälä, Juha; Khanfir, Houssem; Lassila, Riitta; Raatikainen, Pekka (2019)
    Females with atrial fibrillation (AF) have been suggested to carry a higher risk for thromboembolic events than males. We compared the residual risk of stroke, bleeding events, and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Data from several nationwide registries and laboratory databases were linked with the civil registration number of the patients. A total of 54568 patients with data on the quality of warfarin treatment (time in therapeutic range) 60days prior to the events were included (TTR60). Gender differences in the endpoints were reported for the whole population, pre-specified age groups, and different TTR60 groups. During the 3.21.6years follow-up, there were no differences in the adjusted risk of stroke [hazard ratio (HR) 0.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.911.03, P=0.304] between the genders. Cardiovascular mortality (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0.780.88, P <0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.750.83, P <0.001) were lower in women when compared with men. There were no differences in the risk of stroke, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the genders in the TTR60 categories except for those with TTR60 <50%. Bleeding events were less frequent in females (HR 0.52, 95% CI 0.490.56, P <0.001). There were no differences in the risk of stroke between female and male AF patients taking warfarin. Cardiovascular mortality, all-cause mortality, and risk of bleeding events were lower in females. Hence, female gender was not a risk marker for adverse outcomes in AF patients with proper warfarin therapy.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Jukarainen, Sakari; Eck, Ruben J.; Kaufmann, Thomas; Koeze, Jacqueline; Keus, Frederik; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Vaara, Suvi T. (2020)
    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in critically ill patients. Various randomized controlled trials (RCT) have attempted to assess potentially beneficial treatments for AKI. Different approaches to applying the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for AKI make a comparison of studies difficult. The objective of this study was to assess how different approaches may impact estimates of AKI incidence and whether the association between AKI and 90-day mortality varied by the approach used. Methods Consecutive acutely admitted adult intensive care patients were included in a prospective observational study. AKI was determined following the KDIGO criteria during the first 7 days of ICU admission. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed whether AKI incidence differed when applying the KDIGO criteria in 30 different possible methods, varying in (A) serum creatinine (sCr), (B) urine output (UO), and (C) the method of combining these two into an outcome, e.g., severe AKI. We assessed point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each incidence. Univariable regression was used to assess the associations between AKI and 90-day mortality. Results A total of 1010 patients were included. Baseline creatinine was available in 449 (44%) patients. The incidence of any AKI ranged from 28% (95%CI 25-31%) to 75% (95%CI 72-77%) depending on the approach used. Methods to estimate missing baseline sCr caused a variation in AKI incidence up to 15%. Different methods of handling UO caused a variation of up to 35%. At 90 days, 263 patients (26%) had died, and all 30 variations were associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients, AKI incidence varied from 28 to 75%, depending on the method used of applying the KDIGO criteria. A tighter adherence to KDIGO definitions is warranted to decrease the heterogeneity of AKI and increase the comparability of future studies.
  • Wiersema, Renske; Jukarainen, Sakari; Eck, Ruben J; Kaufmann, Thomas; Koeze, Jacqueline; Keus, Frederik; Pettilä, Ville; van der Horst, Iwan C C; Vaara, Suvi T (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent and clinically relevant problem in critically ill patients. Various randomized controlled trials (RCT) have attempted to assess potentially beneficial treatments for AKI. Different approaches to applying the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria for AKI make a comparison of studies difficult. The objective of this study was to assess how different approaches may impact estimates of AKI incidence and whether the association between AKI and 90-day mortality varied by the approach used. Methods Consecutive acutely admitted adult intensive care patients were included in a prospective observational study. AKI was determined following the KDIGO criteria during the first 7 days of ICU admission. In this post hoc analysis, we assessed whether AKI incidence differed when applying the KDIGO criteria in 30 different possible methods, varying in (A) serum creatinine (sCr), (B) urine output (UO), and (C) the method of combining these two into an outcome, e.g., severe AKI. We assessed point estimates and 95% confidence intervals for each incidence. Univariable regression was used to assess the associations between AKI and 90-day mortality. Results A total of 1010 patients were included. Baseline creatinine was available in 449 (44%) patients. The incidence of any AKI ranged from 28% (95%CI 25–31%) to 75% (95%CI 72–77%) depending on the approach used. Methods to estimate missing baseline sCr caused a variation in AKI incidence up to 15%. Different methods of handling UO caused a variation of up to 35%. At 90 days, 263 patients (26%) had died, and all 30 variations were associated with 90-day mortality. Conclusions In this cohort of critically ill patients, AKI incidence varied from 28 to 75%, depending on the method used of applying the KDIGO criteria. A tighter adherence to KDIGO definitions is warranted to decrease the heterogeneity of AKI and increase the comparability of future studies.
  • Hoffmann, Rasmus; Kröger, Hannes; Tarkiainen, Lasse Hannes; Martikainen, Pekka Tapani (2019)
    Differences in mortality between groups with different socioeconomic positions (SEP) are well-established, but the relative contribution of different SEP measures is unclear. This study compares the correlation between three SEP dimensions and mortality, and investigates differences between gender and age groups (35-59 vs. 60-84). We use an 11% random sample with an 80% oversample of deaths from the Finnish population with information on education, occupational class, individual income, and mortality (n=496,658; 274,316 deaths between 1995 and 2007). We estimate bivariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard models and population attributable fractions. The total effects of education are substantially mediated by occupation and income, and the effects of occupation is mediated by income. All dimensions have their own net effect on mortality, but income shows the steepest mortality gradient (HR 1.78, lowest vs. highest quintile). Income is more important for men and occupational class more important among elderly women. Mortality inequalities are generally smaller in older ages, but the relative importance of income increases. In health inequality studies, the use of only one SEP indicator functions well as a broad marker of SEP. However, only analyses of multiple dimensions allow insights into social mechanisms and how they differ between population subgroups.
  • Raj, Rahul; Seppä, Karri; Luostarinen, Tapio; Malila, Nea; Seppälä, Matti; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Korja, Miikka (2020)
    Introduction High hospital case volumes are associated with improved treatment outcomes for numerous diseases. We assessed the association between academic non-profit hospital case volume and survival of adult glioblastoma patients. Methods From the nationwide Finnish Cancer Registry, we identified all adult (>= 18 years) patients with histopathological diagnoses of glioblastoma from 2000 to 2013. Five university hospitals (treating all glioblastoma patients in Finland) were classified as high-volume (one hospital), middle-volume (one hospital), and low-volume (three hospitals) based on their annual numbers of cases. We estimated one-year survival rates, estimated median overall survival times, and compared relative excess risk (RER) of death between high, middle, and low-volume hospitals. Results A total of 2,045 patients were included. The mean numbers of annually treated patients were 54, 40, and 17 in the high, middle, and low-volume hospitals, respectively. One-year survival rates and median survival times were higher and longer in the high-volume (39%, 9.3 months) and medium-volume (38%, 8.9 months) hospitals than in the low-volume (32%, 7.8 months) hospitals. RER of death was higher in the low-volume hospitals than in the high-volume hospital (RER = 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32, p = 0.002). There was no difference in RER of death between the high-volume and medium-volume hospitals (p = 0.690). Conclusion Higher glioblastoma case volumes were associated with improved survival. Future studies should assess whether this association is due to differences in patient-specific factors or treatment quality.
  • Rautio, Nina; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Nordström, Tanja; Isohanni, Matti; Seppälä, Jussi (2017)
    Background: We examined mortality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and non-schizophrenic psychosis (NSSD) compared to individuals without psychosis, and whether perinatal factors predict mortality. Methods: Within Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10 933; 203 with SSD, 178 with NSSD), mortality was followed until end of 2011 by national register. Wantedness of pregnancy, mother's antenatal depression, smoking and age, parity, paternal socio-economic status (SES) and family type at birth were examined as predictors of mortality. Results: Mortality was higher in SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 3.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-5.45) and NSSD (4.05; 2.65-6.17) compared to persons without psychoses after adjustment for gender. HR for natural death was 2.01 (0.82-4.91) in SSD and 4.63 (2.43-8.80) in NSSD after adjustment for gender. Corresponding figures for unnatural deaths were 4.71 (2.94-7.54) and 2.94 (1.56-5.55), respectively. Among non-psychotic persons, mother's depression, smoking and low SES predicted mortality after adjustment for gender and parental psychoses (and SES), whereas among psychosis those whose father was a farmer had lower risk of mortality compared to those with high SES. Conclusions: Individuals with SSD had a higher risk of unnatural death and individuals with NSSD of natural and unnatural deaths. Perinatal factors seem to be more important predictors of mortality in individuals without psychoses than with psychoses. According to population-based long follow-up data, it is important to pay attention to somatic morbidity behind natural causes of death in psychoses and to prevent suicides in order to prevent excess mortality. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Föhr, Tiina; Waller, Katja; Viljanen, Anne; Sanchez, Riikka; Ollikainen, Miina; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Background Epigenetic clocks are based on DNA methylation (DNAm). It has been suggested that these clocks are useable markers of biological aging and premature mortality. Because genetic factors explain variations in both epigenetic aging and mortality, this association could also be explained by shared genetic factors. We investigated the influence of genetic and lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, chronic diseases, body mass index) and education on the association of accelerated epigenetic aging with mortality using a longitudinal twin design. Utilizing a publicly available online tool, we calculated the epigenetic age using two epigenetic clocks, Horvath DNAmAge and DNAm GrimAge, in 413 Finnish twin sisters, aged 63-76 years, at the beginning of the 18-year mortality follow-up. Epigenetic age acceleration was calculated as the residuals from a linear regression model of epigenetic age estimated on chronological age (AA(Horvath), AA(GrimAge), respectively). Cox proportional hazard models were conducted for individuals and twin pairs. Results The results of the individual-based analyses showed an increased mortality hazard ratio (HR) of 1.31 (CI95: 1.13-1.53) per one standard deviation (SD) increase in AA(GrimAge). The results indicated no significant associations of AA(Horvath) with mortality. Pairwise mortality analyses showed an HR of 1.50 (CI95: 1.02-2.20) per 1 SD increase in AA(GrimAge). However, after adjusting for smoking, the HR attenuated substantially and was statistically non-significant (1.29; CI95: 0.84-1.99). Similarly, in multivariable adjusted models the HR (1.42-1.49) was non-significant. In AA(Horvath), the non-significant HRs were lower among monozygotic pairs in comparison to dizygotic pairs, while in AA(GrimAge) there were no systematic differences by zygosity. Further, the pairwise analysis in quartiles showed that the increased within pair difference in AA(GrimAge) was associated with a higher all-cause mortality risk. Conclusions In conclusion, the findings suggest that DNAm GrimAge is a strong predictor of mortality independent of genetic influences. Smoking, which is known to alter DNAm levels and is built into the DNAm GrimAge algorithm, attenuated the association between epigenetic aging and mortality risk.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Satopää, Jarno; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Curtze, Sami; Sibolt, Gerli; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Raj, Rahul (2020)
    Background The benefits of early surgery in cases of superficial supratentorial spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are unclear. This study aimed to assess the association between early ICH surgery and outcome, as well as the cost-effectiveness of early ICH surgery. Methods We conducted a retrospective, register-based multicenter study that included all patients who had been treated for supratentorial spontaneous ICH in four tertiary intensive care units in Finland between 2003 and 2013. To be included, patients needed to have experienced supratentorial ICHs that were 10-100 cm(3)and located within 10 mm of the cortex. We used a multivariable analysis, adjusting for the severity of the illness and the probability of surgical treatment, to assess the independent association between early ICH surgery (
  • Leinsalu, M.; Baburin, A.; Jasilionis, D.; Krumins, J.; Martikainen, P.; Stickley, A. (2020)
    We examined urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in the context of macroeconomic changes. Educational inequalities among 30-74 year olds were examined in 2000-2003, 2004-2007, 2008-2011 and 2012-2015 using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardized mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall mortality rates were larger in rural areas except among Finnish women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality were often larger in urban areas among men but in rural areas among women. Absolute inequalities were mostly larger in rural areas excepting Finnish men. Between 2000-2003 and 2012-2015 relative inequalities increased in most countries while absolute inequalities decreased except in Lithuania. In the Baltic countries the changes in both relative and absolute inequalities tended to be more favorable in urban areas; in Finland they were more favorable in rural areas. The overall pattern changed during the reccessionary period from 2004-2007 to 2008-2011 when relative inequalities often diminished or the increase slowed, while the decrease in absolute inequalities accelerated with larger improvements observed in urban areas. Despite substantial progress in reducing overall mortality rates in both urban and rural areas in all countries, low educated men and women in rural areas in the Baltic countries are becoming increasingly disadvantaged in terms of mortality reduction.
  • Leinsalu, M.; Baburin, A.; Jasilionis, D.; Krumins, J.; Martikainen, P.; Stickley, A. (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract We examined urban-rural differences in educational inequalities in mortality in the Baltic countries (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Finland in the context of macroeconomic changes. Educational inequalities among 30–74 year olds were examined in 2000–2003, 2004–2007, 2008–2011 and 2012–2015 using census-linked longitudinal mortality data. We estimated age-standardized mortality rates and the relative and slope index of inequality. Overall mortality rates were larger in rural areas except among Finnish women. Relative educational inequalities in mortality were often larger in urban areas among men but in rural areas among women. Absolute inequalities were mostly larger in rural areas excepting Finnish men. Between 2000–2003 and 2012–2015 relative inequalities increased in most countries while absolute inequalities decreased except in Lithuania. In the Baltic countries the changes in both relative and absolute inequalities tended to be more favorable in urban areas; in Finland they were more favorable in rural areas. The overall pattern changed during the reccessionary period from 2004–2007 to 2008–2011 when relative inequalities often diminished or the increase slowed, while the decrease in absolute inequalities accelerated with larger improvements observed in urban areas. Despite substantial progress in reducing overall mortality rates in both urban and rural areas in all countries, low educated men and women in rural areas in the Baltic countries are becoming increasingly disadvantaged in terms of mortality reduction.
  • Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Lanki, Timo (2016)
    Introduction: Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. Objective: We examined association between short-term exposure to long-range transported PM2.5 from vegetation fires and daily mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and daily hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Methods: Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between daily PM2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for daily temperature and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. Results: On smoke-affected days, 10 mu g/m(3) increase in PM2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (>= 65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM2.5 was generally not associated with the health outcomes, apart from suggestive small positive effects on non-accidental mortality at a lag of one day among the elderly and hospital admissions due to all respiratory causes following same-day exposure among the total population. Conclusions: Our research provides suggestive evidence for an association of exposure to long-range transported PM2.5 from vegetation fires with increased cardiovascular mortality, and to a lesser extent with increased hospital admissions due to respiratory causes. Hence, vegetation-fire originated air pollution may have adverse effects on public health over a distance of hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the fires. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Davies, Douglas J. (Helsinki Collegium for Advanced Studies, 2015)
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