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  • Oldereid, Nan B.; Wennerholm, Ulla-Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Loft, Anne; Laivuori, Hannele; Petzold, Max; Romundstad, Liv Bente; Soderstrom-Anttila, Viveca; Bergh, Christina (2018)
    BACKGROUND: Maternal factors, including increasing childbearing age and various life-style factors, are associated with poorer short- and long-term outcomes for children, whereas knowledge of paternal parameters is limited. Recently, increasing paternal age has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes, birth defects, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia in children. OBJECTIVE AND RATIONALE: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the influence of paternal factors on adverse short- and long-term child outcomes. SEARCH METHODS: PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases up to January 2017 were searched. Paternal factors examined included paternal age and life-style factors such as body mass index (BMI), adiposity and cigarette smoking. The outcome variables assessed were short-term outcomes such as preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), stillbirth, birth defects and chromosomal anomalies. Long-term outcome variables included mortality, cancers, psychiatric diseases/disorders and metabolic diseases. The systematic review follows PRISMA guidelines. Relevant meta-analyses were performed. OUTCOMES: The search included 14 371 articles out of which 238 met the inclusion criteria, and 81 were included in quantitative synthesis (meta-analyses). Paternal age and paternal life-style factors have an association with adverse outcome in offspring. This is particularly evident for psychiatric disorders such as autism, autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia, but an association is also found with stillbirth, any birth defects, orofacial clefts and trisomy 21. Paternal height, but not BMI, is associated with birth weight in offspring while paternal BMI is associated with BMI, weight and/or body fat in childhood. Paternal smoking is found to be associated with an increase in SGA, birth defects such as congenital heart defects, and orofacial clefts, cancers, brain tumours and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. These associations are significant although moderate in size, with most pooled estimates between 1.05 and 1.5, and none exceeding 2.0. WIDER IMPLICATIONS: Although the increased risks of adverse outcome in offspring associated with paternal factors and identified in this report represent serious health effects, the magnitude of these effects seems modest.
  • Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Westerlund, Hugo; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Vahtera, Jussi; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Stenholm, Sari; Steptoe, Andrew; Kivimaki, Mika (2017)
    Work stress is a risk factor for cardio-metabolic diseases, but few large-scale studies have examined the clinical profile of individuals with work stress. To address this limitation, we conducted a cross-sectional study including 43,593 working adults from a French population-based sample aged 18-72 years (the CONSTANCES cohort). According to the Effort-Reward Imbalance model, work stress was defined as an imbalance between perceived high efforts and low rewards at work. A standardized health examination included measures of anthropometry, lung function, blood pressure and standard blood-based biomarkers. Linear regression analyses before and after multivariable adjustment for age, socioeconomic status, depressive symptoms, health-related behaviours, and chronic conditions showed that work stress was associated with higher BMI, waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, alanine transaminase, white blood cell count and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men, and with higher BMI and white blood cell count in women (differences 0.03-0.06 standard deviations, P <0.05 between individuals with and without work stress). No robust associations were observed with lung function, haemoglobin, creatinine, glucose levels or resting blood pressure measures. This indicates that work stress is associated altered metabolic profile, increased systemic inflammation, and, in men, poorer liver function, which is a marker of high alcohol consumption.
  • Jelenkovic, Aline; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Bogl, Leonie H.; Aaltonen, Sari; Ji, Fuling; Ning, Feng; Pang, Zengchang; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, Jose Antonio; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Kim, Bia; Chong, Youngsook; Hong, Changhee; Shin, Hyun Jung; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkila, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F.; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G.; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H.; Rasmussen, Finn; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri (2015)
    A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m(2) in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m(2) in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.