Browsing by Subject "ORGANIZATION"

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  • Kurhila, Salla; Lehtimaja, Inkeri; Drew, Paul (2020)
    During daily hospital ward rounds, medical teams, led by doctors, assess the progress of an individual patient's health. It is widely reported in the research literature that nurses play a relatively passive role during these rounds, because although they may have valuable information about the patient's condition and progress, and indeed their role includes advocacy on behalf of their patients, nurses nevertheless can experience difficulties in participating during case constructions. Here we report an instance from a (gastro-surgical) ward round in a Finnish hospital, in which nurses played a key role in reversing a consultant's initial decision to discharge a patient. They did so not by directly challenging the consultant's opinion, but by employing indirect means to introduce their discrepant perspective: they provide descriptions and ask questions that draw attention to information that results in the doctor coming to a different assessment than theirs of the patient's condition, and a different decision about what should be done (the patient was not discharged from hospital). The encounter reported here is taken from a corpus of ward round discussions in a Finnish hospital. The method of our study is Conversation Analysis.
  • Gui, Jinghua; Huang, Yunxian; Kracklauer, Martin; Toddie-Moore, Daniel John; Kikushima, Kenji; Nix, Stephanie; Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Shimmi, Osamu (2019)
    At the level of organ formation, tissue morphogenesis drives developmental processes in animals, often involving the rearrangement of two-dimensional (2D) structures into more complex three-dimensional (3D) tissues. These processes can be directed by growth factor signaling pathways. However, little is known about how such morphological changes affect the spatiotemporal distribution of growth factor signaling. Here, using the Drosophila pupal wing, we address how decapentaplegic (Dpp)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and 3D wing morphogenesis are coordinated. Dpp, expressed in the longitudinal veins (LVs) of the pupal wing, initially diffuses laterally within both dorsal and ventral wing epithelia during the inflation stage to regulate cell proliferation. Dpp localization is then refined to the LVs within each epithelial plane, but with active interplanar signaling for vein patterning/differentiation, as the two epithelia appose. Our data further suggest that the 3D architecture of the wing epithelia and the spatial distribution of BMP signaling are tightly coupled, revealing that 3D morphogenesis is an emergent property of the interactions between extracellular signaling and tissue shape changes.
  • Anttonen, Tommi; Belevich, Ilya; Laos, Maarja; Herranen, Anni; Jokitalo, Eija; Brakebusch, Cord; Pirvola, Ulla (2017)
    Wound healing in the inner ear sensory epithelia is performed by the apical domains of supporting cells (SCs). Junctional F-actin belts of SCs are thin during development but become exceptionally thick during maturation. The functional significance of the thick belts is not fully understood. We have studied the role of F-actin belts during wound healing in the developing and adult cochlea of mice in vivo. We show that the thick belts serve as intracellular scaffolds that preserve the positions of surviving cells in the cochlear sensory epithelium. Junctions associated with the thick F-actin belts did not readily disassemble during wound healing. To compensate for this, basolateral membranes of SCs participated in the closure of surface breach. Because not only neighboring but also distant SCs contributed to wound healing by basolateral protrusions, this event appears to be triggered by contact-independent diffusible signals. In the search for regulators of wound healing, we inactivated RhoA in SCs, which, however, did not limit wound healing. RhoA inactivation in developing outer hair cells (OHCs) caused myosin II delocalization from the perijunctional domain and apical cell-surface enlargement. These abnormalities led to the extrusion of OHCs from the epithelium. These results demonstrate the importance of stability of the apical domain, both in wound repair by SCs and in development of OHCs, and that only this latter function is regulated by RhoA. Because the correct cytoarchitecture of the cochlear sensory epithelium is required for normal hearing, the stability of cell apices should be maintained in regenerative and protective interventions.
  • Ylinen, Sari; Junttila, Katja; Laasonen, Marja; Iverson, Paul; Ahonen, Lauri; Kujala, Teija (2019)
    Dyslexia is characterized by poor reading skills, yet often also difficulties in second-language learning. The differences between native- and second-language speech processing and the establishment of new brain representations for spoken second language in dyslexia are not, however, well understood. We used recordings of the mismatch negativity component of event-related potential to determine possible differences between the activation of long-term memory representations for spoken native- and second-language word forms in Finnish-speaking 9-11-year-old children with or without dyslexia, studying English as their second language in school. In addition, we sought to investigate whether the bottleneck of dyslexic readers' second-language learning lies at the level of word representations or smaller units and whether the amplitude of mismatch negativity is correlated with native-language literacy and related skills. We found that the activation of brain representations for familiar second-language words, but not for second-language speech sounds or native-language words, was weaker in children with dyslexia than in typical readers. Source localization revealed that dyslexia was associated with weak activation of the right temporal cortex, which has been previously linked with word-form learning. Importantly, the amplitude of the mismatch negativity for familiar second-language words correlated with native-language literacy and rapid naming scores, suggesting a close link between second-language processing and these skills.
  • Ruusuvuori, Johanna; Aaltonen, Tarja; Lonka, Eila; Salmenlinna, Inkeri; Laakso, Minna (2020)
    The quality of interaction between hearing health professionals and patients is one prominent, yet under-studied explanation for the low adherence in acquiring and using a hearing aid. This study describes two different ways of introducing hearing aid to the patients at their first visits at the hearing clinic: an inquiry asking patients opinion followed by offer, and an expert evaluation of the necessity of a hearing aid; and shows two different trajectories ensuing from these introductions. The trajectories represent two extreme ends of a continuum of practices of starting a discussion about hearing aid rehabilitation, in terms of how these practices affect patient participation in decision-making. The analysis shows how granting different degrees of deontic and epistemic rights to professionals and patients has different consequences with regard to the activity of reaching shared understanding on the treatment. The data consist of 17 video-recorded encounters at the hearing clinic. The method used is conversation analysis.
  • Paakki, Henna; Vepsäläinen, Heidi; Salovaara, Antti (2021)
    Internet trolling, a form of antisocial online behavior, is a serious problem plaguing social media. Skillful trolls can lure entire communities into degenerative and polarized discussions that continue endlessly. From analysis of data gathered in accordance with established classifications of trolling-like behavior, the paper presents a conversation analysis of trolling-like interaction strategies that disrupt online discussions. The authors argue that troll-like users exploit other users’ desire for common grounding – i.e., joint maintenance of mutual understanding and seeking of conversational closure – by responding asymmetrically. Their responses to others deviate from expectations for typical paired actions in turn-taking. These asymmetries, described through examples of three such behaviors – ignoring, mismatching, and challenging – lead to dissatisfactory interactions, in that they subvert other users’ desire for clarification and explanation of contra-normative social behavior. By avoiding clarifications, troll-like users easily capture unsuspecting users’ attention and manage to prolong futile conversations interminably. Through the analysis, the paper connects trolling-like asymmetric response strategies with concrete data and addresses the implications of this nonconformist behavior for common grounding in social-media venues.
  • Smet, Wouter; Sevilem, Iris; de Luis Balaguer, MA; Wybouw, B; Mor, E; Miyashima, Shunsuke; Blob, Bernhard; Roszak, Pawel; Jacobs, TB; Boekschoten, M; Hooiveld, G; Sozzani, Rosangela; Helariutta, Yrjö Eero; De Rybel, Bert (2019)
    To create a three-dimensional structure, plants rely on oriented cell divisions and cell elongation. Oriented cell divisions are specifically important in procambium cells of the root to establish the different vascular cell types [1, 2]. These divisions are in part controlled by the auxin-controlled TARGET OF MONOPTEROS5 (TMO5) and LONESOME HIGHWAY (LHW) transcription factor complex [3-7]. Loss-of-function of tmo5 or lhw clade members results in strongly reduced vascular cell file numbers, whereas ectopic expression of both TMO5 and LHW can ubiquitously induce periclinal and radial cell divisions in all cell types of the root meristem. TMO5 and LHW interact only in young xylem cells, where they promote expression of two direct target genes involved in the final step of cytokinin (CK) biosynthesis, LONELY GUY3 (LOG3) and LOG4 [8, 9] Therefore, CK was hypothesized to act as a mobile signal from the xylem to trigger divisions in the neighboring procambium cells [3, 6]. To unravel how TMO5/LHW-dependent cytokinin regulates cell proliferation, we analyzed the transcriptional responses upon simultaneous induction of both transcription factors. Using inferred network analysis, we identified AT2G28510/DOF2.1 as a cytokinin-dependent downstream target gene. We further showed that DOF2.1 controls specific procambium cell divisions without inducing other cytokinin-dependent effects such as the inhibition of vascular differentiation. In summary, our results suggest that DOF2.1 and its closest homologs control vascular cell proliferation, thus leading to radial expansion of the root.
  • Mononen, Kaarina (2019)
    This article analyses how caregivers use affective touch as a resource to facilitate interaction. Through touch, caregivers construct positive socio-emotional relationships with their residents. The analysis of micro-level interaction is based on an interactional sociolinguistic framework, and reveals how caregivers display affection and intimacy while assisting the residents in everyday situations in a care home. All of the examples involve touching a person's shoulder, stroking or giving half-embraces, typical resources used to construct affiliation between caregivers and residents. This article illustrates how affective touch facilitates interaction by regulating participation and calming down residents, by mitigating the controlling aspect of caring, and by fostering a positive interpersonal relationship. The care situations presented in this article contain crucial pauses within talk that are used to construct a peaceful atmosphere. During these crucial moments, embodied action effectively indicates an orientation to listening and establishes a presence to accomplish the actions in that situational talk. This analysis contributes to the studies on embodied interaction and on interpersonal relationships in care for older adults.(1)
  • Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A; Cohen, Idan; Ezhkova, Elena; Wickström, Sara A (2019)
    The skin epidermis is a constantly renewing stratified epithelium that provides essential protective barrier functions throughout life. Epidermal stratification is governed by a step-wise differentiation program that requires precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression. How epidermal self-renewal and differentiation are regulated remains a fundamental open question. Cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms that modify chromatin structure and interactions have been identified as key regulators of epidermal differentiation and stratification. Here, we will review the recent advances in our understanding of how chromatin modifiers, tissue-specific transcription factors, and force-induced nuclear remodeling processes function to shape chromatin and to control epidermal tissue development and homeostasis.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Perakyla, Anssi (2015)
    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people's inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.
  • Palgi, Mari; Greco, Dario; Lindström, Riitta; Auvinen, Petri; Heino, Tapio I. (2012)
  • Nilsson, Jenny; Norrthon, Stefan; Lindström, Jan; Wide, Camilla (2018)
    While greetings are performed in all cultures and open most conversations, previous studies suggest that there are cross-cultural differences between different languages in greeting behavior. But do speakers of different national varieties of the same language organize and perform their greeting behavior in similar ways? In this study, we investigate the sequential organization of greetings in relation to gaze behavior in the two national varieties of Swedish: Sweden Swedish spoken in Sweden and Finland Swedish spoken in Finland. In recent years, the importance of studying pluricentric languages from a pragmatic perspective has been foregrounded, not least within the framework of variational pragmatics. To date, most studies have focused on structural differences between national varieties of pluricentric languages. With this study, we extend the scope of variational pragmatics through adding an interactional, micro perspective to the broader macro analysis typical of this field. For this study, we have analyzed patterns for greetings in 297 videorecorded service encounters, where staff and customers interact at theatre box offices and event booking venues in Sweden and Finland. The study shows that there are similarities and differences in greeting behavior between varieties. There is a strong preference for exchanging reciprocal verbal greetings, one at a time, in both. There is also a similar organization of the greeting sequence, where customer and staff establish mutual gaze prior to the verbal greetings, thus signaling availability for interaction. The duration of mutual gaze and the timing of the greeting, however, differ between the two varieties. We have also conducted a multi modal analysis of gaze behavior in correlation to the greeting. We found that the customers and staff in the Finland Swedish data share mutual gaze before and during the verbal greeting, and often avert gaze after the verbal greetings. However, in the Sweden Swedish data, the participants often avert gaze before the verbal greetings. Our results thus indicate that both similarities and differences in pragmatic routines and bodily behavior exist between the two national varieties of Swedish. The present study on greeting practices in Finland Swedish and Sweden Swedish should contribute to the field of variational pragmatics and to the development of pluricentric theory.
  • Varg, Sofi; Vicente, Veronica; Castren, Maaret; Lindgren, Peter; Rehnberg, Clas (2020)
    Background A decision system in the ambulance allowing alternative pathways to alternate healthcare providers has been developed for older patients in Stockholm, Sweden. However, subsequent healthcare resource use resulting from these pathways has not yet been addressed. The aim of this study was therefore to describe patient pathways, healthcare utilisation and costs following ambulance transportation to alternative healthcare providers. Methods The design of this study was descriptive and observational. Data from a previous RCT, where a decision system in the ambulance enabled alternative healthcare pathways to alternate healthcare providers were linked to register data. The receiving providers were: primary acute care centre or secondary geriatric ward, both located at the same community hospital, or the conventional pathway to the emergency department at an acute hospital. Resource use over 10 days, subsequent to assessment with the decision system, was mapped in terms of healthcare pathways, utilisation and costs for the 98 included cases. Results Almost 90% were transported to the acute care centre or geriatric ward. The vast majority arriving to the geriatric ward stayed there until the end of follow-up or until discharged, whereas patients conveyed to the acute care centre to a large extent were admitted to hospital. The median patient had 6 hospital days, 2 outpatient visits and costed roughly 4000 euros over the 10-day period. Arrival destination geriatric ward indicated the longest hospital stay and the emergency department the shortest. However, the cost for the 10-day period was lower for cases arriving to the geriatric ward than for those arriving to the emergency department. Conclusions The findings support the appropriateness of admittance directly to secondary geriatric care for older adults. However, patients conveyed to the acute care centre ought to be studied in more detail with regards to appropriate level of care.
  • Schormair, Barbara; Zhao, Chen; Bell, Steven; Tilch, Erik; Salminen, Aaro V.; Puetz, Benno; Dauvilliers, Yves; Stefani, Ambra; Hoegl, Birgit; Poewe, Werner; Kemlink, David; Sonka, Karel; Bachmann, Cornelius G.; Paulus, Walter; Trenkwalder, Claudia; Oertel, Wolfgang H.; Hornyak, Magdolna; Teder-Laving, Maris; Metspalu, Andres; Hadjigeorgiou, Georgios M.; Polo, Olli; Fietze, Ingo; Ross, Owen A.; Wszolek, Zbigniew; Butterworth, Adam S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Ouwehand, Willem H.; Roberts, David J.; Danesh, John; Allen, Richard P.; Earley, Christopher J.; Ondo, William G.; Xiong, Lan; Montplaisir, Jacques; Gan-Or, Ziv; Perola, Markus; Vodicka, Pavel; Dina, Christian; Franke, Andre; Tittmann, Lukas; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Shah, Svati H.; Gieger, Christian; Peters, Annette; Rouleau, Guy A.; Berger, Klaus; Oexle, Konrad; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Hinds, David A.; Mueller-Myhsok, Bertram; Collaboration 23andMe Res Team; DESIR Study Grp (2017)
    Background Restless legs syndrome is a prevalent chronic neurological disorder with potentially severe mental and physical health consequences. Clearer understanding of the underlying pathophysiology is needed to improve treatment options. We did a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) to identify potential molecular targets. Methods In the discovery stage, we combined three GWAS datasets (EU-RLS GENE, INTERVAL, and 23andMe) with diagnosis data collected from 2003 to 2017, in face-to-face interviews or via questionnaires, and involving 15126 cases and 95 725 controls of European ancestry. We identified common variants by fixed-effect inverse-variance meta-analysis. Significant genome-wide signals (p Findings We identified and replicated 13 new risk loci for restless legs syndrome and confirmed the previously identified six risk loci. MEIS1 was confirmed as the strongest genetic risk factor for restless legs syndrome (odds ratio 1.92, 95% CI 1 85-1.99). Gene prioritisation, enrichment, and genetic correlation analyses showed that identified pathways were related to neurodevelopment and highlighted genes linked to axon guidance (associated with SEMA6D), synapse formation (NTNG1), and neuronal specification (HOXB cluster family and MYT1). Interpretation Identification of new candidate genes and associated pathways will inform future functional research. Advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms that underlie restless legs syndrome could lead to new treatment options. We focused on common variants; thus, additional studies are needed to dissect the roles of rare and structural variations.
  • Kestilä, I.; Thevenot, J.; Finnilä, M. A.; Karhula, S. S.; Hadjab, I.; Kauppinen, S.; Garon, M.; Quenneville, E.; Haapea, M.; Rieppo, L.; Pritzker, K. P.; Buschmann, M. D.; Nieminen, H. J.; Saarakkala, S. (2018)
    Objective: The aims of this study were: to 1) develop a novel sample processing protocol to visualize human articular cartilage (AC) chondrons using micro-computed tomography (mu CT), 2) develop and validate an algorithm to quantify the chondron morphology in 3D, and 3) compare the differences in chondron morphology between intact and osteoarthritic AC. Method: The developed protocol is based on the dehydration of samples with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), followed by imaging with a desktop mCT. Chondron density and depth, as well as volume and sphericity, were calculated in 3D with a custom-made and validated algorithm employing semiautomatic chondron selection and segmentation. The quantitative parameters were analyzed at three AC depth zones (zone 1: 0-10%; zone 2: 10-40%; zone 3: 40-100%) and grouped by the OARSI histological grades (OARSI grades 0-1.0, n = 6; OARSI grades 3.0-3.5, n = 6). Results: After semi-automatic chondron selection and segmentation, 1510 chondrons were approved for 3D morphometric analyses. The chondrons especially in the deeper tissue (zones 2 and 3) were significantly larger (P Conclusion: We have developed a novel sample processing protocol for chondron imaging in 3D, as well as a high-throughput algorithm to semi-automatically quantify chondron/ chondrocyte 3D morphology in AC. Our results also suggest that 3D chondron morphology is affected by the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Osteoarthritis Research Society International. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
  • Ta, Hung Xuan; Yoon, Chang No; Holm, Liisa; Han, Seung Kee (2010)
  • Buljan, Marija; Ciuffa, Rodolfo; van Drogen, Audrey; Vichalkovski, Anton; Mehnert, Martin; Rosenberger, George; Lee, Sohyon; Varjosalo, Markku; Pernas, Lucia Espona; Spegg, Vincent; Snijder, Berend; Aebersold, Ruedi; Gstaiger, Matthias (2020)
    Protein kinases are essential for signal transduction and control of most cellular processes, including metabolism, membrane transport, motility, and cell cycle. Despite the critical role of kinases in cells and their strong association with diseases, good coverage of their interactions is available for only a fraction of the 535 human kinases. Here, we present a comprehensive mass-spectrometry-based analysis of a human kinase interaction network covering more than 300 kinases. The interaction dataset is a high-quality resource with more than 5,000 previously unreported interactions. We extensively characterized the obtained network and were able to identify previously described, as well as predict new, kinase functional associations, including those of the less well-studied kinases PIM3 and protein O-mannose kinase (POMK). Importantly, the presented interaction map is a valuable resource for assisting biomedical studies. We uncover dozens of kinase-disease associations spanning from genetic disorders to complex diseases, including cancer.
  • Auer, Peter; Lindström, Jan (2016)
    In this paper, we argue that the suggested mirror-equivalence of "left-" and "right-" adjoined or-positioned constituents in syntax is misleading from the point of view of Interactional Linguistics and needs to be replaced by a positionally sensitive grammatical analysis, in which pre- and post-positioning is seen in the context of the sequential unfolding of conversation in time. We show this on the basis of various examples from conversational German and Swedish. Our main empirical focus is on pre- and post positioned verba sentiendi expressions of the type ich denke ... or jag tror ... (cf. English I think). A quantitative analysis shows that these expressions have an uneven distribution in pre- and post-position, as well as in different discourse genres. In a sequential analysis, we can see a positionally dependent differentiation with respect to syntactic integration and interactional meaning, especially with reference to the dynamics of stance taking and turn taking: post-position is more attuned to deal with local contingencies of turn-taking and next-speaker uptake, whereas pre-position establishes a contextualizing frame for the upcoming action. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Um, Ji Won; Choi, Tae-Yong; Kang, Hyeyeon; Cho, Yi Sul; Choii, Gayoung; Uvarov, Pavel; Park, Dongseok; Jeong, Daun; Jeon, Sangmin; Lee, Dongmin; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Seung-Hee; Bae, Yong-Chul; Choi, Se-Young; Airaksinen, Matti S.; Ko, Jaewon (2016)
    The four members of the LRRTM family (LRRTM1-4) are postsynaptic adhesion molecules essential for excitatory synapse development. They have also been implicated in neuropsychiatric diseases. Here, we focus on LRRTM3, showing that two distinct LRRTM3 variants generated by alternative splicing regulate LRRTM3 interaction with PSD-95, but not its excitatory synapse-promoting activity. Overexpression of either LRRTM3 variant increased excitatory synapse density in dentate gyrus (DG) granule neurons, whereas LRRTM3 knockdown decreased it. LRRTM3 also controlled activity-regulated AMPA receptor surface expression in an alternative splicing-dependent manner. Furthermore, Lrrtm3-knockout mice displayed specific alterations in excitatory synapse density, excitatory synaptic transmission and excitability in DG granule neurons but not in CA1 pyramidal neurons. Lastly, LRRTM3 required only specific splice variants of presynaptic neurexins for their synaptogenic activity. Collectively, our data highlight alternative splicing and differential presynaptic ligand utilization in the regulation of LRRTMs, revealing key regulatory mechanisms for excitatory synapse development.