Browsing by Subject "Osteoarthritis"

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Now showing items 21-30 of 30
  • Barreto, Goncalo; Senturk, B.; Colombo, L.; Brück, O.; Neidenbach, P.; Salzmann, G.; Zenobi-Wong, M.; Rottmar, M. (2020)
    Objective: Lumican (LUM) is a major extracellular matrix glycoprotein in adult articular cartilage and its expression is known to be upregulated upon cartilage degeneration. LUM is associated with the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) activation of the TLR4 signalling cascade, with TLR4 being highly associated with inflammation in rheumatic diseases. However, the main role of the LUM structural molecule in osteoarthritis (OA) remains elusive. The aim of this study was, therefore, to understand the role of LUM during TLR4-mediated activation in OA. Methods: After measuring LUM levels in synovial fluid (SF) of OA patients and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation, the role of LUM in the expression of pro-inflammatory molecules and cartilage degradation was assessed in vitro and ex vivo in a cartilage explant model. Primary macrophage activation and polarization were studied upon LUM co-stimulation with LPS. Results: We demonstrate that LUM is not only significantly upregulated in SF from OA patients compared to healthy controls, but also that LUM increases lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced TLR4 activation. Furthermore, we show that a pathophysiological level of LUM augments the LPS-induced TLR4 activation and expression of downstream pro-inflammatory molecules, resulting in extensive cartilage degradation. LUM co-stimulation with LPS also provided a pro-inflammatory stimulus, upregulating primary macrophage activation and polarization towards the M1-like phenotype. Conclusions: These findings strongly support the role of LUM as a mediator of PAMP-induced TLR4 activation of inflammation, cartilage degradation, and macrophage polarization in the OA joint and potentially other rheumatic diseases. (C) 2019 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Kaukinen, P.; Podlipska, J.; Guermazi, A.; Niinimaki, J.; Lehenkari, P.; Roemer, F. W.; Nieminen, M. T.; Koski, J. M.; Saarakkala, S.; Arokoski, J. P. A. (2017)
    Objective: The main aim was to investigate the associations between Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)-defined structural pathologies of the knee and physical function. Design: A cohort study with frequency matching on age and sex with eighty symptomatic subjects with knee pain and suspicion or diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis (OA) and 57 asymptomatic subjects was conducted. The subjects underwent knee MRI, and the severity of structural changes was graded by MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS) in separate knee locations. WOMAC function subscores were recorded and physical function tests (20-m and 5-min walk, stair ascending and descending, timed up & go and repeated sit-to-stand tests) performed. The association between MRI-defined structural pathologies and physical function tests and WOMAC function subscores were evaluated by linear regression analysis with adjustment for demographic factors, other MRI-features and pain with using effect size (ES) as a measure of the magnitude of an association. Results: Cartilage degeneration showed significant association with poor physical performance in TUG-, stair ascending and descending-, 20-m- and 5-min walk-tests (ESs in the subjects with cartilage degeneration anywhere between 0.134 [95%CI 0.037-0.238] and 0.224 [0.013-0.335]) and with increased WOMAC function subscore (ES in the subjects with cartilage degeneration anywhere 0.088 [0.012-0.103]). Also, lateral meniscus maceration and extrusion were associated with poor performance in stair ascending test (ESs 0.067 [0.008-0.163] and 0.077 [0.012-0.177]). Conclusions: After adjustments cartilage degeneration was associated with both decreased self-reported physical function and poor performance in the physical function tests. Furthermore, subjects with lateral meniscus maceration and extrusions showed significantly worse performance in stair ascending tests. (C) 2017 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Julkunen, Heikki; Eklund, Kari (2017)
  • Parkkinen, Markus; Lindahl, Jan; Mäkinen, Tatu J.; Koskinen, Seppo K.; Mustonen, Antti; Madanat, Rami (2018)
    Purpose: To determine factors influencing the development of posttraumatic osteoarthritis (OA) following medial tibial plateau fractures and to evaluate concomitant injuries associated with these fractures. Materials and methods: A chart review of patients with operatively treated medial tibial plateau fractures admitted to our Level I trauma centre from 2002 to 2008 was performed. Of 63 patients, 41 participated in a clinical and radiographic examination. The mean age was 47 years (range 16-78) and the mean follow-up time was 7.6 (range 4.7-11.7) years. All patients had preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans and postoperative radiographs. At the end of follow-up, standing radiographs, mechanical axis, and CT scans were evaluated. Results: Of the 41 patients, 24 had no or mild (Kellgren-Lawrence grade 0-2) OA and 17 had severe (grade 3-4) OA. Initial articular depression measured from preoperative CT scans was a significant predictor of OA (median 1.8 mm vs 4.5 mm, p = 0.009). Fracture line extension to the lateral plateau (p = 0.68) or fracture comminution (p = 0.21) had no effect on the development of posttraumatic OA, nor did articular depression at the end of follow-up (p = 0.68) measured from CT scans. Mechanical axis >4 degrees of varus and >= 2 mm articular depression or step-off were associated with worse WOMAC pain scores, but did not affect other functional outcome scores. Six patients (10%) had permanent peroneal nerve dysfunction. Ten patients (16%) required LCL reconstruction and nine (14%) ACL avulsions were treated at the time of fracture stabilisation. Conclusions: The amount of articular depression measured from preoperative CT scans seems to predict the development of posttraumatic OA, probably reflecting the severity of chondral injury at the time of fracture. Restoration of mechanical axis and articular congruence are important in achieving a good clinical outcome. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Sihvonen, Raine; Kalske, Roope; Englund, Martin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Toivonen, Pirjo; Taimela, Simo; Järvinen, Teppo L N (BioMed Central, 2020)
    Abstract Background The research objectives of the 5-year and 10-year assessments in the Finnish degenerative meniscal lesion study (FIDELITY) are twofold: (1) to assess the long-term efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in adults (age 35 to 65 years) with a degenerative meniscus tear and (2) to determine the respective effects of APM and degenerative meniscus tear on the development of radiographic and clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods and design FIDELITY is an ongoing multi-center, randomized, participant and outcome assessor blinded, placebo-surgery-controlled trial in 146 patients. This statistical analysis plan (SAP) article describes the overall principles for analysis of long-term outcomes (5-year and 10-year follow up), including how participants will be included in each analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes and their respective analyses, adjustments for covariates, and the presentation of the results. In addition, we will present the planned sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Discussion To assess the long-term efficacy of APM on knee symptoms and function we are carrying out a long-term (5-year and 10-year) follow up of our placebo-surgery-controlled FIDELITY trial according to statistical principles outlined in detail in this document. As our second primary objective, whether APM (resection of torn meniscus tear) accelerates or delays the development of knee osteoarthritis in patients with an arthroscopically verified degenerative tear of the medial meniscus, a pre-registered follow-up is also carried out. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00549172 (Arthroscopy in the Treatment of Degenerative Medial Meniscus Tear). Registered on 25 October 2007 (NCT00549172). ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01052233 (Development of Knee Osteoarthritis After Arthroscopic Partial Resection of Degenerative Meniscus Tear). Registered on 20 January 2010.
  • Finnish Degenerative Meniscal Lesi; Sihvonen, Raine; Kalske, Roope; Englund, Martin; Turkiewicz, Aleksandra; Toivonen, Pirjo; Taimela, Simo; Järvinen, Teppo L. N. (2020)
    Background The research objectives of the 5-year and 10-year assessments in the Finnish degenerative meniscal lesion study (FIDELITY) are twofold: (1) to assess the long-term efficacy of arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM) in adults (age 35 to 65 years) with a degenerative meniscus tear and (2) to determine the respective effects of APM and degenerative meniscus tear on the development of radiographic and clinical knee osteoarthritis (OA). Methods and design FIDELITY is an ongoing multi-center, randomized, participant and outcome assessor blinded, placebo-surgery-controlled trial in 146 patients. This statistical analysis plan (SAP) article describes the overall principles for analysis of long-term outcomes (5-year and 10-year follow up), including how participants will be included in each analysis, the primary and secondary outcomes and their respective analyses, adjustments for covariates, and the presentation of the results. In addition, we will present the planned sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Discussion To assess the long-term efficacy of APM on knee symptoms and function we are carrying out a long-term (5-year and 10-year) follow up of our placebo-surgery-controlled FIDELITY trial according to statistical principles outlined in detail in this document. As our second primary objective, whether APM (resection of torn meniscus tear) accelerates or delays the development of knee osteoarthritis in patients with an arthroscopically verified degenerative tear of the medial meniscus, a pre-registered follow-up is also carried out.
  • Taipale, M.; Jakkula, E.; Kamarainen, O. -P; Gao, P.; Skarp, S.; Barral, S.; Kiviranta, I.; Kroger, H.; Ott, J.; Wei, G. -H.; Ala-Kokko, L.; Mannikko, M. (2016)
    Objective: The aim of the study was to identify genetic variants predisposing to primary hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) in a sample of Finnish families. Methods: Genome wide analysis was performed using 15 independent families (279 individuals) originating from Central Finland identified as having multiple individuals with primary hip and/or knee OA. Targeted re-sequencing was performed for three samples from one 33-member, four-generation family contributing most significantly to the LOD score. In addition, exome sequencing was performed in three family members from the same family. Results: Genome wide linkage analysis identified a susceptibility locus on chromosome 2q21 with a multipoint LOD score of 3.91. Targeted re-sequencing and subsequent linkage analysis revealed a susceptibility insertion variant rs11446594. It locates in a predicted strong enhancer element region with maximum LOD score 3.42 under dominant model of inheritance. Insertion creates a recognition sequence for ELF3 and HMGA1 transcription factors. Their DNA-binding affinity is highly increased in the presence of A-allele compared to wild type null allele. Conclusion: A potentially novel functional OA susceptibility variant was identified by targeted resequencing. This variant locates in a predicted regulatory site and creates a recognition sequence for ELF3 and HMGA1 transcription factors that are predicted to play a significant role in articular cartilage homeostasis. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd and Osteoarthritis Research Society International.
  • Heikkilä, Helka M.; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K.; Innes, John F.; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M. (2017)
    Background: Recently, intra-articular botulinum toxin A (IA BoNT A) has been shown to reduce joint pain in osteoarthritic dogs. Similar results have been reported in human patients with arthritis. However, the mechanism of the antinociceptive action of IA BoNT A is currently not known. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism of action by investigating the effect of IA BoNT A on synovial fluid (SF) and serum substance P (SP), prostaglandin E-2 (PGE(2)), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in osteoarthritic dogs. Additionally, the aim was to compare SF SP and PGE(2) between osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic joints, and investigate associations between SP, PGE(2), osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs. Thirty-five dogs with chronic naturally occurring osteoarthritis and 13 non-osteoarthritic control dogs were included in the study. Osteoarthritic dogs received either IA BoNT A (n = 19) or IA placebo (n = 16). Serum and SF samples were collected and osteoarthritic pain was evaluated before (baseline) and 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Osteoarthritic pain was assessed with force platform, Helsinki Chronic Pain Index, and joint palpation. Synovial fluid samples were obtained from control dogs after euthanasia. The change from baseline in SP and PGE(2) concentration was compared between the IA BoNT A and placebo groups. The synovial fluid SP and PGE(2) concentration was compared between osteoarthritic and control joints. Associations between SP, PGE(2), osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs were evaluated. Results: There was no significant change from baseline in SP or PGE(2) after IA BoNT A. Synovial fluid PGE(2) was significantly higher in osteoarthritic compared to control joints. Synovial fluid PGE(2) correlated with osteoarthritic pain. No associations were found between SP or PGE2 and the signalment of dogs. The concentration of TNF-alpha remained under the detection limit of the assay in all samples. Conclusions: The results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of IA BoNT A in the joint might not be related to the inhibition of SP nor PGE(2). Synovial fluid PGE(2,) but not SP, could be a marker for chronic osteoarthritis and pain in dogs.
  • Heikkilä, Helka M; Hielm-Björkman, Anna K; Innes, John F; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi M (BioMed Central, 2017)
    Abstract Background Recently, intra-articular botulinum toxin A (IA BoNT A) has been shown to reduce joint pain in osteoarthritic dogs. Similar results have been reported in human patients with arthritis. However, the mechanism of the antinociceptive action of IA BoNT A is currently not known. The aim of this study was to explore this mechanism of action by investigating the effect of IA BoNT A on synovial fluid (SF) and serum substance P (SP), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in osteoarthritic dogs. Additionally, the aim was to compare SF SP and PGE2 between osteoarthritic and non-osteoarthritic joints, and investigate associations between SP, PGE2, osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs. Thirty-five dogs with chronic naturally occurring osteoarthritis and 13 non-osteoarthritic control dogs were included in the study. Osteoarthritic dogs received either IA BoNT A (n = 19) or IA placebo (n = 16). Serum and SF samples were collected and osteoarthritic pain was evaluated before (baseline) and 2 and 8 weeks after treatment. Osteoarthritic pain was assessed with force platform, Helsinki Chronic Pain Index, and joint palpation. Synovial fluid samples were obtained from control dogs after euthanasia. The change from baseline in SP and PGE2 concentration was compared between the IA BoNT A and placebo groups. The synovial fluid SP and PGE2 concentration was compared between osteoarthritic and control joints. Associations between SP, PGE2, osteoarthritic pain, and the signalment of dogs were evaluated. Results There was no significant change from baseline in SP or PGE2 after IA BoNT A. Synovial fluid PGE2 was significantly higher in osteoarthritic compared to control joints. Synovial fluid PGE2 correlated with osteoarthritic pain. No associations were found between SP or PGE2 and the signalment of dogs. The concentration of TNF-α remained under the detection limit of the assay in all samples. Conclusions The results suggest that the antinociceptive effect of IA BoNT A in the joint might not be related to the inhibition of SP nor PGE2. Synovial fluid PGE2, but not SP, could be a marker for chronic osteoarthritis and pain in dogs.