Browsing by Subject "RADIATION"

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  • Nordlund, Kai; Zinkle, Steven J.; Sand, Andrea E.; Granberg, Fredric; Averback, Robert S.; Stoller, Roger; Suzudo, Tomoaki; Malerba, Lorenzo; Banhart, Florian; Weber, William J.; Willaime, Francois; Dudarev, Sergei L.; Simeone, David (2018)
    Atomic collision processes are fundamental to numerous advanced materials technologies such as electron microscopy, semiconductor processing and nuclear power generation. Extensive experimental and computer simulation studies over the past several decades provide the physical basis for understanding the atomic-scale processes occurring during primary displacement events. The current international standard for quantifying this energetic particle damage, the Norgett-Robinson-Torrens displacements per atom (NRT-dpa) model, has nowadays several well-known limitations. In particular, the number of radiation defects produced in energetic cascades in metals is only similar to 1/3 the NRT-dpa prediction, while the number of atoms involved in atomic mixing is about a factor of 30 larger than the dpa value. Here we propose two new complementary displacement production estimators (athermal recombination corrected dpa, arc-dpa) and atomic mixing (replacements per atom, rpa) functions that extend the NRT-dpa by providing more physically realistic descriptions of primary defect creation in materials and may become additional standard measures for radiation damage quantification.
  • Lu, Peng; Cao, Xiaowei; Li, Guoyu; Huan, Wenfeng; Leppäranta, Matti; Arvola, Lauri; Huotari, Jussi; Li, Zhijun (2020)
    To improve the understanding of the seasonal evolution of the mass and heat budget of ice-covered lakes in the cold and arid climate zone, in-situ observations were collected during two winters (2016-2017 and 2017-2018) in Lake Wuliangsuhai, Inner Mongolia, China. The mean snow thickness was 5.2 and 1.6 cm in these winters, due to low winter precipitation. The mean ice thickness was 50.9 and 36.1 cm, and the ice growth rate was 3.6 and 2.1 mm day(-1) at the lower boundary of ice. Analyses of mass and heat balance data from two winters revealed that the surface heat budget was governed by solar radiation and terrestrial radiation. The net heat flux loss of the ice was 9-22 W m(-2), affected by the snow and ice thickness. Compared to boreal lakes, Lake Wuliangsuhai received more solar radiation and heat flux from the water. The ice temperature had a strong diurnal variation, which was produced by the diurnal cycles of solar radiation, and air and water temperatures. These results expand our knowledge of the evolution of mass and heat balance in temperate lakes of mid-latitude arid areas.
  • Moreno-Ibanez, Manuel; Gritsevich, Maria; Trigo-Rodriguez, Josep M. (Springer International Publishing AG, 2017)
    Astrophysics and Space Science Proceedings
    The extent of penetration into the Earth's atmosphere of a meteoroid is defined by the point where its kinetic energy is no longer sufficient to produce luminosity. For most of the cases this is the point where the meteoroid disintegrates in the atmosphere due to ablation process and dynamic pressure during flight. However, some of these bodies have particular physical properties (bigger size, higher bulk strength, etc.) or favorable flight conditions (lower entry velocity or/and a convenient trajectory slope, etc.) that allow them to become a meteorite-dropper and reach the ground. In both cases, we define the end of the luminous path of the trajectory as the terminal height or end height. Thus, the end point shows the amount of deceleration till the final braking. We thus assume that the ability of a fireball to produce meteorites is directly related to its terminal height. Previous studies have discussed the likely relationship between fireball atmospheric flight properties and the terminal height. Most of these studies require the knowledge of a set of properties and physical variables which cannot be determined with sufficient accuracy from ground-based observations. The recently validated dimensionless methodology offers a new approach to this problem. All the unknowns can be reduced to only two parameters which are easily derived from observations. Despite the calculation of the analytic solution of the equations of motion is not trivial, some simplifications are admitted. Here, we describe the best performance range and the errors associated with these simplifications. We discuss how terminal heights depend on two or three variables that are easily retrieved from the recordings, provided at least three trajectory (h, v) points. Additionally, we review the importance of terminal heights, and the way they have been estimated in previous studies. Finally we discuss a new approach for calculating terminal heights.
  • Jokela, Niko; Kajantie, Keijo; Sarkkinen, Miika (2019)
    We study the empirical realization of the memory effect in Yang-Mills theory, especially in view of the classical vs quantum nature of the theory. Gauge invariant analysis of memory in classical U(1) electrodynamics and its observation by total change of transverse momentum of a charge is reviewed. Gauge fixing leads to a determination of a gauge transformation at inimity. An example of Yang-Mills memory then is obtained by reinterpreting known results on interactions of a quark and a large high energy nucleus in the theory of color glass condensate. The memory signal is again a kick in transverse momentum, but it is only obtained in quantum theory after fixing the gauge, after summing over an ensemble of classical processes.
  • Pavlek, Martina; Mammola, Stefano (2021)
    Abstract Aim To disentangle the role of evolutionary history, competition and environmental filtering in driving the niche evolution of four closely related subterranean spiders, with the overarching goal of obtaining a mechanistic description of the factors that determine species' realized distribution in simplified ecological settings. Location Dinaric karst, Balkans, Europe. Taxon Dysderidae spiders (Stalita taenaria, S. pretneri, S. hadzii and Parastalita stygia). Methods We resolved phylogenetic relationships among species and modelled each species' distribution using a set of climatic and habitat variables. We explored the climatic niche differentiation among species with n-dimensional hypervolumes and shifts in their trophic niche using morphological traits related to feeding specialization. Results Climate was the primary abiotic factor explaining our species' distributions, while karstic and soil features were less important. Generally, there was a high niche overlap among species, reflecting their phylogenetic relatedness, but on a finer scale, niche shifts explained the realized distribution patterns. Trophic interaction was another important factor influencing species distributions ? the non-overlapping distributions of three morphologically indistinguishable Stalita species is seemingly the outcome of competitive exclusion dynamics. The distribution of the fourth species, Parastalita stygia, overlaps with that of the other species, with several instances of coexistence within caves. As inferred from the morphology of the mouthparts, the mechanism that minimizes interspecific competition is the shift in the trophic niche of P. stygia towards a more specialized diet. Main conclusions We showed that similarity in niches only partly correlated with the phylogenetic distance among species, and that overlaps in species distributions are possible only when a parallel shift in diet occurs. Our work emphasized how even simplified environments still maintain the potential for diversification via niche differentiation. Ultimately, we provide an ecological explanation for the diversification of life in an important hotspot of subterranean diversity.
  • Grahn, Patrick; Annila, Arto; Kolehmainen, Erkki (2016)
    Recent reports about propulsion without reaction mass have been met on one hand with enthusiasm and on the other hand with some doubts. Namely, closed metal cavities, when fueled with microwaves, have delivered thrust that could eventually maintain satellites on orbits using solar power. However, the measured thrust appears to be without any apparent exhaust. Thus the Law of Action-Reaction seems to have been violated. We consider the possibility that the exhaust is in a form that has so far escaped both experimental detection and theoretical attention. In the thruster's cavity microwaves interfere with each other and invariably some photons will also end up co-propagating with opposite phases. At the destructive interference electromagnetic fields cancel. However, the photons themselves do not vanish for nothing but continue in propagation. These photon pairs without net electromagnetic field do not reflect back from the metal walls but escape from the resonator. By this action momentum is lost from the cavity which, according to the conservation of momentum, gives rise to an equal and opposite reaction. We examine theoretical corollaries and practical concerns that follow from the paired-photon conclusion. (C) 2016 Author(s).
  • Korhonen, Eveliina; Piippo, Niina; Hytti, Maria; Hyttinen, Juha M. T.; Kaarniranta, Kai; Kauppinen, Anu (2020)
    Abstract DNA damage accumulates in aged postmitotic retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, a phenomenon associated with the development of age-related macular degeneration. In this study, we have experimentally induced DNA damage by ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation in interleukin-1α (IL-1α)-primed ARPE-19 cells and examined inflammasome-mediated signaling. To reveal the mechanisms of inflammasome activation, cells were additionally exposed to high levels of extracellular potassium chloride, n-acetyl-cysteine, or mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoTEMPO, prior to UVB irradiation. Levels of interleukin-18 (IL-18) and IL-1? mRNAs were detected with qRT-PCR and secreted amounts of IL-1?, IL-18, and caspase-1 were measured with ELISA. The role of nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin containing protein 3 (NLRP3) in UVB-induced inflammasome activation was verified by using the NLRP3-specific siRNA. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured immediately after UVB exposure using the cell-permeant 2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (H2DCFDA) indicator, the levels of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers were assayed by cell-based ELISA, and the extracellular levels of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) determined using a commercial bioluminescence assay. We found that pro-IL-18 was constitutively expressed by ARPE-19 cells, whereas the expression of pro-IL-1? was inducible by IL-1α priming. UVB induced the release of mature IL-18 and IL-1? but NLRP3 contributed only to the secretion of IL-1?. At the mechanistic level, the release of IL-1? was regulated by K+ efflux, whereas the secretion of IL-18 was dependent on ROS production. As well as K+ efflux, the cells released ATP following UVB exposure. Collectively, our data suggest that UVB clearly stimulates the secretion of mature IL-18 as a result of ROS induction, and this response is associated with DNA damage. Moreover, in human RPE cells, K+ efflux mediates the UVB-activated NLRP3 inflammasome signaling, leading to the processing of IL-1?.
  • Zou, Xiaochen; Mottus, Matti; Tammeorg, Priit; Lizarazo Torres, Clara; Takala, Tuure; Pisek, Jan; Makela, Pirjo; Stoddard, F. L.; Pellikka, Petri (2014)
  • Planck Collaboration; Akrami, Y.; Keihanen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Valiviita, J. (2020)
    The study of polarized dust emission has become entwined with the analysis of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization in the quest for the curl-like B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves and the low-multipole E-mode polarization associated with the reionization of the Universe. We used the new Planck PR3 maps to characterize Galactic dust emission at high latitudes as a foreground to the CMB polarization and use end-to-end simulations to compute uncertainties and assess the statistical significance of our measurements. We present PlanckEE, BB, and TE power spectra of dust polarization at 353 GHz for a set of six nested high-Galactic-latitude sky regions covering from 24 to 71% of the sky. We present power-law fits to the angular power spectra, yielding evidence for statistically significant variations of the exponents over sky regions and a difference between the values for the EE and BB spectra, which for the largest sky region are alpha (EE)=-2.42 +/- 0.02 and alpha (BB)=-2.54 +/- 0.02, respectively. The spectra show that the TE correlation and E/B power asymmetry discovered by Planck extend to low multipoles that were not included in earlier Planck polarization papers due to residual data systematics. We also report evidence for a positive TB dust signal. Combining data from Planck and WMAP, we have determined the amplitudes and spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of polarized foregrounds, including the correlation between dust and synchrotron polarized emission, for the six sky regions as a function of multipole. This quantifies the challenge of the component-separation procedure that is required for measuring the low-l reionization CMB E-mode signal and detecting the reionization and recombination peaks of primordial CMB B modes. The SED of polarized dust emission is fit well by a single-temperature modified black-body emission law from 353 GHz to below 70 GHz. For a dust temperature of 19.6 K, the mean dust spectral index for dust polarization is beta (P)(d) = 1.53 +/- 0.02 beta d P = 1.53 +/- 0.02 . The difference between indices for polarization and total intensity is beta (P)(d)-beta (I)(d) = 0.05 +/- 0.03 beta d P - beta d I =0.05 +/- 0.03 . By fitting multi-frequency cross-spectra between Planck data at 100, 143, 217, and 353 GHz, we examine the correlation of the dust polarization maps across frequency. We find no evidence for a loss of correlation and provide lower limits to the correlation ratio that are tighter than values we derive from the correlation of the 217- and 353 GHz maps alone. If the Planck limit on decorrelation for the largest sky region applies to the smaller sky regions observed by sub-orbital experiments, then frequency decorrelation of dust polarization might not be a problem for CMB experiments aiming at a primordial B-mode detection limit on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r similar or equal to 0.01 at the recombination peak. However, the Planck sensitivity precludes identifying how difficult the component-separation problem will be for more ambitious experiments targeting lower limits on r.
  • Aghanim, N.; Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lindholm, V.; Savelainen, M.; Suur-Uski, A. -S.; Väliviita, J.; Planck Collaboration (2017)
    The six parameters of the standard Lambda CDM model have best-fit values derived from the Planck temperature power spectrum that are shifted somewhat from the best-fit values derived from WMAP data. These shifts are driven by features in the Planck temperature power spectrum at angular scales that had never before been measured to cosmic-variance level precision. We have investigated these shifts to determine whether they are within the range of expectation and to understand their origin in the data. Taking our parameter set to be the optical depth of the reionized intergalactic medium tau, the baryon density omega(b), the matter density omega(m), the angular size of the sound horizon theta(*), the spectral index of the primordial power spectrum, n(s), and A(s)e(-2 pi) (where As is the amplitude of the primordial power spectrum), we have examined the change in best-fit values between a WMAP-like large angular-scale data set (with multipole moment l <800 in the Planck temperature power spectrum) and an all angular-scale data set (l <2500 Planck temperature power spectrum), each with a prior on tau of 0.07 +/- 0.02. We find that the shifts, in units of the 1 sigma expected dispersion for each parameter, are {Delta tau, Delta A(s)e(-2 tau), Delta n(s), Delta omega(m), Delta omega(b), Delta theta(*)} = {-1.7, -2.2, 1.2, 2.0, 1.1, 0.9}, with a chi(2) value of 8.0. We find that this chi(2) value is exceeded in 15% of our simulated data sets, and that a parameter deviates by more than 2.2 sigma in 9% of simulated data sets, meaning that the shifts are not unusually large. Comparing l <800 instead to l > 800, or splitting at a different multipole, yields similar results. We examined the l <800 model residuals in the l > 800 power spectrum data and find that the features there that drive these shifts are a set of oscillations across a broad range of angular scales. Although they partly appear similar to the effects of enhanced gravitational lensing, the shifts in Lambda CDM parameters that arise in response to these features correspond to model spectrum changes that are predominantly due to non-lensing effects; the only exception is tau, which, at fixed A(s)e(-2 tau), affects the l > 800 temperature power spectrum solely through the associated change in As and the impact of that on the lensing potential power spectrum. We also ask, "what is it about the power spectrum at l <800 that leads to somewhat different best-fit parameters than come from the full l range?" We find that if we discard the data at l <30, where there is a roughly 2 sigma downward fluctuation in power relative to the model that best fits the full l range, the l <800 best-fit parameters shift significantly towards the l <2500 best-fit parameters. In contrast, including l <30, this previously noted "low-l deficit" drives ns up and impacts parameters correlated with ns, such as omega(m) and H-0. As expected, the l <30 data have a much greater impact on the l <800 best fit than on the l <2500 best fit. So although the shifts are not very significant, we find that they can be understood through the combined effects of an oscillatory-like set of high-l residuals and the deficit in low-l power, excursions consistent with sample variance that happen to map onto changes in cosmological parameters. Finally, we examine agreement between Planck TT data and two other CMB data sets, namely the Planck lensing reconstruction and the TT power spectrum measured by the South Pole Telescope, again finding a lack of convincing evidence of any significant deviations in parameters, suggesting that current CMB data sets give an internally consistent picture of the Lambda CDM model.
  • Frank, C.; Fallah, M.; Sundquist, J.; Hemminki, Akseli; Hemminki, K. (2015)
    Public perception and anxiety of familial cancer have increased demands for clinical counseling, which may be well equipped for gene testing but less prepared for counseling of the large domain of familial cancer with unknown genetic background. The aim of the present study was to highlight the full scope of familial cancer and the variable levels of risk that need to be considered. Data on the 25 most common cancers were obtained from the Swedish Family Cancer Database and a Poisson regression model was applied to estimate relative risks (RR) distinguishing between family histories of single or multiple affected first-degree relatives and their diagnostic ages. For all cancers, individual risks were significantly increased if a parent or a sibling had a concordant cancer. While the RRs were around 2.00 for most cancers, risks were up to 10-fold increased for some cancers. Familial risks were even higher when multiple relatives were affected. Although familial risks were highest at ages below 60 years, most familial cases were diagnosed at older ages. The results emphasized the value of a detailed family history as a readily available tool for individualized counseling and its preventive potential for a large domain of non-syndromatic familial cancers.
  • Donsberg, Timo; Manoocheri, Farshid; Sildoja, Meelis; Juntunen, Mikko; Savin, Hele; Tuovinen, Esa; Ronkainen, Hannu; Prunnila, Mika; Merimaa, Mikko; Tang, Chi Kwong; Gran, Jarle; Mueller, Ingmar; Werner, Lutz; Rougie, Bernard; Pons, Alicia; Smid, Marek; Gal, Peter; Lolli, Lapo; Brida, Giorgio; Rastello, Maria Luisa; Ikonen, Erkki (2017)
    The predictable quantum efficient detector (PQED) consists of two custom-made induced junction photodiodes that are mounted in a wedged trap configuration for the reduction of reflectance losses. Until now, all manufactured PQED photodiodes have been based on a structure where a SiO2 layer is thermally grown on top of p-type silicon substrate. In this paper, we present the design, manufacturing, modelling and characterization of a new type of PQED, where the photodiodes have an Al2O3 layer on top of n-type silicon substrate. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit the layer to the desired thickness. Two sets of photodiodes with varying oxide thicknesses and substrate doping concentrations were fabricated. In order to predict recombination losses of charge carriers, a 3D model of the photodiode was built into Cogenda Genius semiconductor simulation software. It is important to note that a novel experimental method was developed to obtain values for the 3D model parameters. This makes the prediction of the PQED responsivity a completely autonomous process. Detectors were characterized for temperature dependence of dark current, spatial uniformity of responsivity, reflectance, linearity and absolute responsivity at the wavelengths of 488 nm and 532 nm. For both sets of photodiodes, the modelled and measured responsivities were generally in agreement within the measurement and modelling uncertainties of around 100 parts per million (ppm). There is, however, an indication that the modelled internal quantum deficiency may be underestimated by a similar amount. Moreover, the responsivities of the detectors were spatially uniform within 30 ppm peak-to-peak variation. The results obtained in this research indicate that the n-type induced junction photodiode is a very promising alternative to the existing p-type detectors, and thus give additional credibility to the concept of modelled quantum detector serving as a primary standard. Furthermore, the manufacturing of PQEDs is no longer dependent on the availability of a certain type of very lightly doped p-type silicon wafers.
  • Tuohinen, Suvi Sirkku; Skytta, Tanja; Poutanen, Tuija; Huhtala, Heini; Virtanen, Vesa; Kellokumpu-Lehtinen, Pirkko-Liisa; Raatikainen, Pekka (2017)
    Radiotherapy (RT) to the thoracic region increases late cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The impact of breast cancer laterality on cardiac function is largely unknown. The aim of this prospective study was to compare RT-induced changes in left-sided and right-sided breast cancer patients using speckle tracking echocardiography (STE). Sixty eligible patients with left-sided breast cancer and 20 with right-sided breast cancer without chemotherapy were evaluated prospectively before and early after RT. A comprehensive echocardiographic examination included three dimensional measurements and STE of the left ventricle (LV). The global longitudinal strain (GLS) was reduced from -18.3 +/- 3.1 to -17.2 +/- 3.3% (p = 0.003) after RT in patients with left-sided breast cancer. Similarly, regional analysis showed a reduction in the apical strain from -18.7 +/- 5.3 to -16.7 +/- 4.9% (p = 0.002) and an increase in basal values from -21.6 +/- 5.0 to -23.3 +/- 4.9% (p = 0.024). Patients with right-sided breast cancer showed deterioration in basal anterior strain segments from -26.3 +/- 7.6 to -18.8 +/- 8.9% (p <0.001) and in pulsed tissue Doppler by 0.825 [0.365, 1.710] cm/s (p <0.001). In multivariable analysis, the use of aromatase inhibitor (beta = -2.002, p = 0.001) and decreased LV diastolic volume (beta = -0.070, p = 0.025) were independently associated with the decrease in GLS. RT caused no changes in conventional LV systolic measurements. RT induced regional changes corresponded to the RT fields. Patients with left-sided breast cancer experienced apical impact and global decline, whereas patients with right-sided breast cancer showed basal changes. The regional differences in cardiac impact warrant different methods in screening and in the follow-up of patients with left-sided versus right-sided breast cancer.
  • Newham, Elis; Gill, Pamela G.; Brewer, Philippa; Benton, Michael J.; Fernandez, Vincent; Gostling, Neil J.; Haberthur, David; Jernvall, Jukka; Kankaanpaa, Tuomas; Kallonen, Aki; Navarro, Charles; Pacureanu, Alexandra; Richards, Kelly; Brown, Kate Robson; Schneider, Philipp; Suhonen, Heikki; Tafforeau, Paul; Williams, Katherine A.; Zeller-Plumhoff, Berit; Corfe, Ian J. (2020)
    Despite considerable advances in knowledge of the anatomy, ecology and evolution of early mammals, far less is known about their physiology. Evidence is contradictory concerning the timing and fossil groups in which mammalian endothermy arose. To determine the state of metabolic evolution in two of the earliest stem-mammals, the Early Jurassic Morganucodon and Kuehneotherium, we use separate proxies for basal and maximum metabolic rate. Here we report, using synchrotron X-ray tomographic imaging of incremental tooth cementum, that they had maximum lifespans considerably longer than comparably sized living mammals, but similar to those of reptiles, and so they likely had reptilian-level basal metabolic rates. Measurements of femoral nutrient foramina show Morganucodon had blood flow rates intermediate between living mammals and reptiles, suggesting maximum metabolic rates increased evolutionarily before basal metabolic rates. Stem mammals lacked the elevated endothermic metabolism of living mammals, highlighting the mosaic nature of mammalian physiological evolution. Modern mammals are endothermic, but it has not been clear when this type of metabolism evolved. Here, Newham et al. analyse tooth and bone structure in Early Jurassic stem-mammal fossils to estimate lifespan and blood flow rates, which inform about basal and maximum metabolic rates, respectively, and show these stem-mammals had metabolic rates closer to modern ectothermic reptiles than to endothermic mammals.
  • Wadsten, C.; Wennstig, A. -K.; Garmo, H.; Nilsson, Greger; Blomqvist, Carl; Holmberg, Lars; Fredriksson, Irma; Wärnberg, F.; Sund, M. (2018)
    The use of adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) in the management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is increasing. Left-sided breast irradiation may involve exposure of the heart to ionising radiation, increasing the risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD). We examined the incidence of IHD in a population-based cohort of women with DCIS. The Breast Cancer DataBase Sweden (BCBase) cohort includes women registered with invasive and in situ breast cancers 1992-2012 and age-matched women without a history of breast cancer. In this analysis, 6270 women with DCIS and a comparison cohort of 31,257 women were included. Through linkage with population-based registers, data on comorbidity, socioeconomic status and incidence of IHD was obtained. Hazard ratios (HR) for IHD with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were analysed. Median follow-up time was 8.8 years. The risk of IHD was not increased for women with DCIS versus women in the comparison cohort (HR 0.93; 95% CI 0.82-1.06), after treatment with radiotherapy versus surgery alone (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.60-0.98) or when analysing RT by laterality (HR 0.85; 95% CI 0.53-1.37 for left-sided versus right-sided RT). The risk of IHD was lower for women with DCIS allocated to RT compared to non-irradiated women and to the comparison cohort, probably due to patient selection. Comparison of RT by laterality did not show any over-risk for irradiation of the left breast.
  • Kröger, Björn; Lintulaakso, Kari (2017)
    RNames ( is an open access relational database linking stratigraphic units with each other that are considered to be time-equivalent or time overlapping. RNames is also a tool to correlate among stratigraphic units. The structure of the database allows for a wide range of queries and applications. Currently three algorithms are available, which calculate a set of correlation tables with Ordovician stratigraphic units time binned into high-resolution chronostratigraphic slices (Global Ordovician Stages, Stage Slices, Time Slices). The ease of availability of differently binned stratigraphic units and the potential to create new schemes are the main advantages and goals of RNames. Different timebinned stratigraphic units can be matched with other databases and allow for simultaneous up-to-date analyses of stratigraphically constrained estimates in various schemes. We exemplify these new possibilities with our compiled Ordovician data and analyse fossil collections of the Paleobiology Database based on the three different binning schemes. The presented diversity curves are the first sub-stage level, global, marine diversity curves for the Ordovician. A comparison among the curves reveals that differences in time slicing have a major effect on the shape of the curve. Despite uncertainties in Early and Late Ordovician diversities, our calculations confirm earlier estimates that Ordovician diversification climaxed globally during the Darriwilian stage.
  • Väisänen, Timo; Martikainen, Julia; Muinonen, Karri (2020)
    We present a hybrid radiative transfer geometric optics approximation to model multiple light scattering in arbitrary finite discrete random media in the geometric optics regime. In the hybrid model, the medium is divided into a mantle composed of discrete particles and into a diffusely scattering core. In the mantle, multiple scattering is handled by using a ray-tracing algorithm with the generalized Snel’s law for inhomogeneous waves, whereas, in the core, ray tracing with diffuse scatterers is incorporated to approximate multiple scattering and absorption. The extinction distances required to compute the scattering in the core are derived numerically by tracing the distances of the scattering and absorption events instead of using the classical extinction mean free path length. We have written a new framework that can treat arbitrary meshes consisting of watertight surface meshes with multiple diffuse scatterers and refractive indices. Comparison between the “ground truth” obtained from pure geometric optics ray tracing, the solutions obtained by using radiative transfer, and the hybrid model show that the hybrid model can produce better results, particularly, if a densely-packed medium is studied. In the future, the new approximation could be used to solve light scattering from larger media, such as asteroid surfaces, that are out of reach for the pure geometric optics methods due to their computational complexity.
  • Hindmarsh, Mark; Huber, Stephan J.; Rummukainen, Kari; Weir, David J. (2017)
    We present results from large-scale numerical simulations of a first order thermal phase transition in the early Universe, in order to explore the shape of the acoustic gravitational wave and the velocity power spectra. We compare the results with the predictions of the recently proposed sound shell model. For the gravitational wave power spectrum, we find that the predicted k(-3) behavior, where k is the wave number, emerges clearly for detonations. The power spectra from deflagrations show similar features, but exhibit a steeper high-k decay and an extra feature not accounted for in the model. There are two independent length scales: the mean bubble separation and the thickness of the sound shell around the expanding bubble of the low temperature phase. It is the sound shell thickness which sets the position of the peak of the power spectrum. The low wave number behavior of the velocity power spectrum is consistent with a causal k(3), except for the thinnest sound shell, where it is steeper. We present parameters for a simple broken power law fit to the gravitational wave power spectrum for wall speeds well away from the speed of sound where this form can be usefully applied. We examine the prospects for the detection, showing that a LISA-like mission has the sensitivity to detect a gravitational wave signal from sound waves with an RMS fluid velocity of about 0.05c, produced from bubbles with a mean separation of about 10(-2) of the Hubble radius. The shape of the gravitational wave power spectrum depends on the bubble wall speed, and it may be possible to estimate the wall speed, and constrain other phase transition parameters, with an accurate measurement of a stochastic gravitational wave background.
  • Hindmarsh, Mark (2018)
    A model for the acoustic production of gravitational waves at a first-order phase transition is presented. The source of gravitational radiation is the sound waves generated by the explosive growth of bubbles of the stable phase. The model assumes that the sound waves are linear and that their power spectrum is determined by the characteristic form of the sound shell around the expanding bubble. The predicted power spectrum has two length scales, the average bubble separation and the sound shell width when the bubbles collide. The peak of the power spectrum is at wave numbers set by the sound shell width. For a higher wave number k, the power spectrum decreases to k(-3). At wave numbers below the inverse bubble separation, the power spectrum goes to k(5). For bubble wall speeds near the speed of sound where these two length scales are distinguished, there is an intermediate k(1) power law. The detailed dependence of the power spectrum on the wall speed and the other parameters of the phase transition raises the possibility of their constraint or measurement at a future space-based gravitational wave observatory such as LISA.
  • Jarvi, Leena; Havu, Minttu; Ward, Helen C.; Bellucco, Veronica; McFadden, Joseph P.; Toivonen, Tuuli; Heikinheimo, Vuokko; Kolari, Pasi; Riikonen, Anu; Grimmond, C. Sue B. (2019)
    There is a growing need to simulate the effect of urban planning on both local climate and greenhouse gas emissions. Here, a new urban surface carbon dioxide (CO2) flux module for the Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme is described and evaluated using eddy covariance observations at two sites in Helsinki in 2012. The spatial variability and magnitude of local-scale anthropogenic and biogenic CO2 flux components at high spatial (250 m x 250 m) and temporal (hourly) resolution are examined by combining high-resolution (down to 2 m) airborne lidar-derived land use data and mobility data to account for people's movement. Urban effects are included in the biogenic components parameterized using urban eddy covariance and chamber observations. Surface Urban Energy and Water Balance Scheme reproduces the seasonal and diurnal variability of the CO2 flux well. Annual totals deviate 3% from observations in the city center and 2% in a suburban location. In the latter, traffic is the dominant CO2 source but summertime vegetation partly offsets traffic-related emissions. In the city center, emissions from traffic and human metabolism dominate and the vegetation effect is minor due to the low proportion of vegetation surface cover (22%). Within central Helsinki, human metabolism accounts for 39% of the net local-scale emissions and together with road traffic is to a large extent responsible for the spatial variability of the emissions. Annually, the biogenic emissions and sinks are in near balance and thus the effect of vegetation on the carbon balance is small in this high-latitude city.