Browsing by Subject "PEOPLE"

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  • Liu, Jie; Ilmarinen, Ville-Juhani (2020)
    This research investigated the moderation effects of core self-evaluation (CSE) on singles’ ideal partner preference, concerning distinctive similarity in personality. The data were collected from singles from three countries (i.e., China, Denmark, and US), and modelled in a multilevel profile analysis. The results show that CSE moderated distinctive profile similarity preference in that people high in CSE preferred higher distinctive profile similarity with their ideal partner. In addition, CSE moderated distinctive trait similarity preference in Emotionality, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness in that people high in CSE preferred their ideal partner to share higher distinctive similarity on these four traits. Implications and limitations of the research and findings are also discussed.
  • Halonen, Jaana; Pulakka, Anna; Pentti, Jaana; Kallio, Minna; Koskela, Sofia; Kivimäki, Mika; Kawachi, Ichiro; Vahtera, Jussi; Stenholm, Sari (2020)
    Objective Neighbourhood characteristics may affect the level of physical activity (PA) of the residents. Few studies have examined the combined effects of distinctive neighbourhood characteristics on PA using objective data or differentiated between activity during working or non-working days. We examined the associations of socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness with accelerometer-measured leisure-time PA during working and non-working days. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Finnish Retirement and Aging (FIREA) study. Participants 708 workers (604 women, mean age 62.4 ranging from 58 to 64 years,) participating in the FIREA study who provided PA measurement data for at least 1 working and non-working day. Primary and secondary outcomes PA was measured with wrist-worn accelerometer on average of 4 working and 2 non-working days. Outcomes were total PA, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). These measurements were linked to data on neighbourhood socioeconomic disadvantage and greenness within the home neighbourhood (750x750 m). Generalised linear models were adjusted for possible confounders. Results On non-working days, higher neighbourhood disadvantage associated with lower levels of total PA (p value=0.07) and higher level of neighbourhood greenness associated with higher level of total PA (p value=0.04). Neighbourhood disadvantage and greenness had an interaction (p value=0.02); in areas of low disadvantage higher greenness did not associate with the level of total PA. However, in areas of high disadvantage, 2 SD higher greenness associated with 46 min/day (95% CI 8.4 to 85) higher total PA. Slightly stronger interaction was observed for LPA (p=0.03) than for the MVPA (p=0.09). During working days, there were no associations between neighbourhood characteristics and leisure-time total PA. Conclusions Of the disadvantaged neighbourhoods, those characterised by high levels of greenness seem to associate with higher levels of leisure-time PA during non-working days. These findings suggest that efforts to add greenness to socioeconomically disadvantaged neighbourhoods might reduce inequalities in PA.
  • Airaksinen, Noora K.; Nurmi-Lüthje, Ilona S.; Kataja, J. Matti; Kröger, Heikki P. J.; Lüthje, Peter M. J. (2018)
    Background: Most of the cycling accidents that occur in Finland do not end up in the official traffic accident statistics. Thus, there is minimal information on these accidents and their consequences, particularly in cases in which alcohol was involved. The focus of the present study is on cycling accidents and injuries involving alcohol in particular. Methods: Data on patients visiting the emergency department at North Kymi Hospital because of a cycling accident was prospectively collected for two years, from June 1, 2004 to May 31, 2006. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) was measured on admission with a breath analyser. The severity of the cycling injuries was classified according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS). Results: A total of 217 cycling accidents occurred. One third of the injured cyclists were involved with alcohol at the time of visiting the hospital. Of these, 85% were males. A blood alcohol concentration of Conclusions: Cyclists involved with alcohol were, in most cases, heavily intoxicated and were not wearing a bicycle helmet. Head injuries were more common among these cyclists than among sober cyclists. As cycling continues to increase, it is important to monitor cycling accidents, improve the accident statistics and heighten awareness of the risks of head injuries when cycling under the influence of alcohol. (c) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rautio, Nina; Miettunen, Jouko; Jääskeläinen, Erika; Nordström, Tanja; Isohanni, Matti; Seppälä, Jussi (2017)
    Background: We examined mortality in schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) and non-schizophrenic psychosis (NSSD) compared to individuals without psychosis, and whether perinatal factors predict mortality. Methods: Within Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (n = 10 933; 203 with SSD, 178 with NSSD), mortality was followed until end of 2011 by national register. Wantedness of pregnancy, mother's antenatal depression, smoking and age, parity, paternal socio-economic status (SES) and family type at birth were examined as predictors of mortality. Results: Mortality was higher in SSD (hazard ratio (HR) 3.60; 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.38-5.45) and NSSD (4.05; 2.65-6.17) compared to persons without psychoses after adjustment for gender. HR for natural death was 2.01 (0.82-4.91) in SSD and 4.63 (2.43-8.80) in NSSD after adjustment for gender. Corresponding figures for unnatural deaths were 4.71 (2.94-7.54) and 2.94 (1.56-5.55), respectively. Among non-psychotic persons, mother's depression, smoking and low SES predicted mortality after adjustment for gender and parental psychoses (and SES), whereas among psychosis those whose father was a farmer had lower risk of mortality compared to those with high SES. Conclusions: Individuals with SSD had a higher risk of unnatural death and individuals with NSSD of natural and unnatural deaths. Perinatal factors seem to be more important predictors of mortality in individuals without psychoses than with psychoses. According to population-based long follow-up data, it is important to pay attention to somatic morbidity behind natural causes of death in psychoses and to prevent suicides in order to prevent excess mortality. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Strain, William David; Paldánius, Päivi Maria (2020)
    Aim: Clinical inertia is a multifactorial phenomenon, with contributing factors from people with diabetes and their healthcare team. It is widely cited that clinical inertia is minimised by participation in clinical trials. We assessed whether trial participation per se improves metabolic parameters in people with diabetes, or a specific focus on glycaemia is required. Methods: We compared improvement in glycaemic control in a pooled set of people assigned to the "placebo" arm from 25 glycaemia-focused trials with a pooled group of people with diabetes allocated to sham or non-pharmacological intervention for the treatment of diabetic retinal disease. Mean change in HbA1c (ANCOVA) was evaluated. Results: The overall placebo effect in studies focused on glucose control (N = 3081) was comparable between strata groups with and without complications. Adjusted least square mean change in HbA1c at 24 weeks was between-0.23% (-2.50 mmol/mol) and -0.32% (-3.50 mmol/mol). In studies focused on retinal disease (N = 288), the change from baseline in HbA1c was +0.10% (1.10 mmol/mol) and fasting plasma glucose was +0.50 mmol/L showing no improvement in metabolic parameters at 12 months. Conclusions: Clinical trial participation alone does not seem to improve metabolic parameters in people living with diabetes. The benefits observed in glycaemia-focused studies were independent of age and comorbidities. (C) 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Mustonen, Erja; Horhammer, Iiris; Absetz, Pilvikki; Patja, Kristiina; Lammintakanen, Johanna; Talja, Martti; Kuronen, Risto; Linna, Miika (2020)
    Objective To evaluate the long-term effect of telephone health coaching on health care and long-term care (LTC) costs in type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. Data Sources/Study Setting Randomized controlled trial (RCT) data were linked to Finnish national health and social care registries and electronic health records (EHR). Post-trial eight-year economic evaluation was conducted. Study Design A total of 1,535 patients (>= 45 years) were randomized to the intervention (n = 1034) and control groups (n = 501). The intervention group received monthly telephone health coaching for 12 months. Usual health care and LTC were provided for both groups. Principal Findings Intention-to-treat analysis showed no significant change in total health and long-term care costs (intervention effect euro1248 [3 percent relative reduction], CI -6347 to 2217) in the intervention compared to the control group. There were also no significant changes among subgroups of patients with T2D or CAD. Conclusions Health coaching had a nonsignificant effect on health care and long-term care costs in the 8-year follow-up among patients with T2D or CAD. More research is needed to study, which patient groups, at which state of the disease trajectory of T2D and cardiovascular disease, would best benefit from health coaching.
  • Hakulinen, Christian; Elovainio, Marko; Arffman, Martti; Lumme, Sonja; Suokas, Kimmo; Pirkola, Sami; Keskimäki, Ilmo; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Böckerman, Petri (2020)
    Objective: Individuals with severe mental disorders have an impaired ability to work and are likely to receive income transfer payments as their main source of income. However, the magnitude of this phenomenon remains unclear. Using longitudinal population cohort register data, the authors conducted a case-control study to examine the levels of employment and personal income before and after a first hospitalization for a serious mental disorder. Methods: All individuals (N=50,551) who had been hospitalized for schizophrenia, other nonaffective psychosis, or bipolar disorder in Finland between 1988 and 2015 were identified and matched with five randomly selected participants who were the same sex and who had the same birth year and month. Employment status and earnings, income transfer payments, and total income in euros were measured annually from 1988 to 2015. Results: Individuals with serious mental disorders had notably low levels of employment before, and especially after, the diagnosis of a severe mental disorder. Their total income was mostly constituted of transfer payments, and this was especially true for those diagnosed as having schizophrenia. More than half of all individuals with a serious mental disorder did not have any employment earnings after they received the diagnosis. Conclusions: The current study shows how most individuals in Finland depend solely on income transfer payments after an onset of a severe mental disorder.
  • Salminen, K. S.; Suominen, M. H.; Kautiainen, H.; Roitto, H. M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2019)
    Our aim was to investigate how energy intake modifies the association of the stage of dementia with health related quality of life (HRQoL) among institutionalized older people. A cross-sectional sample of 538 older long-term care residents with dementia in Helsinki, Finland were assessed with HRQoL (15D), energy intake (from one to two days), and the stage of dementia by the clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. The energy intakes were standardized by z-scores to include both men and women in the same analyses. Severity of dementia was associated with HRQoL (15D index in CDR 0.5-1: 0.65 (0.11), CDR 2: 0.60 (0.10), CDR 3: 0.52 (0.10)). When the three groups of dementia severity were divided according to their energy intake quartiles, there was an association between the HRQoL and the stage of dementia (p <0.001) and energy intake (p = 0.013); however, no interaction was observed (p = 0.30). While partial correlation analysis showed that energy intake correlated with HRQoL among residents with very mild/mild or moderate dementia, this was not observed among those with severe dementia. In moderate dementia, the dimensions of mobility and usual activities correlated significantly with higher energy intake. Both energy intake and severity of dementia are associated with HRQoL.
  • Toivo, Terhi; Airaksinen, Marja; Dimitrow, Maarit; Savela, Eeva; Pelkonen, Katariina; Kiuru, Valtteri; Suominen, Tuula; Uunimäki, Mira; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Leikola, Saija; Puustinen, Juha (2019)
    Background As populations are aging, a growing number of home care clients are frail and use multiple, complex medications. Combined with the lack of coordination of care this may pose uncontrolled polypharmacy and potential patient safety risks. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a care coordination intervention on medication risks identified in drug regimens of older home care clients over a one-year period. Methods Two-arm, parallel, cluster randomized controlled trial with baseline and follow-up assessment at 12 months. The study was conducted in Primary Care in Lohja, Finland: all 5 home care units, the public healthcare center, and a private community pharmacy. Participants: All consented home care clients aged > 65 years, using at least one prescription medicine who were assessed at baseline and at 12 months. Intervention: Practical nurses were trained to make the preliminary medication risk assessment during home visits and report findings to the coordinating pharmacist. The coordinating pharmacist prepared the cases for the triage meeting with the physician and home care nurse to decide on further actions. Each patient's physician made the final decisions on medication changes needed. Outcomes were measured as changes in medication risks: use of potentially inappropriate medications and psychotropics; anticholinergic and serotonergic load; drug-drug interactions. Results Participants (n = 129) characteristics: mean age 82.8 years, female 69.8%, mean number of prescription medicines in use 13.1. The intervention did not show an impact on the medication risks between the original intervention group and the control group in the intention to treat analysis, but the per protocol analysis indicated tendency for effectiveness, particularly in optimizing central nervous system medication use. Half (50.0%) of the participants with a potential need for medication changes, agreed on in the triage meeting, had none of the medication changes actually implemented. Conclusion The care coordination intervention used in this study indicated tendency for effectiveness when implemented as planned. Even though the outcome of the intervention was not optimal, the value of this paper is in discussing the real world experiences and challenges of implementing new practices in home care.
  • EuroSIDA Study Grp; Amele, S.; Ristola, M.; Mocroft, A.; Aho, I. (2019)
    Objectives The aim of the study was to establish a methodology for evaluating the hepatitis C continuum of care in HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected individuals and to characterize the continuum in Europe on 1 January 2015, prior to widespread access to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy. Methods Stages included in the continuum were as follows: anti-HCV antibody positive, HCV RNA tested, currently HCV RNA positive, ever HCV RNA positive, ever received HCV treatment, completed HCV treatment, follow-up HCV RNA test, and cure. Sustained virological response (SVR) could only be assessed for those with a follow-up HCV RNA test and was defined as a negative HCV RNA result measured > 12 or 24 weeks after stopping treatment. Results Numbers and percentages for the stages of the HCV continuum of care were as follows: anti-HCV positive (n = 5173), HCV RNA tested (4207 of 5173; 81.3%), currently HCV RNA positive (3179 of 5173; 61.5%), ever HCV RNA positive (n = 3876), initiated HCV treatment (1693 of 3876; 43.7%), completed HCV treatment (1598 of 3876; 41.2%), follow-up HCV RNA test to allow SVR assessment (1195 of 3876; 30.8%), and cure (629 of 3876; 16.2%). The proportion that achieved SVR was 52.6% (629 of 1195). There were significant differences between regions at each stage of the continuum (P <0.0001). Conclusions In the proposed HCV continuum of care for HIV/HCV-coinfected individuals, we found major gaps at all stages, with almost 20% of anti-HCV-positive individuals having no documented HCV RNA test and a low proportion achieving SVR, in the pre-DAA era.
  • Pitkälä, Kaisu; Raivio, Minna M.; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Tilvis, Reijo S.; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo E. (2010)
  • Jones, Marjaana; Pietilä, Ilkka (2020)
    Peer support workers are now working with patients in a variety of settings, coming into close contact and even work alongside health professionals. Despite the potentially influential position peer support workers hold in relation to those engaged in support activities, their role, duties and their relationship to peers and health professionals lack clarity and is often defined by other actors. This study explores how peer support workers interpret and define the activities, responsibilities and knowledge associated with their work. Using methods of membership categorisation analysis, we analysed interview materials generated by conducting individual semi-structured interviews during the autumn of 2016 with prostate cancer peer support workers (n = 11) who currently volunteer as support workers in Finland. Although the peer support workers acknowledged the psychosocial aspects of the work, we argue that their interpretations extend far beyond this and encompass expertise, advocacy and activism as central features of their work. These can be used to strengthen their position as credible commentators and educators on issues relating to cancer and men's health; raise awareness and represent the 'patient's voice' and attempt to influence both policy and clinical practice. These findings suggest that by categorising their work activities in different ways, voluntary sector actors such as peer support workers can attempt to portray themselves as legitimate authorities on a range of issues and influence decision-making ranging from individual level treatment decisions all the way to health policy.
  • Kallio, Eeva-Liisa; Ohman, H.; Carlson, S.; Kautiainen, H.; Hietanen, M.; Pitkala, K. H. (2017)
    Introduction: Evidence is unclear whether cognitive training (CT) has efficacy in patients with dementia. We present the recruitment and baseline findings of a carefully designed Finnish cognitive training (FINCOG) trial exploring the effectiveness of CT among community-dwelling older persons with mild-to-moderate dementia. Methods: Participants were recruited from adult day care centres in Helsinki, Finland, and randomised into two groups: (1) day care with systematic CT twice a week for 12 weeks (n = 76) and (2) day care as usual (n = 71). Demographics, diagnoses and drug use were retrieved from medical records, and baseline cognition, functioning, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological well-being were assessed. A subgroup of participants was planned to undergo functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure changes in brain activity. Feedback from those attending CT was collected. Primary trial outcomes will be participants' cognition and HRQoL. Results: The mean (SD) age of the randomised participants was 83.1 (5.4) years, 72% were female and 37% at a moderate stage of dementia. The intervention and control groups were comparable at baseline. Compliance with CT was good, with a mean attendance of 22/24 sessions. General subjective gain was achieved by three-fourths of the feedback respondents. However, the fMRI was not feasible in this patient group. Conclusions: We successfully randomised 147 persons with mild-to-moderate dementia in the FINCOG trial. The feedback from participants in cognitive intervention was favourable. The trial will provide important information on the effects of CT in patients with dementia. (C) 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS and European Union Geriatric Medicine Society. All rights reserved.
  • Olafsdottir, Steinunn A.; Jonsdottir, Helga; Bjartmarz, Ingibjorg; Magnusson, Charlotte; Caltenco, Hector; Kyto, Mikko; Maye, Laura; McGookin, David; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Hjaltadottir, Ingibjorg; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora B. (2020)
    BackgroundTechnical applications can promote home-based exercise and physical activity of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Caregivers are often able and willing to assist with home-based exercise and physical activity but lack the knowledge and resources to do so. ActivABLES was established to promote home-based exercise and physical activity among community-dwelling stroke survivors, with support from their caregivers. The aim of our study is to investigate the feasibility of ActivABLES in terms of acceptability, demand, implementation and practicality.MethodsA convergent design of mixed methods research in which quantitative results were combined with personal experiences of a four-week use of ActivABLES by community-dwelling stroke survivors with support from their caregivers. Data collection before, during and after the four-week period included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Five Times Sit to Stand Test (5xSST) and data from motion detectors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stroke survivors and caregivers after the four-week period. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data. Qualitative data was analysed with direct content analysis. Themes were identified related to the domains of feasibility: acceptability, demand, implementation and practicality. Data was integrated by examining any (dis)congruence in the quantitative and qualitative findings.ResultsTen stroke survivors aged 55-79years participated with their informal caregivers. Functional improvements were shown in BBS (+2.5), ABC (+0.9), TUG (-4.2) and 5xSST (-2.7). More physical activity was detected with motion detectors (stand up/sit down +2, number of steps +227, standing +0.3h, hours sitting/lying -0.3h). The qualitative interviews identified themes for each feasibility domain: (i) acceptability: appreciation, functional improvements, self-initiated activities and expressed potential for future stroke survivors; (2) demand: reported use, interest in further use and need for follow-up; (3) implementation: importance of feedback, variety of exercises and progression of exercises and (4) practicality: need for support and technical problems. The quantitative and qualitative findings converged well with each other and supported the feasibility of ActivABLES.ConclusionsActivABLES is feasible and can be a good asset for stroke survivors with slight or moderate disability to use in their homes. Further studies are needed with larger samples.
  • Laine, Anna; Välimäki, Maritta; Pekurinen, Virve; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Marttunen, Mauri; Anttila, Minna (2019)
    Background: Web-based interventions are promising tools for increasing the understanding of illness and treatment among patients with serious mental disorders. Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based patient education intervention using a quasi-experimental cluster design to report feedback on patient education sessions and the website used and to report preliminary evidence of the intervention's impact on patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Methods: A single-blind, parallel, quasi-experimental cluster study over a 6-month period comparing Web-based education (n=33) with a nonequivalent control group (treatment as usual, n=24) for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder was conducted. Participants (N=57) were recruited from one psychiatric hospital (6 wards). Feasibility was assessed by participants' commitment (refusal rate, dropout rate) to the study. Acceptability was assessed as participants' commitment to the intervention. Patient education sessions and website feedback were assessed by the patients and health care professionals. The preliminary impact of the sessions on patients' self-efficacy, self-esteem, illness cognition, and knowledge level was measured at baseline and follow-ups (8 weeks, 6 months) with self-rated questionnaires. Results: The refusal rate among patients was high with no statistically significant difference (69% [74/107] in the intervention group, 76% [76/100] in the control group; P =.21). The same result was found for the dropout rates (48% [16/33] vs 58% [14/24]; P=. 46). The acceptability of the intervention was good; 31 participants out of 33 (94%) completed all five sessions. Feedback on the intervention was mainly positive; three out of four subscales of session were rated above the midpoint of 4.0. Feedback on the website was also positive, with a grade of good for content (69%, 20/29 patients; 75%, 21/28 professionals), layout (62%, 18/29 patients; 61%, 17/28 professionals), and usability (62%, 18/29 patients; and 68%, 19/28 professionals). The patients using the intervention had significantly higher scores 6 months after the sessions in self-efficacy (baseline mean 26.12, SD 5.64 vs 6-month mean 29.24, SD 6.05; P=.003) and regarding knowledge level about schizophrenia (mean 11.39, SD 4.65 vs 6-month mean 15.06, SD 5.26; P=. 002), and lower scores in the subscale of helplessness in illness cognition (mean 2.26, SD 0.96 vs 6-month mean 1.85, SD 0.59; P=.03). Differences from the control group were not significant. No differences were found in patients' self-esteem or other subscales in illness cognition. Conclusions: The patients were reluctant to participate in the study and tended to drop out before the follow-ups. Once they had participated, their acceptance of the intervention was high. A more effective recruitment strategy and monitoring method will be needed in future studies. To assess the impact of the intervention, a more rigorous study design with an adequately powered sample size will be used in cooperation with outpatient mental health services.
  • Jauhiainen, L.; Mannisto, S.; Ylostalo, P.; Vehkalahti, M.; Nordblad, A.; Turunen, A. W.; Suominen, A. L. (2017)
    To study differences in consumption of foods and intake of nutrients attributable to denture status. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative Health 2000 Survey, subjects aged 55-84 years (n=2,241). Denture status (edentulous with full dentures, own dentition with removable dentures, own dentition with no removable dentures) was used as an explanatory variable. The consumption of foods and intake of nutrients was used as an outcome variable and was measured using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Denture status associated with food choices. Full denture wearers consumed less vegetables (p = 0.013 among men and p = 0.001 among women) and fruits (p = 0.001 among women), more sugary products (p = 0.012 among men and p = 0.008 among women), and their balance in fatty acids was less favourable than among dentate participants. Among dentate participants, the differences between the two groups were small and statistically significant differences were seen mostly in women. Wearing full dentures appears to be associated with unhealthier food choices, lower consumption of some foodstuffs and lower intake of certain nutrients when compared to the food choices of dentate persons.
  • Aro, Anna-Kaisa; Karjalainen, Merja; Tiihonen, Miia; Kautiainen, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Haanpää, Maija; Mäntyselkä, Pekka (2017)
    Aims: To evaluate the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and functional capacity in relation to glycemic control among older home-dwelling primary care patients. Methods: Electronic patient records were used to identify 527 people over 65 years with diabetes. Of these, 259 randomly selected subjects were invited to a health examination and 172 of them attended and provided complete data. The participants were divided into three groups based on the HbAlc: good (HbAlc 57 mmol/mol (N=29)) glycemic control. HRQoL was measured with the EuroQol EQ-5D questionnaire. Functional and cognitive capacity and mental well-being were assessed with the Lawton Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scale, Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). Results: EQ-5D scores for good, intermediate and poor glycemic control were 0.78; 0.74 and 0.70, p=0.037. Sub-items of mobility (p=0.002) and self-care were the most affected (p=0.031). Corresponding trend was found for IADL, p=0.008. A significant correlation was found between MMSE scores and HbAlc. Conclusion: Older primary care home-dwelling patients with diabetes and poorer glycemic control have lower functional capacity and HRQoL, especially in regard to mobility and self care. (C) 2017 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Reyes-García, Victoria; Gallois, Sandrine; Pyhälä, Aili; Diaz-Riviriego, Isabel; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Galbraith, Eric; Miñarro, Sara; Napitupulu, Tezza (2021)
    While cross-cultural research on subjective well-being and its multiple drivers is growing, the study of happiness among Indigenous peoples continues to be under-represented in the literature. In this work, we measure life satisfaction through open-ended questionnaires to explore levels and drivers of subjective well-being among 474 adults in three Indigenous societies across the tropics: the Tsimane’ in Bolivian lowland Amazonia, the Baka in southeastern Cameroon, and the Punan in Indonesian Borneo. We found that life satisfaction levels in the three studied societies are slightly above neutral, suggesting that most people in the sample consider themselves as moderately happy. We also found that respondents provided explanations mostly when their satisfaction with life was negative, as if moderate happiness was the normal state and explanations were only needed when reporting a different life satisfaction level due to some exceptionally good or bad occurrence. Finally, we also found that issues related to health and–to a lesser extent–social life were the more prominent explanations for life satisfaction. Our research not only highlights the importance to understand, appreciate and respect Indigenous peoples’ own perspectives and insights on subjective well-being, but also suggests that the greatest gains in subjective well-being might be achieved by alleviating the factors that tend to make people unhappy.
  • Liira, Helena; Mavaddat, Nahal; Eineluoto, Maija; Kautiainen, Hannu; Strandberg, Timo; Suominen, Merja; Laakkonen, Marja-Liisa; Eloniemi-Sulkava, Ulla; Sintonen, Harri; Pitkälä, Kaisu (2018)
    Background Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is associated with survival in older people with multimorbidities and disabilities. However, older people differ in their characteristics, and less is known about whether HRQoL predicts survival in heterogeneous older population samples differing in their functional, cognitive, psychological or social disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore HRQoL in heterogeneous samples of older men and women, and to explore its prognostic significance for mortality. Methods We analysed combined individual patient data from eight heterogeneous study samples all of which were assessed with the same methods. We used 15D, a generic, comprehensive instrument for measuring HRQoL, which provides a single index in addition to a profile. Two-year mortality was retrieved from central registers. Results Health-related quality of life measurements with 15D were available for 3153 older adults. The mean HRQoL was highest among older businessmen (0.878) and lowest among nursing home residents (0.601). 15D predicted independently and significantly the 2-year survival in the total sample [hazard ratio (HR)/SD 0.44, 95% CI 0.40-0.48)]. However, 15D did not predict mortality in samples of spousal caregivers, lonely older adults and cardiovascular patients. Conclusions 15D captures health and disability factors associated with prognosis whereas in older populations suffering from psychological and social impairments such as caregiver burden or loneliness HRQoL may not reflect their health risks.
  • Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Western, David; Galvin, Kathleen A.; McElwee, Pamela; Cabeza, Mar (2020)
    Local attitudes towards wildlife encompass environmental, political, sociocultural and psychological dimensions that shape human-wildlife interactions and conservation efforts. Although the political and sociocultural dimensions of these interactions have been extensively examined by political ecologists and cultural anthropologists, psychological aspects have remained largely untapped so far. This article presents an in-depth review of a long historical record of changing attitudes towards wildlife among Maasai pastoralists of the Amboseli Ecosystem in southern Kenya, examining their shifts in light of different conservation psychology theories. The historical changes are reviewed in relation to three theories of attitudinal shifts (i.e., cognitive dissonance, reactance, and motivation crowding theory) and discussed in a context of land dispossession, conservation policies and changes in Maasai lifestyles and cultural values. We conclude that conservation psychology adds an important dimension to understanding attitudes towards wildlife and how they bear on conservation policies and practices.