Browsing by Subject "NERVOUS-SYSTEM"

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  • Mall, Moritz; Kareta, Michael S.; Chanda, Soham; Ahlenius, Henrik; Perotti, Nicholas; Zhou, Bo; Grieder, Sarah D.; Ge, Xuecai; Drake, Sienna; Ang, Cheen Euong; Walker, Brandon M.; Vierbuchen, Thomas; Fuentes, Daniel R.; Brennecke, Philip; Nitta, Kazuhiro R.; Jolma, Arttu; Steinmetz, Lars M.; Taipale, Jussi; Sudhof, Thomas C.; Wernig, Marius (2017)
    Normal differentiation and induced reprogramming require the activation of target cell programs and silencing of donor cell programs(1,2). In reprogramming, the same factors are often used to reprogram many different donor cell types3. As most developmental repressors, such as RE1-silencing transcription factor (REST) and Groucho (also known as TLE), are considered lineage-specific repressors(4,5), it remains unclear how identical combinations of transcription factors can silence so many different donor programs. Distinct lineage repressors would have to be induced in different donor cell types. Here, by studying the reprogramming of mouse fibroblasts to neurons, we found that the pan neuron-specific transcription factor Myt1-like (Myt1l)(6) exerts its pro-neuronal function by direct repression of many different somatic lineage programs except the neuronal program. The repressive function of Myt1l is mediated via recruitment of a complex containing Sin3b by binding to a previously uncharacterized N-terminal domain. In agreement with its repressive function, the genomic binding sites of Myt1l are similar in neurons and fibroblasts and are preferentially in an open chromatin configuration. The Notch signalling pathway is repressed by Myt1l through silencing of several members, including Hes1. Acute knockdown of Myt1l in the developing mouse brain mimicked a Notch gain-of-function phenotype, suggesting that Myt1l allows newborn neurons to escape Notch activation during normal development. Depletion of Myt1l in primary postmitotic neurons de-repressed non-neuronal programs and impaired neuronal gene expression and function, indicating that many somatic lineage programs are actively and persistently repressed by Myt1l to maintain neuronal identity. It is now tempting to speculate that similar 'many-but-one' lineage repressors exist for other cell fates; such repressors, in combination with lineage-specific activators, would be prime candidates for use in reprogramming additional cell types.
  • Parmentier, Regis; Zhao, Yan; Perier, Magali; Akaoka, Hideo; Lintunen, Minnamaija; Hou, Yiping; Panula, Pertti; Watanabe, Takeshi; Franco, Patricia; Lin, Jian-Sheng (2016)
    Using knockout (KO) mice lacking the histamine (HA)-synthesizing enzyme (histidine decarboxylase, HDC), we have previously shown the importance of histaminergic neurons in maintaining wakefulness (W) under behavioral challenges. Since the central actions of HA are mediated by several receptor subtypes, it remains to be determined which one(s) could be responsible for such a role. We have therefore compared the cortical-EEG, sleep and W under baseline conditions or behavioral/pharmacological stimuli in littermate wild-type (WT) and H1-receptor KO (H1-/-) mice. We found that H1-/- mice shared several characteristics with HDC KO mice, i.e. 1) a decrease in W after lights-off despite its normal baseline daily amount; 2) a decreased EEG slow wave sleep (SWS)/W power ratio; 3) inability to maintain W in response to behavioral challenges demonstrated by a decreased sleep latency when facing various stimuli. These effects were mediated by central H1-receptors. Indeed, in WT mice, injection of triprolidine, a brain-penetrating H1-receptor antagonist increased SWS, whereas ciproxifan (H3-receptor antagonist/inverse agonist) elicited W; all these injections had no effect in H1-/- mice. Finally, H1-/- mice showed markedly greater changes in EEG power (notably in the 0.8-5 Hz band) and sleep-wake cycle than in WT mice after application of a cholinergic antagonist or an indirect agonist, i.e., scopolamine or physostigmine. Hence, the role of HA in wake-promotion is largely ensured by H1-receptors. An upregulated cholinergic system may account for a quasi-normal daily amount of W in HDC or H1-receptor KO mice and likely constitutes a major compensatory mechanism when the brain is facing deficiency of an activating system. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'Histamine Receptors'. Copyright (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Fisher, Miranda L.; Loukola, Anu; Kaprio, Jaakko; Turner, Jill R. (ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2015)
    International Review of Neurobiology
    Smoking is currently the leading cause of preventable death in the United States and is responsible for over four million deaths annually worldwide. Therefore, there is a vast clinical unmet need with regards to therapeutics targeting smoking cessation. This is even more apparent when examining smokers co-morbid with psychiatric illness, as rates of smoking in this population are similar to 4 x higher than in the general population. Examining common genetic and molecular signaling pathways impinging upon both smoking behavior and psychiatric illness will lead to a better understanding of co-morbid disorders and potential development of novel therapeutics. Studies have implicated the Neuregulin Signaling Pathway in the pathophysiology of a number of psychiatric illnesses. Additionally, recent studies have also shown an association between the Neuregulin Signaling Pathway and smoking behaviors. This review outlines basic mechanisms of the Neuregulin Signaling Pathway and how it may be exploited for precision medicine approaches in treating nicotine dependence and mental illness.
  • Pentinmikko, Nalle; Katajisto, Pekka (2020)
    Like most tissues, intestine shows multiple alterations during aging. While the main function of nutrient absorption is relatively well maintained, capacity of the intestine to respond to abrupt changes or damage declines with age. The reduction in renewal and regeneration capacity results from alterations in the stem cells that renew the epithelium, and in the complex interactions stem cells have with their microenvironment, or the Niche. This review highlights recent evidence on age-associated changes in the intestinal stem cell function, and focuses on stem cell extrinsic mechanisms. Strategies targeting niche interactions have already shown promise in alleviating problems associated with intestinal aging in animal models, and may provide means to protect the elderly for example from chemotherapy induced gastrointestinal side-effects.
  • Zaproudina, Nina; Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E.; Lipponen, Jukka A.; Vierola, Anu; Rissanen, Saara M.; Karjalainen, Pasi A.; Soinila, Seppo; Närhi, Matti (2018)
    Prevalence of masticatory parafunctions, such as tooth clenching and grinding, is higher among migraineurs than non-migraineurs, and masticatory dysfunctions may aggravate migraine. Migraine predisposes to cerebrovascular disturbances, possibly due to impaired autonomic vasoregulation, and sensitization of the trigeminovascular system. The relationships between clenching, migraine, and cerebral circulation are poorly understood. We used Near-Infrared Spectroscopy to investigate bilateral relative oxy- (%Δ[O2Hb]), deoxy- (%Δ[HHb]), and total (%Δ[tHb]) hemoglobin concentration changes in prefrontal cortex induced by maximal tooth clenching in twelve headache-free migraineurs and fourteen control subjects. From the start of the test, migraineurs showed a greater relative increase in right-side %Δ[HHb] than controls, who showed varying reactions, and right-side increase in %Δ[tHb] was also greater in migraineurs (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively, time-group interactions, Linear mixed models). With multivariate regression model, migraine predicted the magnitude of maximal blood pressure increases, associated in migraineurs with mood scores and an intensity of both headache and painful signs of temporomandibular disorders (pTMD). Although changes in circulatory parameters predicted maximal NIRS responses, the between-group differences in the right-side NIRS findings remained significant after adjusting them for systolic blood pressure and heart rate. A family history of migraine, reported by all migraineurs and four controls, also predicted maximal increases in both %Δ[HHb] and %Δ[tHb]. Presence of pTMD, revealed in clinical oral examination in eight migraineurs and eight controls, was related to maximal %Δ[HHb] increase only in controls. To conclude, the greater prefrontal right-side increases in cerebral %Δ[HHb] and %Δ[tHb] may reflect disturbance of the tooth clenching-related cerebral (de)oxygenation based on impaired reactivity and abnormal microcirculation processes in migraineurs. This finding may have an impact in migraine pathophysiology and help to explain the deleterious effect of masticatory dysfunctions in migraine patients. However, the role of tooth clenching as a migraine trigger calls for further studies.