Browsing by Subject "PROLIFERATION"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 21-40 of 78
  • Li, Li; Huang, Yulun; Gao, Yuge; Shi, Tengfei; Xu, Yunyun; Li, Huini; Hyytiäinen, Marko; Keski-Oja, Jorma; Jiang, Qiuying; Hu, Yizhou; Du, Zhimin (2018)
    BackgroundGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most malignant central nervous system tumor. Alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent for GBM. However, the sensitivity of GBM cells to TMZ is affected by many factors. And, several clinic trials, including co-administration of TMZ with other drugs, have failed in successful treatment of GBM. We have previously reported that Netrin-4 (NTN4), a laminin-like axon guidance protein, plays a protective role in GBM cell senescence upon TMZ-triggered DNA damage. However, the master regulator of NTN4 needs further elucidation. Epidermal growth factor/Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF/EGFR) can modulate the expression of various extracellular matrix related molecules, and prevent DNA damage in GBM cells. In this study, we investigated the relationship between EGF/EGFR signaling and NTN4, and explored their effect on therapeutic efficacy in GBM cells upon TMZ treatment.MethodsCo-expression analysis were performed by using the RNA sequencing data from NIH 934 cell lines and from single cell RNA sequencing data of GBM tumor. The co-expressing genes were used for GO enrichment and signaling pathway enrichment. mRNA expression of the target genes were quantified by qPCR, and cell senescence were investigated by Senescence-Associated Beta-Galactosidase Staining. Protein phosphorylation were observed and analyzed by immunoblotting. The RNA sequencing data and clinical information of TMZ treated patients were extracted from TCGA-glioblastoma project, and then used for Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.ResultsAnalysis of RNA sequencing data revealed a potential co-expression relationship between NTN4 and EGFR. GO enrichment of EGFR-correlated genes indicated that EGFR regulates GBM cells in a manner similar to that in central nervous system development and neural cell differentiation. Pathway analysis suggested that EGFR and its related genes contribute to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM) organization and caspase related signaling. We also show that EGF stimulates NTN4 expression in GBM cells and cooperates with NTN4 to attenuate GBM cell senescence induced by DNA damage, possibly via AKT and ERK. Clinical analysis showed that co-expression of EGFR and NTN4 significantly predicts poor survival in TMZ-treated GBM patients.ConclusionsThis study indicates that EGF/EGFR regulates and cooperates with NTN4 in DNA damage resistance in GBM. Therefore, our findings provide a potential therapeutic target for GBM.
  • Bjorninen, Miina; Gilmore, Kerry; Pelto, Jani; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kellomaki, Minna; Miettinen, Susanna; Wallace, Gordon; Grijpma, Dirk; Haimi, Suvi (2017)
    We investigated the use of polypyrrole (PPy)-coated polymer scaffolds and electrical stimulation (ES) to differentiate adipose stem cells (ASCs) towards smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Since tissue engineering lacks robust and reusable 3D ES devices we developed a device that can deliver ES in a reliable, repeatable, and cost-efficient way in a 3D environment. Long pulse (1 ms) or short pulse (0.25 ms) biphasic electric current at a frequency of 10 Hz was applied to ASCs to study the effects of ES on ASC viability and differentiation towards SMCs on the PPy-coated scaffolds. PPy-coated scaffolds promoted proliferation and induced stronger calponin, myosin heavy chain (MHC) and smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in ASCs compared to uncoated scaffolds. ES with 1 ms pulse width increased the number of viable cells by day 7 compared to controls and remained at similar levels to controls by day 14, whereas shorter pulses significantly decreased viability compared to the other groups. Both ES protocols supported smooth muscle expression markers. Our results indicate that electrical stimulation on PPy-coated scaffolds applied through the novel 3D ES device is a valid approach for vascular smooth muscle tissue engineering.
  • Utami, Kagistia Hana; Yusof, Nur Amirah Binte Mohammad; Kwa, Jing Eugene; Peteri, Ulla-Kaisa; Castrén, Maija L.; Pouladi, Mahmoud A. (2020)
    FXS is the most common genetic cause of intellectual (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). FXS is caused by loss of FMRP, an RNA-binding protein involved in the translational regulation of a large number of neuronal mRNAs. Absence of FMRP has been shown to lead to elevated protein synthesis and is thought to be a major cause of the synaptic plasticity and behavioural deficits in FXS. The increase in protein synthesis results in part from abnormal activation of key protein translation pathways downstream of ERK1/2 and mTOR signalling. Pharmacological and genetic interventions that attenuate hyperactivation of these pathways can normalize levels of protein synthesis and improve phenotypic outcomes in animal models of FXS. Several efforts are currently underway to trial this strategy in patients with FXS. To date, elevated global protein synthesis as a result of FMRP loss has not been validated in the context of human neurons. Here, using an isogenic human stem cell-based model, we show that de novo protein synthesis is elevated in FMRP-deficient neural cells. We further show that this increase is associated with elevated ERK1/2 and Akt signalling and can be rescued by metformin treatment. Finally, we examined the effect of normalizing protein synthesis on phenotypic abnormalities in FMRP-deficient neural cells. We find that treatment with metformin attenuates the increase in proliferation of FMRP-deficient neural progenitor cells but not the neuronal deficits in neurite outgrowth. The elevated level of protein synthesis and the normalization of neural progenitor proliferation by metformin treatment were validated in additional control and FXS patient-derived hiPSC lines. Overall, our results validate that loss of FMRP results in elevated de novo protein synthesis in human neurons and suggest that approaches targeting this abnormality are likely to be of partial therapeutic benefit in FXS.
  • Kylmä, Anna Kaisa; Tolvanen, Tuomas Aleksi; Carpén, Timo; Haglund, Caj; Mäkitie, Antti; Mattila, Petri S.; Grenman, Reidar; Jouhi, Lauri; Sorsa, Timo; Lehtonen, Sanna; Hagström, Jaana (2020)
    In oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC), the expression pattern of toll-like receptors (TLRs), in comparison between human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative tumors differs. TLRs control innate immune responses by activating, among others, the nuclear factor-κΒ (NF-κΒ) signaling pathway. Elevated NF-κΒ activity is detectable in several cancers and regulates cancer development and progression. We studied TLR5 expression in 143 unselected consecutive OPSCC tumors, and its relation to HPV-DNA and p16 status, clinicopathological parameters, and patient outcome, and studied TLR5 stimulation and consecutive NF-κB cascade activation in vitro in two human OPSCC cell lines and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCat). Clinicopathological data came from hospital registries, and TLR5 immunoexpression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Flagellin served to stimulate TLR5 in cultured cells, followed by analysis of the activity of the NF-κB signaling cascade with In-Cell Western for IκΒ and p-IκΒ. High TLR5 expression was associated with poor disease-specific survival in HPV-positive OPSCC, which typically shows low TLR5 immunoexpression. High TLR5 immunoexpression was more common in HPV-negative OPSCC, known for its less-favorable prognosis. In vitro, we detected NF-κΒ cascade activation in the HPV-positive OPSCC cell line and in HaCat cells, but not in the HPV-negative OPSCC cell line. Our results suggest that elevated TLR5 immunoexpression may be related to reduced NF-κΒ activity in HPV-negative OPSCC. The possible prognosis-worsening mechanisms among these high-risk OPSCC patients however, require further evaluation.
  • Miroshnikova, Yekaterina A; Cohen, Idan; Ezhkova, Elena; Wickström, Sara A (2019)
    The skin epidermis is a constantly renewing stratified epithelium that provides essential protective barrier functions throughout life. Epidermal stratification is governed by a step-wise differentiation program that requires precise spatiotemporal control of gene expression. How epidermal self-renewal and differentiation are regulated remains a fundamental open question. Cell-intrinsic and cell-extrinsic mechanisms that modify chromatin structure and interactions have been identified as key regulators of epidermal differentiation and stratification. Here, we will review the recent advances in our understanding of how chromatin modifiers, tissue-specific transcription factors, and force-induced nuclear remodeling processes function to shape chromatin and to control epidermal tissue development and homeostasis.
  • Masliukaite, Ieva; Hagen, Julie M.; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Repping, Sjoerd; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon; van Pelt, Ans M. M. (2016)
    Objective: To collect published data on spermatogonial quantity in the testes of healthy children and calculate the reference values of spermatogonial quantities throughout prepuberty. Design: Systematic literature search in PubMed and EMBASE focusing on the number of spermatogonia per transverse tubular cross section (S/T) and spermatogonial density per cubic centimeter (cm(3)) of testicular volume (S/V) throughout prepuberty. Setting: None. Patient(s): None. Intervention(s): None. Main Outcome Measure(s): Polynomial meta-regression analyses of S/T and S/V of healthy boys from the ages of 0 to 14 years. Result(s): We found six papers describing original quantitative data on S/T and S/V of healthy boys (total n = 334 and 62, respectively) that were suitable formeta-analysis. Polynomialmeta-regression analyses of S/T and S/V demonstrated a clear pattern of spermatogonial quantity throughout prepubertal life. This consisted of a decline during the first 3 years of life, a gradual increase until the ages of 6 to 7 years, a plateau until the age of 11 years, and a sharp incline reaching pubertal numbers at 13 to 14 years of age. The association between S/T and S/V allowed us to perform S/T to S/V extrapolation, creating reference S/V (rS/V) values throughout prepubertal life from a cohort of 372 boys. Conclusion(s): Spermatogonial quantity varies during testicular development toward puberty. The values found in this study may serve as a baseline clinical reference to study the impact of diseases and adverse effects of gonadotoxic treatments on spermatogonial quantity in prepubertal testes. Spermatogonial quantity reference values may also help to evaluate the quality of testicular biopsy samples acquired for fertility preservation of prepubertal boys. Copyright (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine.
  • Domingueti, Catherine Bueno; Queiroz Castilho, Dayana Aparecida; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Macuco Janini, joao Baptista; Gonzalez-Arriagada, Wilfredo Alejandro; Salo, Tuula; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Ribeiro Paranaiba, Livia Maris (2020)
    Objective. Identifying markers that influence oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is a fundamental strategy to improve the overall survival of patients. Markers such as eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta (EEF1D), fascin, N-terminal propeptide of type I collagen (PINP), and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have been noticed in OSCCs and their levels are closely related to the prognosis of tumors. Our aim was to confirm the role of those markers in OSCC prognosis. Study Design. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 90 OSCC specimens. The associations between clinicopathologic features and expression of markers were assessed by chi(2) test. Kaplan-Meier curves and univariate and multivariate Cox regression models were used for survival analysis. Markers were analyzed individually and in combination. Results. High expression of EEF1D (P =.017) and PINP (P =.02) and abundant density of CAFs in tumor stroma (P =.005) predicted significantly poor survival in OSCC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that all 3 parameters are individually independent prognostic factors of OSCC patients, and their combination improved the discrimination of patients at high risk for poor survival. Conclusions. Our results suggested that the expression of EEF1D and PINP and the density of CAFs might influence the survival of patients with OSCC.
  • Juntunen, Miia; Heinonen, Sini; Huhtala, Heini; Rissanen, Aila; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kuismanen, Kirsi; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Miettinen, Susanna; Patrikoski, Mimmi (2021)
    Background Adipose stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are promising candidates for future clinical applications. ASCs have regenerative capacity, low immunogenicity, and immunomodulatory ability. The success of future cell-based therapies depends on the appropriate selection of donors. Several factors, including age, sex, and body mass index (BMI), may influence ASC characteristics. Our aim was to investigate the effect of acquired weight on ASC characteristics under the same genetic background using ASCs derived from monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs. Methods ASCs were isolated from subcutaneous adipose tissue from five weight-discordant (WD, within-pair difference in BMI > 3 kg/m(2)) MZ twin pairs, with measured BMI and metabolic status. The ASC immunophenotype, proliferation and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacity were studied. ASC immunogenicity, immunosuppression capacity and the expression of inflammation markers were investigated. ASC angiogenic potential was assessed in cocultures with endothelial cells. Results ASCs showed low immunogenicity, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation capacity independent of weight among all donors. ASCs showed a mesenchymal stem cell-like immunophenotype; however, the expression of CD146 was significantly higher in leaner WD twins than in heavier cotwins. ASCs from heavier twins from WD pairs showed significantly greater adipogenic differentiation capacity and higher expression of TNF and lower angiogenic potential compared with their leaner cotwins. ASCs showed immunosuppressive capacity in direct cocultures; however, heavier WD twins showed stronger immunosuppressive capacity than leaner cotwins. Conclusions Our genetically matched data suggest that a higher weight of the donor may have some effect on ASC characteristics, especially on angiogenic and adipogenic potential, which should be considered when ASCs are used clinically.
  • Strauss, Philipp; Marti, Hans-Peter; Beisland, Christian; Scherer, Andreas; Vegard, Lysne; Leh, Sabine; Flatberg, Arnar; Koch, Even; Beisvag, Vidar; Landolt, Lea; Skogstrand, Trude; Eikrem, Oystein S. (2018)
    Novel predictive tools for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are urgently needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been increasingly investigated for their predictive value, and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy archives may potentially be a valuable source of miRNA sequencing material, as they remain an underused resource. Core biopsies of both cancerous and adjacent normal tissues were obtained from patients (n = 12) undergoing nephrectomy. After small RNA-seq, several analyses were performed, including classifier evaluation, obesity-related inquiries, survival analysis using publicly available datasets, comparisons to the current literature and ingenuity pathway analyses. In a comparison of tumour vs. normal, 182 miRNAs were found with significant differential expression; miR-155 was of particular interest as it classified all ccRCC samples correctly and correlated well with tumour size (R-2 = 0.83); miR-155 also predicted poor survival with hazard ratios of 2.58 and 1.81 in two different TCGA (The Cancer Genome Atlas) datasets in a univariate model. However, in a multivariate Cox regression analysis including age, sex, cancer stage and histological grade, miR-155 was not a statistically significant survival predictor. In conclusion, formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy tissues are a viable source of miRNA-sequencing material. Our results further support a role for miR-155 as a promising cancer classifier and potentially as a therapeutic target in ccRCC that merits further investigation.
  • Kilpinen, Lotta; Parmar, Amarjit; Greco, Dario; Korhonen, Matti; Lehenkari, Petri; Saavalainen, Paivi; Laitinen, Saara (2016)
    Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are currently used in many cell based therapies. Prior to use in therapy, extensive expansion is required. We used microarray profiling to investigate expansion induced miRNA and mRNA expression changes of bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) derived from old and young donors. The expression levels of 36 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from the old and respectively 39 miRNAs were altered in cells derived from young donors. Of these, only 12 were differentially expressed in both young and old donor BM-MSCs, and their predicted target mRNAs, were mainly linked to cell proliferation and senescence. Further qPCR verification showed that the expression of miR-1915-3p, miR-1207, miR-3665, and miR-762 correlated with the expansion time at passage 8. Previously described BM-MSC-specific miRNA fingerprints were also detected but these remained unchanged during expansion. Interestingly, members of well-studied miR-17/92 cluster, involved in cell cycle regulation, aging and also development of immune system, were down regulated specifically in cells from old donors. The role of this cluster in MSC functionality is worth future studies since it links expansion, aging and immune system together.
  • Mannerström, Bettina; Paananen, Riku O; Abu-Shahba, Ahmed; Moilanen, Jukka; Seppänen-Kaijansinkko, Riitta; Kaur, Sippy (2019)
    In the research field of extracellular vesicles (EVs), the use of fetal bovine serum (FBS) depleted of EVs for in vitro studies is advocated to eliminate the confounding effects of media derived EVs. EV-depleted FBS may either be prepared by ultracentrifugation or purchased commercially. Nevertheless, these preparations do not guarantee an RNA-free FBS for in vitro use. In this study we address the RNA contamination issue, of small non-coding (nc)RNA in vesicular or non-vesicular fractions of FBS, ultracentrifugation EV-depleted FBS, commercial EV-depleted FBS, and in our recently developed filtration based EV-depleted FBS. Commercially available serum- and xeno-free defined media were also screened for small ncRNA contamination. Our small ncRNA sequencing data showed that all EV-depleted media and commercially available defined media contained small ncRNA contaminants. Out of the different FBS preparations studied, our ultrafiltration-based method for EV depletion performed the best in depleting miRNAs. Certain miRNAs such miR-122 and miR-203a proved difficult to remove completely and were found in all media. Compared to miRNAs, other small ncRNA (snRNA,Y RNA, snoRNA, and piRNA) were difficult to eliminate from all the studied media. Additionally, our tested defined media contained miRNAs and other small ncRNAs, albeit at a much lower level than in serum preparations. Our study showed that no media is free of small ncRNA contaminants. Therefore, in order to screen for baseline RNA contamination in culturing media, RNA sequencing data should be carefully controlled by adding a media sample as a control. This should be a mandatory step before performing cell culture experiments in order to eliminate the confounding effects of media.
  • Rodrigues, Priscila Campioni; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; de Oliveira, Carine Ervolino; Soares Macedo, Carolina Carneiro; Dourado, Mauricio Rocha; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Miguel, Marcia Costa; do Carmo, Andreia Ferreira; Lambert, Daniel W.; Graner, Edgard; da Silva, Sabrina Daniela; Alaoui-Jamali, Moulay A.; Paes Leme, Adriana Franco; Salo, Tuula A.; Coletta, Ricardo D. (2017)
    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) prognosis is related to clinical stage and histological grade. However, this stratification needs to be refined. We conducted a comparative proteome study in microdissected samples from normal oral mucosa and OSCC to identify biomarkers for malignancy. Fascin and plectin were identified as differently expressed and both are implicated in several malignancies, but the clinical impacts of aberrant fascin and plectin expression in OSCCs remains largely unknown. Immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative PCR were carried out in ex vivo OSCC samples and cell lines. A loss-of-function strategy using shRNA targeting fascin was employed to investigate in vitro and in vivo the fascin role on oral tumorigenesis. Transfections of microRNA mimics were performed to determine whether the fascin overexpression is regulated by miR-138 and miR-145. We found that fascin and plectin are frequently upregulated in OSCC samples and cell lines, but only fascin overexpression is an independent unfavorable prognostic indicator of disease-specific survival. In combination with advanced T stage, high fascin level is also an independent factor of disease-free survival. Knockdown of fascin in OSCC cells promoted cell adhesion and inhibited migration, invasion and EMT, and forced expression of miR-138 in OSCC cells significantly decreased the expression of fascin. In addition, fascin downregulation leads to reduced filopodia formation and decrease on paxillin expression. The subcutaneous xenograft model showed that tumors formed in the presence of low levels of fascin were significantly smaller compared to those formed with high fascin levels. Collectively, our findings suggest that fascin expression correlates with disease progression and may serve as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target for patients with OSCC.
  • Mansuri, N; Heuser, VD; Birkman, EM; Lintunen, M; Algars, A; Sundstrom, J; Ristamaki, R; Carpen, O; Lehtinen, L (2021)
    Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the third most common cause of cancer death. Intestinal type GC is a molecularly diverse disease. Formins control cytoskeletal processes and have been implicated in the progression of many cancers. Their clinical significance in GC remains unclear. Here, we characterize the expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and FMNL1 in intestinal GC tissue samples and investigate their association with clinical parameters, GC molecular subtypes and intratumoral T lymphocytes. Methods The prognostic significance of FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression was studied with Kaplan-Meier analyses in an online database. The expression of FHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins was characterized in GC cells, and in non-neoplastic and malignant tissues utilizing tumor microarrays of intestinal GC representing different molecular subtypes. FHOD1 and FMNL1 expression was correlated with clinical parameters, molecular features and T lymphocyte infiltration. Immunohistochemical expression of neither formin correlated with survival. Results Kaplan-Meier analysis associated high FHOD1 and FMNL1 mRNA expression with reduced overall survival (OS). Characterization of FHOD1 and FMNL1 in GC cells showed cytoplasmic expression along the actin filaments. Similar pattern was recapitulated in GC tissue samples. Elevated FMNL1 was associated with larger tumor size and higher disease stage. Downregulation of FHOD1 associated with TP53-mutated GC tumors. Tumor cell FHOD1 expression strongly correlated with high numbers of tumor-infiltrating CD8 + lymphocytes. Conclusions FHOD1 and FMNL1 proteins are expressed in the tumor cells of intestinal GC and significantly associate with clinical parameters without direct prognostic significance. FHOD1 correlates with high intratumoral CD8 + T lymphocyte infiltration in this cohort.
  • Binder, Martin; Chmielarz, Piotr; Mckinnon, Peter J.; Biggs, Leah C.; Thesleff, Irma; Balic, Anamaria (2019)
    Continuous growth of the mouse incisor teeth is due to the life-long maintenance of epithelial stem cells (SCs) in their niche called cervical loop (CL). Several signaling factors regulate SC maintenance and/or their differentiation to achieve organ homeostasis. Previous studies indicated that Hedgehog signaling is crucial for both the maintenance of the SCs in the niche, as well as for their differentiation. How Hedgehog signaling regulates these two opposing cellular behaviors within the confinement of the CL remains elusive. In this study, we used in vitro organ and cell cultures to pharmacologically attenuate Hedgehog signaling. We analyzed expression of various genes expressed in the SC niche to determine the effect of altered Hedgehog signaling on the cellular hierarchy within the niche. These genes include markers of SCs (Sox2 and Lgr5) and transit-amplifying cells (P-cadherin, Sonic Hedgehog, and Yap). Our results show that Hedgehog signaling is a critical survival factor for SCs in the niche, and that the architecture and the diversity of the SC niche are regulated by multiple Hedgehog ligands. We demonstrated the presence of an additional Hedgehog ligand, nerve-derived Desert Hedgehog, secreted in the proximity of the CL. In addition, we provide evidence that Hedgehog receptors Ptch1 and Ptch2 elicit independent responses, which enable multimodal Hedgehog signaling to simultaneously regulate SC maintenance and differentiation. Our study indicates that the cellular hierarchy in the continuously growing incisor is a result of complex interplay of two Hedgehog ligands with functionally distinct Ptch receptors. Stem Cells 2019;37:1238-1248
  • Katayama, Shintaro; Skoog, Tiina; Jouhilahti, Eeva-Mari; Siitonen, H. Annika; Nuutila, Kristo; Tervaniemi, Mari H.; Vuola, Jyrki; Johnsson, Anna; Lonnerberg, Peter; Linnarsson, Sten; Elomaa, Outi; Kankuri, Esko; Kere, Juha (2015)
    Background: Keratinocytes (KCs) are the most frequent cells in the epidermis, and they are often isolated and cultured in vitro to study the molecular biology of the skin. Cultured primary cells and various immortalized cells have been frequently used as skin models but their comparability to intact skin has been questioned. Moreover, when analyzing KC transcriptomes, fluctuation of polyA+ RNA content during the KCs' lifecycle has been omitted. Results: We performed STRT RNA sequencing on 10 ng samples of total RNA from three different sample types: i) epidermal tissue (split-thickness skin grafts), ii) cultured primary KCs, and iii) HaCaT cell line. We observed significant variation in cellular polyA+ RNA content between tissue and cell culture samples of KCs. The use of synthetic RNAs and SAMstrt in normalization enabled comparison of gene expression levels in the highly heterogenous samples and facilitated discovery of differences between the tissue samples and cultured cells. The transcriptome analysis sensitively revealed genes involved in KC differentiation in skin grafts and cell cycle regulation related genes in cultured KCs and emphasized the fluctuation of transcription factors and non-coding RNAs associated to sample types. Conclusions: The epidermal keratinocytes derived from tissue and cell culture samples showed highly different polyA+ RNA contents. The use of SAMstrt and synthetic RNA based normalization allowed the comparison between tissue and cell culture samples and thus proved to be valuable tools for RNA-seq analysis with translational approach. Transciptomics revealed clear difference both between tissue and cell culture samples and between primary KCs and immortalized HaCaT cells.
  • Parmar, Amarjit; Greco, Dario; Venalainen, Jarkko; Gentile, Massimiliano; Dukes, Emma; Saavalainen, Päivi (2013)
  • Doerner, Julia; Rodriguez, Verena Martinez; Ziegler, Ricarda; Roehrig, Theresa; Cochran, Rebecca S.; Goetz, Ronni M.; Levin, Mark D.; Pihlajoki, Marjut; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B. (2017)
    As certain strains of mice age, hyperplastic lesions resembling gonadal tissue accumulate beneath the adrenal capsule. Gonadectomy (GDX) accelerates this heterotopic differentiation, resulting in the formation of wedge-shaped adrenocortical neoplasms that produce sex steroids. Stem/progenitor cells that reside in the adrenal capsule and retain properties of the adrenogonadal primordium are thought to be the source of this heterotopic tissue. Here, we demonstrate that GLI1(+) progenitors in the adrenal capsule give rise to gonadal-like cells that accumulate in the subcapsular region. A tamoxifen-inducible Cre driver (Glil-creER(T2)) and two reporters (R26R-lacZ, R26R-confetti) were used to track the fate of GLI1(+) cells in the adrenal glands of B6D2F2 mice, a strain that develops both GDX-induced adrenocortical neoplasms and age-dependent subcapsular cell hyperplasia. In gonadectomized B6D2F2 mice GLI1(+) progenitors contributed to long-lived adrenal capsule cells and to adrenocortical neoplasms that expressed Gata4 and Foxl2, two prototypical gonadal markers. Pdgfra, a gene expressed in adrenocortical stromal cells, was upregulated in the GDX-induced neoplasms. In aged non-gonadectomized B6D2F2 mice GLI1(+) progenitors gave rise to patches of subcapsular cell hyperplasia. Treatment with GANT61, a small-molecule GLI antagonist, attenuated the upregulation of gonadal-like markers (Gata4, Foxl2) in response to GDX. These findings support the premise that GLI1(+) progenitor cells in the adrenal capsule of the adult mouse give rise to heterotopic tissue. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Arasu, Uma Thanigai; Deen, Ashik Jawahar; Pasonen-Seppänen, Sanna; Heikkinen, Sami; Lalowski, Maciej; Kärnä, Riikka; Härkönen, Kai; Mäkinen, Petri; Lazaro-Ibañez, Elisa; Siljander, Pia R-M; Oikari, Sanna; Levonen, Anna-Liisa; Rilla, Kirsi (2020)
    Intercellular communication is fundamental to the survival and maintenance of all multicellular systems, whereas dysregulation of communication pathways can drive cancer progression. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cell-to-cell communication that regulate a variety of cellular processes involved in tumor progression. Overexpression of a specific plasma membrane enzyme, hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3), is one of the factors that can induce EV shedding. HAS3, and particularly its product hyaluronan (HA), are carried by EVs and are known to be associated with the tumorigenic properties of cancer cells. To elucidate the specific effects of cancerous, HAS3-induced EVs on target cells, normal human keratinocytes and melanoma cells were treated with EVs derived from GFP-HAS3 expressing metastatic melanoma cells. We found that the HA receptor CD44 participated in the regulation of EV binding to target cells. Furthermore, GFP-HAS3-positive EVs induced HA secretion, proliferation and invasion of target cells. Our results suggest that HAS3-EVs contains increased quantities of IHH, which activates the target cell hedgehog signaling cascade and leads to the activation of c-Myc and regulation of claspin expression. This signaling of IHH in HAS3-EVs resulted in increased cell proliferation. Claspin immunostaining correlated with HA content in human cutaneous melanocytic lesions, supporting our in vitro findings and suggesting a reciprocal regulation between claspin expression and HA synthesis. This study shows for the first time that EVs originating from HAS3 overexpressing cells carry mitogenic signals that induce proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in target cells. The study also identifies a novel feedback regulation between the hedgehog signaling pathway and HA metabolism in melanoma, mediated by EVs carrying HA and IHH.
  • Rouhiainen, Ari; Zhao, Xiang; Vanttola, Päivi; Qian, Kui; Kulesskiy, Evgeny; Kuja-Panula, Juha; Gransalke, Kathleen; Gronholm, Mikaela; Unni, Emmanual; Meistrich, Marvin; Tian, Li; Auvinen, Petri; Rauvala, Heikki (2016)
    HMGB4 is a new member in the family of HMGB proteins that has been characterized in sperm cells, but little is known about its functions in somatic cells. Here we show that HMGB4 and the highly similar rat Transition Protein 4 (HMGB4L1) are expressed in neuronal cells. Both proteins had slow mobility in nucleus of living NIH-3T3 cells. They interacted with histones and their differential expression in transformed cells of the nervous system altered the post-translational modification statuses of histones in vitro. Overexpression of HMGB4 in HEK 293T cells made cells more susceptible to cell death induced by topoisomerase inhibitors in an oncology drug screening array and altered variant composition of histone H3. HMGB4 regulated over 800 genes in HEK 293T cells with a p-value
  • Musrati, Ahmed Ali; Tervahartiala, Taina; Gursoy, Mervi; Kononen, Eija; Fteita, Dareen; Sorsa, Timo; Uitto, Veli-Jukka; Gursoy, Ulvi Kahraman (2016)
    Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of HNP-1 on the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, -8 and -9 secretions of two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UT-SCC-43A and UT-SCC-43B). Design: In all experiments, the two OSCC cell lines were incubated with graded concentrations (0,1, 5, and 10 mu g/ml) of HNP-1 for 24 and 48 h. Cell viability was measured using a colorimetric proliferation test and cell death was analyzed with a colorimetric cytotoxicity detection kit. Enzyme activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was detected by using gelatin zymography, and molecular weight forms of MMP-8 were determined by Western-blot and a densitometric quantitation method. Results: Both cell lines showed a significant increase in LDH toxicity at 24 h (UT-SCC-43A: p = 0.005 & UT-SCC-43B: p = 0.014). Reduced gelatinolytic activities of proMMP-2 were detected in UT-SCC-43B cell line after 24 and 48 h of incubation with HNP-1 (1 mu g/ml: p <0.001, 5 mu g/ml: p <0.001, and 1011g/ml: p = 0.0225). MMP-8 levels of both cell lines decreased at 200-250 kDa after 24 h of incubation, while after 48 h only UT-SCC-43B decreased at 45-50 kDa. Conclusions: Our results indicate that HNP-1 suppresses the secretion of MMP-2,-8, and -9 in OSCC cell lines. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.