Browsing by Subject "NOISE"

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  • Kaasalainen, Touko; Mäkelä, Teemu; Kortesniemi, Mika (2019)
    Purpose: To determine the effect of patient's vertical off-centering and scout direction on the function of automatic tube voltage selection (ATVS) and tube current modulation (TCM) in chest computed tomography (CT). Methods: Chest phantom was scanned with Siemens and GE CT systems using three clinical chest CT protocols exploiting ATVS and a fixed 120 kVp chest protocol. The scans were performed at five vertical positions of the phantom (- 6 to + 6 cm from the scanner isocenter). The effects of scout direction (posterior-to-anterior, anterior-to-posterior, and lateral) and vertical off-centering on the function of ATVS and TCM were studied by examining changes in selected voltage, radiation dose (volume CT dose index, CTDIvol), and image noise and contrast. Results: Both scout direction and vertical off-centering affected ATVS. The effect differed between the vendors for the studied geometry, demonstrating differences in technical approaches. The greatest observed increase in CTDI vot due to off-centering was 91%. Anterior-to-posterior scout produced highest doses at the uppermost table position, whereas posterior-to-anterior scout produced highest doses at the lowermost table position. Dose varied least using lateral scouts. Vertical off-centering impacted image noise and contrast due to the combined effect of ATVS, TCM, structural noise, and bowtie fillers. Conclusions: Patient vertical off-centering and scout direction affected substantially the CTDI vot and image quality in chest CT examinations. Vertical off-centering caused variation also in the selected tube voltage. The function of ATVS and TCM methods differ significantly between the CT vendors, resulting in differences in CTDIvol and image noise characteristics.
  • Saarinen, Aino; Lieslehto, Johannes; Kiviniemi, Vesa; Tuovinen, Timo; Veijola, Juha; Hintsanen, Mirka (2020)
    Previously, schizophrenia is found to be related to the variability of the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in the white matter. However, evidence about the relationship between genetic vulnerabilities and physiological fluctuation in the brain is lacking. We investigated whether familial risk for psychosis (FR) and polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS) are linked with physiological fluctuation in fMRI data. We used data from the Oulu Brain and Mind study (n. = 140-149, aged 20-24 years) that is a substudy of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. The participants underwent a resting-state fMRI scan. Coefficient of variation (CV) of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal (CVBOLD) was used as a proxy of physiological fluctuation in the brain. Familial risk was defined to be present if at least one parent had been diagnosed with psychosis previously. PRS was computed based on the results of the prior GWAS by the Schizophrenia Working Group. FR or PRS were not associated with CVBOLD in cerebrospinal fluid, white matter, or grey matter. The findings did not provide evidence for the previous suggestions that genetic vulnerabilities for schizophrenia become apparent in alterations of the variation of the BOLD signal in the brain.
  • Zhou, Yanli; Acerbi, Luigi; Ma, Wei Ji (2020)
    Perceptual organization is the process of grouping scene elements into whole entities. A classic example is contour integration, in which separate line segments are perceived as continuous contours. Uncertainty in such grouping arises from scene ambiguity and sensory noise. Some classic Gestalt principles of contour integration, and more broadly, of perceptual organization, have been re-framed in terms of Bayesian inference, whereby the observer computes the probability that the whole entity is present. Previous studies that proposed a Bayesian interpretation of perceptual organization, however, have ignored sensory uncertainty, despite the fact that accounting for the current level of perceptual uncertainty is one the main signatures of Bayesian decision making. Crucially, trial-by-trial manipulation of sensory uncertainty is a key test to whether humans perform near-optimal Bayesian inference in contour integration, as opposed to using some manifestly non-Bayesian heuristic. We distinguish between these hypotheses in a simplified form of contour integration, namely judging whether two line segments separated by an occluder are collinear. We manipulate sensory uncertainty by varying retinal eccentricity. A Bayes-optimal observer would take the level of sensory uncertainty into account-in a very specific way-in deciding whether a measured offset between the line segments is due to non-collinearity or to sensory noise. We find that people deviate slightly but systematically from Bayesian optimality, while still performing "probabilistic computation" in the sense that they take into account sensory uncertainty via a heuristic rule. Our work contributes to an understanding of the role of sensory uncertainty in higher-order perception. Author summary Our percept of the world is governed not only by the sensory information we have access to, but also by the way we interpret this information. When presented with a visual scene, our visual system undergoes a process of grouping visual elements together to form coherent entities so that we can interpret the scene more readily and meaningfully. For example, when looking at a pile of autumn leaves, one can still perceive and identify a whole leaf even when it is partially covered by another leaf. While Gestalt psychologists have long described perceptual organization with a set of qualitative laws, recent studies offered a statistically-optimal-Bayesian, in statistical jargon-interpretation of this process, whereby the observer chooses the scene configuration with the highest probability given the available sensory inputs. However, these studies drew their conclusions without considering a key actor in this kind of statistically-optimal computations, that is the role of sensory uncertainty. One can easily imagine that our decision on whether two contours belong to the same leaf or different leaves is likely going to change when we move from viewing the pile of leaves at a great distance (high sensory uncertainty), to viewing very closely (low sensory uncertainty). Our study examines whether and how people incorporate uncertainty into contour integration, an elementary form of perceptual organization, by varying sensory uncertainty from trial to trial in a simple contour integration task. We found that people indeed take into account sensory uncertainty, however in a way that subtly deviates from optimal behavior.