Browsing by Subject "PROGRAM"

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  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search for the standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) decaying to b(b)over-bar when produced in association with an electroweak vector boson is reported for the following processes: Z(vv)H, W(mu v)H, W(ev)H, Z(mu mu)H, and Z(ee)H. The search is performed in data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 f( -1) at root s = 13 TeV recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC during Run 2 in 2016. An excess of events is observed in data compared to the expectation in the absence of a H -> b(b)over-bar, signal. The significance of this excess is 3.3 standard deviations, where the expectation from SM Higgs boson production is 2.8. The signal strength corresponding to this excess, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson production, is 1.2 +/- 0.4. When combined with the Run 1 measurement of the same processes, the signal significance is 3.8 standard deviations with 3.8 expected. The corresponding signal strength, relative to that of the SM Higgs boson, is 1.06(-0.29)(+0.31). (C) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Tedre, Matti; Moisseinen, Nella (2014)
    Experiments play a central role in science. The role of experiments in computing is, however, unclear. Questions about the relevance of experiments in computing attracted little attention until the 1980s. As the discipline then saw a push towards experimental computer science, a variety of technically, theoretically, and empirically oriented views on experiments emerged. As a consequence of those debates, today's computing fields use experiments and experiment terminology in a variety of ways. This paper analyzes experimentation debates in computing. It presents five ways in which debaters have conceptualized experiments in computing: feasibility experiment, trial experiment, field experiment, comparison experiment, and controlled experiment. This paper has three aims: to clarify experiment terminology in computing; to contribute to disciplinary self-understanding of computing; and, due to computing's centrality in other fields, to promote understanding of experiments in modern science in general.
  • Idehen, Esther E.; Korhonen, Tellervo; Castaneda, Anu; Juntunen, Teppo; Kangasniemi, Mari; Pietila, Anna-Maija; Koponen, Paivikki (2017)
    Background: Previous studies revealed low participation in cervical cancer screening among immigrants compared with non-immigrants. Only a few studies about factors associated with immigrants' lower participation rates have been conducted in European countries that have universal access for all eligible women. Our study aimed to explore factors associated with cervical screening participation among women of Russian, Somali, and Kurdish origin in Finland. Methods: We used data from the Migrant Health and Well-being Survey, 2010-2012. Structured face-to-face interviews of groups of immigrants aged 25-60 yielded 620 responses concerning screening participation in the previous five years. Statistical analysis employed logistic regression. Results: The age-adjusted participation rates were as follows: among women of Russian origin 73.9% (95% CI 68.1-79.7), for Somalis 34.7% (95% CI 26.4-43.0), and for Kurds 61.3% (95% CI 55.0-67.7). Multiple logistic regressions showed that the most significant factor increasing the likelihood of screening participation among all groups was having had at least one gynecological check-up in the previous five years (Odds ratio [OR] = 6.54-26.2; p <0.001). Other factors were higher education (OR = 2.63; p = 0.014), being employed (OR = 4.31; p = 0.007), and having given birth (OR = 9.34; p= 0.014), among Kurds; and literacy in Finnish/Swedish (OR = 3.63; p = 0.003) among Russians. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that women who refrain from using reproductive health services, those who are unemployed and less educated, as well as those with poor language proficiency, might need more information on the importance of screening participation. Primary and occupational healthcare services may have a significant role in informing immigrant women about this importance.
  • Laine, Anna; Välimäki, Maritta; Pekurinen, Virve; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Marttunen, Mauri; Anttila, Minna (2019)
    Background: Web-based interventions are promising tools for increasing the understanding of illness and treatment among patients with serious mental disorders. Objective: This study aimed to test the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based patient education intervention using a quasi-experimental cluster design to report feedback on patient education sessions and the website used and to report preliminary evidence of the intervention's impact on patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder. Methods: A single-blind, parallel, quasi-experimental cluster study over a 6-month period comparing Web-based education (n=33) with a nonequivalent control group (treatment as usual, n=24) for people with schizophrenia spectrum disorder was conducted. Participants (N=57) were recruited from one psychiatric hospital (6 wards). Feasibility was assessed by participants' commitment (refusal rate, dropout rate) to the study. Acceptability was assessed as participants' commitment to the intervention. Patient education sessions and website feedback were assessed by the patients and health care professionals. The preliminary impact of the sessions on patients' self-efficacy, self-esteem, illness cognition, and knowledge level was measured at baseline and follow-ups (8 weeks, 6 months) with self-rated questionnaires. Results: The refusal rate among patients was high with no statistically significant difference (69% [74/107] in the intervention group, 76% [76/100] in the control group; P =.21). The same result was found for the dropout rates (48% [16/33] vs 58% [14/24]; P=. 46). The acceptability of the intervention was good; 31 participants out of 33 (94%) completed all five sessions. Feedback on the intervention was mainly positive; three out of four subscales of session were rated above the midpoint of 4.0. Feedback on the website was also positive, with a grade of good for content (69%, 20/29 patients; 75%, 21/28 professionals), layout (62%, 18/29 patients; 61%, 17/28 professionals), and usability (62%, 18/29 patients; and 68%, 19/28 professionals). The patients using the intervention had significantly higher scores 6 months after the sessions in self-efficacy (baseline mean 26.12, SD 5.64 vs 6-month mean 29.24, SD 6.05; P=.003) and regarding knowledge level about schizophrenia (mean 11.39, SD 4.65 vs 6-month mean 15.06, SD 5.26; P=. 002), and lower scores in the subscale of helplessness in illness cognition (mean 2.26, SD 0.96 vs 6-month mean 1.85, SD 0.59; P=.03). Differences from the control group were not significant. No differences were found in patients' self-esteem or other subscales in illness cognition. Conclusions: The patients were reluctant to participate in the study and tended to drop out before the follow-ups. Once they had participated, their acceptance of the intervention was high. A more effective recruitment strategy and monitoring method will be needed in future studies. To assess the impact of the intervention, a more rigorous study design with an adequately powered sample size will be used in cooperation with outpatient mental health services.
  • Jäntti, Toni; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Parissis, John; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Silva-Cardoso, Jose; Kober, Lars; Banaszewski, Marek; Spinar, Jindrich; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Tolonen, Jukka; Carubelli, Valentina; diSomma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Lassus, Johan; CardShock Investigators (2017)
    Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a cardiac emergency often leading to multiple organ failure and death. Assessing organ dysfunction and appropriate risk stratification are central for the optimal management of these patients. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of abnormal liver function tests (LFTs), as well as early changes of LFTs and their impact on outcome in CS. We measured LFTs in 178 patients in CS from serial blood samples taken at 0 hours, 12 hours, and 24 hours. The associations of LFT abnormalities and their early changes with all-cause 90-day mortality were estimated using Fisher's exact test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis. Baseline alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was abnormal in 58% of the patients, more frequently in nonsurvivors. Abnormalities in other LFTs analyzed (alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, and total bilirubin) were not associated with short-term mortality. An increase in ALT of >20% within 24 hours (AALT>+20%) was observed in 24% of patients. AALT>+20% was associated with a more than 2-fold increase in mortality compared with those with stable or decreasing ALT (70% and 28%, p +20% was associated with increased 90-day mortality independent of other known" risk factors. In conclusion, an increase in ALT in the initial phase was seen in 1/4 of patients in CS and was independently associated with 90-day mortality. This finding suggests that serial ALT measurements should be incorporated in the clinical assessment of patients in CS. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Lehtola, Susi (2019)
    We present the implementation of a variational finite element solver in the HelFEM program for benchmark calculations on diatomic systems. A basis set of the form chi nlm mu nu phi=Bn mu Ylm nu phi is used, where (mu, nu, phi) are transformed prolate spheroidal coordinates, B-n(mu) are finite element shape functions, and Ylm are spherical harmonics. The basis set allows for an arbitrary level of accuracy in calculations on diatomic molecules, which can be performed at present with either nonrelativistic Hartree-Fock (HF) or density functional (DF) theory. Hundreds of DFs at the local spin density approximation (LDA), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and the meta-GGA level can be used through an interface with the Libxc library; meta-GGA and hybrid DFs are not available in other fully numerical diatomic program packages. Finite electric fields are also supported in HelFEM, enabling access to electric properties. We introduce a powerful tool for adaptively choosing the basis set by using the core Hamiltonian as a proxy for its completeness. HelFEM and the novel basis set procedure are demonstrated by reproducing the restricted open-shell HF limit energies of 68 diatomic molecules from the first to the fourth period with excellent agreement with literature values, despite requiring orders of magnitude fewer parameters for the wave function. Then, the electric properties of the BH and N-2 molecules under finite field are studied, again yielding excellent agreement with previous HF limit values for energies, dipole moments, and dipole polarizabilities, again with much more compact wave functions than what were needed for the literature references. Finally, HF, LDA, GGA, and meta-GGA calculations of the atomization energy of N-2 are performed, demonstrating the superb accuracy of the present approach.
  • Qvist, Laura; Niskanen, Markku; Mannermaa, Kristiina; Wutke, Saskia; Aspi, Jouni (2019)
    Background: The Finnhorse was established as a breed more than 110 years ago by combining local Finnish landraces. Since its foundation, the breed has experienced both strong directional selection, especially for size and colour, and severe population bottlenecks that are connected with its initial foundation and subsequent changes in agricultural and forestry practices. Here, we used sequences of the mitochondrial control region and genomic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the genetic diversity and differentiation of the four Finnhorse breeding sections: trotters, pony-sized horses, draught horses and riding horses. Furthermore, we estimated inbreeding and effective population sizes over time to infer the history of this breed. Results: We found a high level of mitochondrial genetic variation and identified 16 of the 18 haplogroups described in present-day horses. Interestingly, one of these detected haplogroups was previously reported only in the Przewalski’s horse. Female effective population sizes were in the thousands, but declines were evident at the times when the breed and its breeding sections were founded. By contrast, nuclear variation and effective population sizes were small (approximately 50). Nevertheless, inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds. Based on nuclear SNP data, genetic differentiation among the four breeding sections was strongest between the draught horses and the three other sections (FST=0.007–0.018), whereas based on mitochondrial DNA data, it was strongest between the trotters and the pony-sized and riding horses (ΦST= 0.054–0.068). Conclusions: The existence of a Przewalski’s horse haplogroup in the Finnhorse provides new insights into the domestication of the horse, and this finding supports previous suggestions of a close relationship between the Finnhorse and eastern primitive breeds. The high level of mitochondrial DNA variation in the Finnhorse supports its domestication from a large number of mares but also reflects that its founding depended on many local landraces. Although inbreeding in Finnhorses was lower than in many other horse breeds, the small nuclear effective popula- tion sizes of each of its breeding sections can be considered as a warning sign, which warrants changes in breeding practices.
  • Koivusalo, Saila B.; Rönö, Kristiina; Klemetti, Miira M.; Roine, Risto P.; Lindstrom, Jaana; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kaaja, Risto J.; Pöyhönen-Alho, Maritta; Tiitinen, Aila; Huvinen, Emilia; Andersson, Sture; Laivuori, Hannele; Valkama, Anita Johanna; Meinila, Jelena; Kautiainen, Hannu; Eriksson, Johan G.; Stach-Lempinen, Beata (2016)
    OBJECTIVE To assess whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) can be prevented by a moderate lifestyle intervention in pregnant women who are at high risk for the disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Two hundred ninety-three women with a history of GDM and/or a prepregnancy BMI of >= 30 kg/m(2) were enrolled in the study at RESULTS A total of 269 women were included in the analyses. The incidence of GDM was 13.9% in the intervention group and 21.6% in the control group ([95% CI 0.40-0.98%]; P = 0.044, after adjustment for age, prepregnancy BMI, previous GDM status, and the number of weeks of gestation). Gestational weight gain was lower in the intervention group (20.58 kg [95% CI 21.12 to 20.04 kg]; adjusted P = 0.037). Women in the intervention group increased their leisure time physical activity more and improved their dietary quality compared with women in the control group. CONCLUSIONS A moderate individualized lifestyle intervention reduced the incidence of GDM by 39% in high-risk pregnant women. These findings may have major health consequences for both the mother and the child.
  • Joura, Elmar A.; Kyrgiou, Maria; Bosch, Francisco X.; Kesic, Vesna; Nieminen, Pekka; Redman, Charles W. E.; Gultekin, Murat (2019)
    Vaccines against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available in Europe since 2006. They have been highly effective in preventing infection and disease caused by the vaccine types. Clinical efficacy data are available for cervical, vulvovaginal and anal precancer and invasive cervical cancer. Disease reduction is best with early vaccination and a coverage of more than 70%. Gender-neutral vaccination provides direct protection for all men and improves the coverage. A good coverage is followed by herd protection of the unvaccinated men and women. School-based programs appear to be most effective; under the age of 15 years, two doses with an interval of 6-12 months are sufficient. From the age of 15 years, the standard regimen with three doses is recommended. A broad catch-up program for young adult women and men improves the effectiveness. The vaccines are also effective in sexually active women and men with previous but cleared infections. Vaccination in addition to local treatment of HPV-related disease appears to reduce recurrent or subsequent HPV-related disease. Combination of HPV vaccination and screening with HPV testing is the most effective approach to prevention of cervical cancer. The screening intervals may increase in the vaccinated cohorts. The upper age limit for vaccination remains to be evaluated, is country specific and depends on cost-effectiveness. The European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology and the European Federation for Colposcopy strongly support gender-neutral vaccination programs for children and young adolescents, with a catch-up program for young adults. (C) 2019 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
  • Penn, Linda; White, Martin; Lindstrom, Jaana; den Boer, Annemieke Th.; Blaak, Ellen; Eriksson, Johan G.; Feskens, Edith; Ilanne-Parikka, Pirjo; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka M.; Walker, Mark; Mathers, John C.; Uusitupa, Matti; Tuomilehto, Jaakko (2013)
  • Kesanen, Jukka; Leino-Kilpi, Helena; Lund, Teija; Montin, Liisa; Puukka, Pauli; Valkeapaa, Kirsi (2017)
    Purpose To assess the impact of preoperative knowledge on anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), disability, and pain in surgically treated spinal stenosis patients. Methods One hundred patients were randomised into an intervention group (IG, n = 50) or control group (CG, n = 50). Both groups received routine preoperative patient education. IG additionally underwent a feedback session based on a knowledge test. Primary outcome measure was anxiety at the time of surgery. HRQoL, disability, and pain constituted the secondary outcome measures during a 6-month follow-up. Results In IG, a significant reduction in anxiety was noted after the intervention, whereas in CG, anxiety reduced only after the surgery. In both groups, a significant improvement in HRQoL, disability, and pain was noticed at the 6-month follow-up, but there were no between-group differences. Conclusions Higher knowledge level may reduce preoperative anxiety but does not seem to affect the self-reported clinical outcomes of surgery.
  • Sokka, Iris Katariina; Ekholm, Filip S.; Johansson, Mikael P. (2019)
    Monomethyl auristatin E and monomethyl auristatin F are widely used cytotoxic agents in antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), a group of promising cancer drugs. The ADCs specifically target cancer cells, releasing the auristatins inside, which results in the prevention of mitosis. The auristatins suffer from a potentially serious flaw, however. In solution, the molecules exist in an equal mixture of two conformers, cis and trans. Only the trans-isomer is biologically active and the isomerization process, i.e., the conversion of cis to trans is slow. This significantly diminishes the efficiency of the drugs and their corresponding ADCs, and perhaps more importantly, raises concerns over drug safety. The potency of the auristatins would be enhanced by decreasing the amount of the biologically inactive isomer, either by stabilizing the transisomer or destabilizing the cis-isomer. Here, we follow the computer-aided design strategy of shifting the conformational equilibrium and employ high-level quantum chemical modeling to identify promising candidates for improved auristatins. Coupled cluster calculations predict that a simple halogenation in the norephedrine/phenylalanine residues shifts the isomer equilibrium almost completely toward the active trans-conformation, due to enhanced intramolecular interactions specific to the active isomer.
  • Kaunomäki, Jenni; Jokela, Markus; Kontio, Raija; Laiho, Tero; Sailas, Eila; Lindberg, Nina (2017)
    Background: Patient aggression and violence against staff members and other patients are common concerns in psychiatric units. Many structured clinical risk assessment tools have recently been developed. Despite their superiority to unaided clinical judgments, staff has shown ambivalent views towards them. A constant worry of staff is that the results of risk assessments would not be used. The aims of the present study were to investigate what were the interventions applied by the staff of a psychiatric admission ward after a high risk patient had been identified, how frequently these interventions were used and how effective they were. Methods: The data were collected in a naturalistic setting during a 6-month period in a Finnish psychiatric admission ward with a total of 331 patients with a mean age of 42.9 years (SD 17.39) suffering mostly from mood, schizophrenia-related and substance use disorders. The total number of treatment days was 2399. The staff assessed the patients daily with the Dynamic Appraisal of Situational Aggression (DASA), which is a structured violence risk assessment considering the upcoming 24 h. The interventions in order to reduce the risk of violence following a high DASA total score (>= 4) were collected from the patients' medical files. Inductive content analysis was used. Results: There were a total of 64 patients with 217 observations of high DASA total score. In 91.2% of cases, at least one intervention aiming to reduce the violence risk was used. Pro re nata (PRN)-medication, seclusion and focused discussions with a nurse were the most frequently used interventions. Non-coercive and non-pharmacological interventions like daily activities associated significantly with the decrease of perceived risk of violence. Conclusion: In most cases, a high score in violence risk assessment led to interventions aiming to reduce the risk. Unfortunately, the most frequently used methods were psychopharmacological or coercive. It is hoped that the findings will encourage the staff to use their imagination when choosing violence risk reducing intervention techniques.
  • Willamo, R.; Helenius, L.; Holmström, C.; Haapanen, L.; Sandström, V.; Huotari, E.; Kaarre, K.; Värre, U.; Nuotiomäki, A.; Happonen, J.; Kolehmainen, L. (2018)
    Sustainability challenges such as climate change, biodiversity loss, poverty and rapid urbanization are complex and strongly interrelated. In order to successfully deal with these challenges, we need comprehensive approaches that integrate knowledge from multiple disciplines and perspectives and emphasize interconnections. In short, they aid in observing matters in a wider perspective without losing an understanding of the details. In order to teach and learn a comprehensive approach, we need to better understand what comprehensive thinking actually is. In this paper, we present a conceptual framework for a comprehensive approach, termed the GHH framework. The framework comprises three dimensions: generalism, holism, and holarchism. It contributes to the academic community's understanding of comprehensive thinking and it can be used for integrating comprehensive thinking into education. Also, practical examples of the application of the framework in university teaching are presented. We argue that an ideal approach to sustainability challenges and complexity in general is a balanced, dialectical combination of comprehensive and differentiative approaches. The current dominance of specialization, or the differentiative approach, in university education calls for a stronger emphasis on comprehensive thinking skills. Comprehensiveness should not be considered as a flawed approach, but should instead be considered as important an aspect in education as specialized and differentiative skills. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Rintamäki, Reeta; Rautio, Nina; Peltonen, Markku; Jokelainen, Jari; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Oksa, Heikki; Saaristo, Timo; Puolijoki, Hannu; Saltevo, Juha; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; Moilanen, Leena (2021)
    Aims: The Finnish National Diabetes Prevention Program (FIN-D2D) was the first large-scale diabetes prevention program in a primary health care setting in the world. The risk reduction of type 2 diabetes was 69% after one-year intervention in high-risk individuals who were able to lose 5% of their weight. We investigated long-term effects of one-year weight change on the incidence of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality. Methods: A total of 10,149 high-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes were identified in primary health care centers and they were offered lifestyle intervention to prevent diabetes. Of these individuals who participated in the baseline screening, 8353 had an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Complete followup data during one-year intervention were available for 2730 individuals and those were included in the follow-up analysis. The long-term outcome events were collected from national health registers after the median follow-up of 7.4 years. Results: Among individuals who lost weight 2.5 & minus;4.9% and 5% or more during the first year, the hazard ratio for the incidence of drug-treated diabetes was 0.63 (95% CI 0.49 & minus;0.81, p = 0.0001), and 0.71 (95% CI 0.56 & minus;0.90, p = 0.004), respectively, compared with those with stable weight. There were no significant differences in cardiovascular events or all-cause mortality among study participants according to oneyear weight changes. Conclusions: High-risk individuals for type 2 diabetes who achieved a moderate weight loss by one-year lifestyle counseling in primary health care had a long-term reduction in the incidence of drug-treated type 2 diabetes. The observed moderate weight loss was not associated with a reduction in cardiovascular events. (c) 2021 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Wasenius, Niko S.; Isomaa, Bo A.; Östman, Bjarne; Söderström, Johan; Forsen, Björn; Lahti, Kaj; Hakaste, Liisa; Eriksson, Johan G.; Groop, Leif; Hansson, Ola; Tuomi, Tiinamaija (2020)
    Introduction To investigate the effect of an exercise prescription and a 1-year supervised exercise intervention, and the modifying effect of the family history of type 2 diabetes (FH), on long-term cardiometabolic health. Research design and methods For this prospective randomized trial, we recruited non-diabetic participants with poor fitness (n=1072, 30-70 years). Participants were randomly assigned with stratification for FH either in the exercise prescription group (PG, n=144) or the supervised exercise group (EG, n=146) group and compared with a matched control group from the same population study (CON, n=782). The PG and EG received exercise prescriptions. In addition, the EG attended supervised exercise sessions two times a week for 60 min for 12 months. Cardiometabolic risk factors were measured at baseline, 1 year, 5 years, and 6 years. The CON group received no intervention and was measured at baseline and 6 years. Results The EG reduced their body weight, waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) but not physical fitness (p=0.074) or insulin or glucose regulation (p>0.1) compared with the PG at 1 year and 5 years (p Conclusions Low-cost physical activity programs have long-term beneficial effects on cardiometabolic health regardless of the FH of diabetes. Given the feasibility and low cost of these programs, they should be advocated to promote cardiometabolic health.
  • Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Castan, Helena; Duenas, Salvador; Link, Joosep; Stern, Raivo; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Jogiaas, Taivo; Kozlova, Jekaterina; Rahn, Mihkel; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku (2020)
    SiO2-Fe2O3 mixture films and nanolaminates were grown by atomic layer deposition from iron trichloride, hexakis(ethylamino)disilane, and ozone at 300 degrees C. Orthorhombic -Fe2O3 was identified in Fe2O3 reference films and in Fe2O3 layers grown to certain thicknesses between amorphous SiO2 layers. SiO2-Fe2O3 films could be magnetized in external fields, exhibiting saturation and hysteresis in nonlinear magnetization-field curves. Electrical resistive switching, markedly dependent on the ratio of the component oxides, was also observed in films with proper composition. For relatively conductive films, application of small signal measurements allowed one to record memory maps with notable squareness and defined distinction between high and low conductance states.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A measurement is presented of the effective leptonic weak mixing angle (sin(2) theta(effl))using the forward- backward asymmetry of Drell-Yan lepton pairs (mu mu and ee) produced in proton-proton collisions at N root s = 8 TeV at the CMS experiment of the LHC. The data correspond to integrated luminosities of 18.8 and 19.6 fb(-1) in the dimuon and dielectron channels, respectively, containing 8.2 million dimuon and 4.9 million dielectron events. With more events and new analysis techniques, including constraints obtained on the parton distribution functions from the measured forward-backward asymmetry, the statistical and systematic uncertainties are significantly reduced relative to previous CMS measurements. The extracted value of sin(2) theta(effl) from the combined dilepton data is sin(2) theta(effl) = 0.23101 +/- 0.00036 (stat) +/- 0.00018 (syst) 0.00016 (theo) +/- 0.00031 (parton distributions in proton) = 0.23101 +/- 0.00053.
  • Kallio, Eeva-Liisa; Hietanen, Marja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Pitkälä, Kaisu H. (2021)
    Effectiveness of a 12-week cognitive training (CT) programme for community-dwelling patients with dementia was evaluated on various cognitive functions (attention, memory, executive functions and reasoning) and psychological well-being (PWB). A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted in adult day care centres in Helsinki, Finland. Participants (N = 147) were older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending day care (mean age 83 years, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia). The intervention group (n= 76) received systematic CT for 45 min twice a week while the control group (n = 71) attended day care as usual. The cognitive and psychological outcomes were measured at baseline, and followed up at 3 and 9 months. No differences between the two groups in changes of any of the cognitive functions, or PWB over time were found. We observed a positive trend at 3 months in the change for PWB favouring the intervention group, but no significant interaction effect was found (p = .079;d = -0.31). Thus, systematic CT appears to have no effect on neuropsychological outcomes of cognitive functioning and PWB in older adults who already have dementia.
  • Jin, Xin; Crocombette, Jean-Paul; Djurabekova, Flyura; Zhang, Shuo; Nordlund, Kai; Garrido, Frederico; Debelle, Aurelien (2020)
    As Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode (RBS/C) is an efficient technique for characterizing crystallographic defects, its computational simulation has drawn attention over the past several decades. Recently, a RBS/C simulation code based on the binary collision approximation called Rutherford backscattering simulation in arbitrary defective crystals has been suggested and successfully applied to predict the RBS/C spectra from different damaged materials, whose structures were generated in high-dose ion irradiation atomistic simulations. In the present paper, we introduce new developments improving the flexibility of the developed software and its applicability to different types of materials. More precisely, we modified the algorithm describing the slowdown process of backscattered ions, added fitting parameters in the collision partner search routine, modified the routine taking into account target atom thermal vibrations and provided new descriptions of the ion beam divergence. As an example, the effect of the modifications on simulated RBS/C spectra is shown for an <011 & rang;-oriented UO(2)crystal analyzed with a 3.085 MeV He(2+)ion beam. Some of these changes proved necessary to achieve satisfying agreement between simulations and experimental data. Similar observation was made for <001 & rang;-oriented Si and <001 & rang;-oriented GaAs crystals analyzed with a 1.4 MeV He(+)ion beam. In these simulations, the modifications have also resulted in good agreement with experiment.