Browsing by Subject "RECOVERY"

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  • Vanttola, Päivi; Puttonen, Sampsa; Karhula, Kati; Oksanen, Tuula; Härmä, Mikko (2020)
    A considerable proportion of shift workers have work schedule-related insomnia and/or excessive sleepiness, a phenomenon described as shift work disorder (SWD). There is yet a lack of evidence on whether or not employees recover from symptoms of SWD between work shifts. We studied whether SWD and its subtypes are associated with insomnia and excessive sleepiness during weekly non-work days and with 24-h sleep time. Hospital employees answered a survey on SWD, insomnia and excessive sleepiness on weekly non-work day s, and 24-h sleep. To identify shift workers with night shifts (n=2,900, 18% with SWD) and SWD, we linked survey responses to employers' register on NI orking hours. SWD included three subtypes: insomnia only (SWD-I, 4%, n=102), excessive sleepiness only (SWD-Es, 8%, n=244), and both insomnia and excessive sleepiness (SWD-IEs, 6%, n=183). Based on regression analy ses, SWD was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (OR: 1.42, 95% CI: 1.07-1.88) and with insomnia on non-work days (0.53, 0.31-0.91). SWD-I was associated with excessive sleepiness on non-work days (2.25, 1.31-3.87) and with shorter sleep (7-7.5 h: 1.96, 1.06-3.63; = 8 h). The results suggest that especially employees with SWD-I may need longer time to overcome excessive sleepiness than allowed by their roster.
  • Milardi, Marco; Gavioli, Anna; Soininen, Janne; Castaldelli, Giuseppe (2019)
    Exotic species invasions often result in native biodiversity loss, i.e. a lower taxonomic diversity, but current knowledge on invasions effects underlined a potential increase of functional diversity. We thus explored the connections between functional diversity and exotic species invasions, while accounting for their environmental drivers, using a fine-resolution large dataset of Mediterranean stream fish communities. While functional diversity of native and exotic species responded similarly to most environmental constraints, we found significant differences in the effects of altitude and in the different ranking of constraints. These differences suggest that invasion dynamics could play a role in overriding some major environmental drivers. Our results also showed that a lower diversity of ecological traits in communities (about half of less disturbed communities) corresponded to a high invasion degree, and that the exotic component of communities had typically less diverse ecological traits than the native one, even when accounting for stream order and species richness. Overall, our results suggest that possible outcomes of severe exotic species invasions could include a reduced functional diversity of invaded communities, but analyzing data with finer ecological, temporal and spatial resolutions would be needed to pinpoint the causal relationship between invasions and functional diversity.
  • Olafsdottir, Steinunn A.; Jonsdottir, Helga; Bjartmarz, Ingibjorg; Magnusson, Charlotte; Caltenco, Hector; Kyto, Mikko; Maye, Laura; McGookin, David; Arnadottir, Solveig Asa; Hjaltadottir, Ingibjorg; Hafsteinsdottir, Thora B. (2020)
    BackgroundTechnical applications can promote home-based exercise and physical activity of community-dwelling stroke survivors. Caregivers are often able and willing to assist with home-based exercise and physical activity but lack the knowledge and resources to do so. ActivABLES was established to promote home-based exercise and physical activity among community-dwelling stroke survivors, with support from their caregivers. The aim of our study is to investigate the feasibility of ActivABLES in terms of acceptability, demand, implementation and practicality.MethodsA convergent design of mixed methods research in which quantitative results were combined with personal experiences of a four-week use of ActivABLES by community-dwelling stroke survivors with support from their caregivers. Data collection before, during and after the four-week period included the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale (ABC), Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and Five Times Sit to Stand Test (5xSST) and data from motion detectors. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with stroke survivors and caregivers after the four-week period. Descriptive statistics were used for quantitative data. Qualitative data was analysed with direct content analysis. Themes were identified related to the domains of feasibility: acceptability, demand, implementation and practicality. Data was integrated by examining any (dis)congruence in the quantitative and qualitative findings.ResultsTen stroke survivors aged 55-79years participated with their informal caregivers. Functional improvements were shown in BBS (+2.5), ABC (+0.9), TUG (-4.2) and 5xSST (-2.7). More physical activity was detected with motion detectors (stand up/sit down +2, number of steps +227, standing +0.3h, hours sitting/lying -0.3h). The qualitative interviews identified themes for each feasibility domain: (i) acceptability: appreciation, functional improvements, self-initiated activities and expressed potential for future stroke survivors; (2) demand: reported use, interest in further use and need for follow-up; (3) implementation: importance of feedback, variety of exercises and progression of exercises and (4) practicality: need for support and technical problems. The quantitative and qualitative findings converged well with each other and supported the feasibility of ActivABLES.ConclusionsActivABLES is feasible and can be a good asset for stroke survivors with slight or moderate disability to use in their homes. Further studies are needed with larger samples.
  • Bauer, Barbara; Gustafsson, Bo; Hyytiäinen, Kari; Meier, Markus; Muller-Karulis, Bärber; Saraiva, Sofia; Tomczak, Maciej (2019)
    We developed numerical simulations of potential future ecological states of the Baltic Sea ecosystem at the end of century under five scenarios. We used a spatial food web (Ecospace) model, forced by a physical-biogeochemical model. The scenarios are built on consistent storylines that describe plausible developments of climatic and socioeconomic factors in the Baltic Sea region. Modelled species diversity and fish catches are driven by climate- and nutrient load-related changes in habitat quality and by fisheries management strategies. Our results suggest that a scenario including low greenhouse gas concentrations and nutrient pollution and ecologically focused fisheries management results in high biodiversity and catch value. On the other hand, scenarios envisioning increasing societal inequality or economic growth based on fossil fuels, high greenhouse gas emissions and high nutrient loads result in decreased habitat quality and diminished biodiversity. Under the latter scenarios catches are high but they predominantly consist of lower-valued fish.
  • CTR-TBI Participants Investigators; Andelic, Nada; Roe, Cecilie; Brunborg, Cathrine; von Steinbuechel, Nicole; Palotie, Aarno; Piippo-Karjalainen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Raj, Rahul; Ripatti, Samuli (2021)
    Background Fatigue is one of the most commonly reported subjective symptoms following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The aims were to assess frequency of fatigue over the first 6 months after TBI, and examine whether fatigue changes could be predicted by demographic characteristics, injury severity and comorbidities. Methods Patients with acute TBI admitted to 65 trauma centers were enrolled in the study Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in TBI (CENTER-TBI). Subjective fatigue was measured by single item on the Rivermead Post-Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ), administered at baseline, three and 6 months postinjury. Patients were categorized by clinical care pathway: admitted to an emergency room (ER), a ward (ADM) or an intensive care unit (ICU). Injury severity, preinjury somatic- and psychiatric conditions, depressive and sleep problems were registered at baseline. For prediction of fatigue changes, descriptive statistics and mixed effect logistic regression analysis are reported. Results Fatigue was experienced by 47% of patients at baseline, 48% at 3 months and 46% at 6 months. Patients admitted to ICU had a higher probability of experiencing fatigue than those in ER and ADM strata. Females and individuals with lower age, higher education, more severe intracranial injury, preinjury somatic and psychiatric conditions, sleep disturbance and feeling depressed postinjury had a higher probability of fatigue. Conclusion A high and stable frequency of fatigue was found during the first 6 months after TBI. Specific socio-demographic factors, comorbidities and injury severity characteristics were predictors of fatigue in this study.
  • Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; NINDS-SiGN Consortium; Genetics Ischaemic Stroke Funct; Söderholm, Martin; Pedersen, Annie; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2019)
    Objective To discover common genetic variants associated with poststroke outcomes using a genome-wide association (GWA) study. Methods The study comprised 6,165 patients with ischemic stroke from 12 studies in Europe, the United States, and Australia included in the GISCOME (Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional Outcome) network. The primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale score after 60 to 190 days, evaluated as 2 dichotomous variables (0-2 vs 3-6 and 0-1 vs 2-6) and subsequently as an ordinal variable. GWA analyses were performed in each study independently and results were meta-analyzed. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, stroke severity (baseline NIH Stroke Scale score), and ancestry. The significance level was p <5 x 10(-8). Results We identified one genetic variant associated with functional outcome with genome-wide significance (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2 vs 3-6, p = 5.3 x 10(-9)). This intronic variant (rs1842681) in the LOC105372028 gene is a previously reported trans-expression quantitative trait locus for PPP1R21, which encodes a regulatory subunit of protein phosphatase 1. This ubiquitous phosphatase is implicated in brain functions such as brain plasticity. Several variants detected in this study demonstrated suggestive association with outcome (p <10(-5)), some of which are within or near genes with experimental evidence of influence on ischemic stroke volume and/or brain recovery (e.g., NTN4, TEK, and PTCH1). Conclusions In this large GWA study on functional outcome after ischemic stroke, we report one significant variant and several variants with suggestive association to outcome 3 months after stroke onset with plausible mechanistic links to poststroke recovery. Future replication studies and exploration of potential functional mechanisms for identified genetic variants are warranted.
  • Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; NINDS-SiGN Consortium; Maguire, Jane M.; Bevan, Steve; Stanne, Tara M.; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Lindgren, Arne (2017)
    Introduction: Genome-wide association studies have identified several novel genetic loci associated with stroke risk, but how genetic factors influence stroke outcome is less studied. The Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome network aims at performing genetic studies of stroke outcome. We here describe the study protocol and methods basis of Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome. Methods: The Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome network has assembled patients from 12 ischaemic stroke projects with genome-wide genotypic and outcome data from the International Stroke Genetics Consortium and the National Institute of Neurological Diseases Stroke Genetics Network initiatives. We have assessed the availability of baseline variables, outcome metrics and time-points for collection of outcome data. Results: We have collected 8831 ischaemic stroke cases with genotypic and outcome data. Modified Rankin score was the outcome metric most readily available. We detected heterogeneity between cohorts for age and initial stroke severity (according to the NIH Stroke Scale), and will take this into account in analyses. We intend to conduct a first phase genome-wide association outcome study on ischaemic stroke cases with data on initial stroke severity and modified Rankin score within 60-190 days. To date, we have assembled 5762 such cases and are currently seeking additional cases meeting these criteria for second phase analyses. Conclusion: Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome is a unique collection of ischaemic stroke cases with detailed genetic and outcome data providing an opportunity for discovery of genetic loci influencing functional outcome. Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome will serve as an exploratory study where the results as well as the methodological observations will provide a basis for future studies on functional outcome. Genetics of Ischaemic Stroke Functional outcome can also be used for candidate gene replication or assessing stroke outcome non-genetic association hypotheses.
  • Mattila, Kristiina; Lahtela, Merja; Hynynen, Markku (2012)
  • Salminen, Sarianna; Tammelin, Mira; Jilbert, Tom; Fukumoto, Yu; Saarni, Saija (2021)
    The influence of lake restoration efforts on lake bottom-water conditions and varve preservation is not well known. We studied varved sediments deposited during the last 80 years along a water-depth transect in the Enonsaari Deep, a deep-water area of the southernmost Enonselka Basin, Lake Vesijarvi, southern Finland. For the last few decades, the Enonselka Basin has been subject to ongoing restoration efforts. Varve, elemental, and diatom analyses were undertaken to explore how these actions and other human activities affected varve preservation in the Enonsaari Deep. In contrast to most varved Finnish lakes, whose water columns have a natural tendency to stratify, and possess varve records that span thousands of years, varve formation and preservation in Lake Vesijarvi was triggered by relatively recent anthropogenic stressors. The multi-core varve analysis revealed that sediment in the Enonsaari Deep was initially non-varved, but became fully varved in the late 1930s, a time of increasing anthropogenic influence on the lake. The largest spatial extent of varves occurred in the 1970s, which was followed by a period of less distinguishable varves, which coincided with diversion of sewage from the lake. Varve preservation weakened during subsequent decades and was terminated completely by lake aeration in the 2010s. Despite improvements in water quality, hypolimnetic oxygen depletion and varve preservation persisted beyond the reduction in sewage loading, initial aeration, and biomanipulation. These restoration efforts, however, along with other human actions such as harbor construction and dredging, did influence varve characteristics. Varves were also influenced by diatom responses to anthropogenic forcing, because diatoms form a substantial part of the varve structure. Of all the restoration efforts, a second episode of aeration seems to have had the single most dramatic impact on profundal conditions in the basin, resulting in replacement of a sediment accumulation zone by a transport or erosional zone in the Enonsaari Deep. We conclude that human activities in a lake and its catchment can alter lake hypolimnetic conditions, leading to shifts in lake bottom dynamics and changes in varve preservation.
  • Parviainen, Tuuli; Goerlandt, Floris; Helle, Inari; Haapasaari, Päivi; Kuikka, Sakari (2021)
    The risk of a large-scale oil spill remains significant in marine environments as international maritime transport continues to grow. The environmental as well as the socio-economic impacts of a large-scale oil spill could be substantial. Oil spill models and modeling tools for Pollution Preparedness and Response (PPR) can support effective risk management. However, there is a lack of integrated approaches that consider oil spill risks comprehensively, learn from all information sources, and treat the system uncertainties in an explicit manner. Recently, the use of the international ISO 31000:2018 risk management framework has been suggested as a suitable basis for supporting oil spill PPR risk management. Bayesian networks (BNs) are graphical models that express uncertainty in a probabilistic form and can thus support decision-making processes when risks are complex and data are scarce. While BNs have increasingly been used for oil spill risk assessment (OSRA) for PPR, no link between the BNs literature and the ISO 31000:2018 framework has previously been made. This study explores how Bayesian risk models can be aligned with the ISO 31000:2018 framework by offering a flexible approach to integrate various sources of probabilistic knowledge. In order to gain insight in the current utilization of BNs for oil spill risk assessment and management (OSRA-BNs) for maritime oil spill preparedness and response, a literature review was performed. The review focused on articles presenting BN models that analyze the occurrence of oil spills, consequence mitigation in terms of offshore and shoreline oil spill response, and impacts of spills on the variables of interest. Based on the results, the study discusses the benefits of applying BNs to the ISO 31000:2018 framework as well as the challenges and further research needs.
  • Repo, Jussi P.; Häkkinen, Arja H.; Porkka, Tuukka; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kautiainen, Hannu; Kyrölä, Kati; Neva, Marko H. (2019)
    Purpose: Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and the acute phase C-reactive protein (CRP) blood concentrations after lumbar spine fusion may be affected by age. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to assess postoperative serum levels of pro-inflammatory IL-6 and CRP after instrumented lumbar spine fusion surgery. We hypothesized that older patients would have increased levels of IL-6 and CRP after surgery. Methods: IL-6 and high-sensitive CRP biochemical marker levels were measured before instrumented spinal fusion, and postoperatively at 1 and 3 days, 6 weeks, and 3 months. The 49 patients in this sample were divided into two groups: age 60 years (n = 26). Results: Acute changes in IL-6 high-sensitivity and CRP from preoperative levels to postoperative day (POD) 1 increased with age. Mean (95% CI) difference between the age-groups in changes of IL-6 at PODs 1 and 3 was 45 pg/ml (10-83, p = 0.014) and 20 pg/ml (5-36, p = 0.021), respectively. Mean (95% CI) difference between groups in changes of CRP at PODs 1 and 3 was 9.6 mg/l (-3.5 to 22.7, p = 0.47) and 24.8 mg/l (-17 to 67, p = 0.33), respectively. Both groups had decreased IL-6 and CRP levels at 6 weeks after surgery compared to the preoperative level. Conclusions: Elevation of IL-6 and CRP is stronger in patients over 60 years old after instrumented lumbar spinal fusion. The CRP and IL-6 are sensitive markers for acute postoperative inflammation. Even high acute CRP values do not necessarily indicate postoperative infection.
  • Kohout, T.; Kiuru, R.; Montonen, M.; Scheirich, P.; Britt, D.; Macke, R.; Consolmagno, G. (2011)
  • Zhang, Yanwen; Sachan, Ritesh; Pakarinen, Olli H.; Chisholm, Matthew F.; Liu, Peng; Xue, Haizhou; Weber, William J. (2015)
    A long-standing objective in materials research is to effectively heal fabrication defects or to remove pre-existing or environmentally induced damage in materials. Silicon carbide (SiC) is a fascinating wide-band gap semiconductor for high-temperature, high-power and high-frequency applications. Its high corrosion and radiation resistance makes it a key refractory/structural material with great potential for extremely harsh radiation environments. Here we show that the energy transferred to the electron system of SiC by energetic ions via inelastic ionization can effectively anneal pre-existing defects and restore the structural order. The threshold determined for this recovery process reveals that it can be activated by 750 and 850 keV Si and C self-ions, respectively. The results conveyed here can contribute to SiC-based device fabrication by providing a room-temperature approach to repair atomic lattice structures, and to SiC performance prediction as either a functional material for device applications or a structural material for high-radiation environments.
  • Saarinen, Ninni; White, Joanne C.; Wulder, Michael A.; Kangas, Annika; Tuominen, Sakari; Kankare, Ville; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppä, Juha; Vastaranta, Mikko (2018)
    There is growing interest in the use of Landsat data to enable forest monitoring over large areas. Free and open data access combined with high performance computing have enabled new approaches to Landsat data analysis that use the best observation for any given pixel to generate an annual, cloud-free, gap-free, surface reflectance image composite. Finland has a long history of incorporating Landsat data into its National Forest Inventory to produce forest information in the form of thematic maps and small area statistics on a variety of forest attributes. Herein we explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of the Landsat archive in the context of forest monitoring in Finland. The United States Geological Survey Landsat archive holds a total of 30 076 images (1972-2017) for 66 scenes (each 185 km by 185 km in size) representing the terrestrial area of Finland, of which 93.6% were acquired since 1984 with a spatial resolution of 30 m. Approximately 16.3% of the archived images have desired compositing characteristics (acquired within August 1 +/- 30 days,
  • Tolmacheva, Aleksandra; Savolainen, Sarianna; Kirveskari, Erika; Lioumis, Pantelis; Kuusela, Linda; Brandstack, Nina; Ylinen, Aarne; Mäkelä, Jyrki P.; Shulga, Anastasia (2017)
    A large proportion of spinal cord injuries (SCI) are incomplete. Even in clinically complete injuries, silent non-functional connections can be present. Therapeutic approaches that can strengthen transmission in weak neural connections to improve motor performance are needed. Our aim was to determine whether long-term delivery of paired associative stimulation (PAS, a combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation [TMS] with peripheral nerve stimulation [PNS]) can enhance motor output in the hands of patients with chronic traumatic tetraplegia, and to compare this technique with long-term PNS. Five patients (4 males; age 38-68, mean 48) with no contraindications to TMS received 4 weeks (16 sessions) of stimulation. PAS was given to one hand and PNS combined with sham TMS to the other hand. Patients were blinded to the treatment. Hands were selected randomly. The patients were evaluated by a physiotherapist blinded to the treatment. The follow-up period was 1 month. Patients were evaluated with Daniels and Worthingham's Muscle Testing (0-5 scale) before the first stimulation session, after the last stimulation session, and 1 month after the last stimulation session. One month after the last stimulation session, the improvement in the PAS-treated hand was 1.02 +/- 0.17 points (p <0.0001, n = 100 muscles from 5 patients). The improvement was significantly higher in PAS-treated than in PNS-treated hands (176 +/- 29%, p = 0.046, n = 5 patients). Longterm PAS might be an effective tool for improving motor performance in incomplete chronic SCI patients. Further studies on PAS in larger patient cohorts, with longer stimulation duration and at earlier stages after the injury, are warranted.
  • Byggmästar, Jesper; Hamedani, Ali; Nordlund, Kai; Djurabekova, Flyura (2019)
    We introduce a machine-learning interatomic potential for tungsten using the Gaussian approximation potential framework. We specifically focus on properties relevant for simulations of radiation-induced collision cascades and the damage they produce, including a realistic repulsive potential for the short-range many-body cascade dynamics and a good description of the liquid phase. Furthermore, the potential accurately reproduces surface properties and the energetics of vacancy and self-interstitial clusters, which have been longstanding deficiencies of existing potentials. The potential enables molecular dynamics simulations of radiation damage in tungsten with unprecedented accuracy.
  • Freitag, Tobias L.; Hartikainen, Anna; Jouhten, Hanne; Sahl, Cecilia; Meri, Seppo; Anttila, Veli-Jukka; Mattila, Eero; Arkkila, Perttu; Jalanka, Jonna; Satokari, Reetta (2019)
    Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective therapy for recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) and is also considered a potential treatment for a wide range of intestinal and systemic diseases. FMT corrects the microbial dysbiosis associated with rCDI, and the engraftment of donor microbiota is likely to play a key role in treatment efficacy. For disease indications other than rCDI, FMT treatment efficacy has been moderate. This may be partly due to stronger resilience of resident host microbiota in patients who do not suffer from rCDI. In rCDI, patients typically have undergone several antibiotic treatments prior to FMT, depleting the microbiota. In this study, we addressed the effect of broad-spectrum antibiotics (Ab) as a pre-treatment to FMT on the engraftment of donor microbiota in recipients. We conducted a pre-clinical study of FMT between two healthy mouse strains, Balb/c as donors and C57BL/6 as recipients, to perform FMT within the same species and to mimic interindividual FMT between human donors and patients. Microbiota composition was assessed with high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing. The microbiota of Balb/c and C57BL/6 mice differed significantly, which allowed for the assessment of microbiota transplantation from the donor strain to the recipient. Our results showed that Ab-treatment depleted microbiota in C57BL/6 recipient mice prior to FMT. The diversity of microbiota did not recover spontaneously to baseline levels during 8 weeks after Ab-treatment, but was restored already at 2 weeks in mice receiving FMT. Interestingly, pre-treatment with antibiotics prior to FMT did not increase the overall similarity of the recipient's microbiota to that of the donor's, as compared with mice receiving FMT without Ab-treatment. Pre-treatment with Ab improved the establishment of only a few donor-derived taxa, such as Bifidobacterium, in the recipients, thus having a minor effect on the engraftment of donor microbiota in FMT. In conclusion, pre-treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics did not improve the overall engraftment of donor microbiota, but did improve the engraftment of specific taxa. These results may inform future therapeutic studies of FMT.
  • Seppänen, Allan; Törmänen, Iida; Shaw, Christopher; Kennedy, Harry (2018)
    Forensic psychiatric care must be provided within the least restrictive setting possible, whilst simultaneously maintaining appropriate levels of security. This presents particular challenges for the design of forensic psychiatric hospitals, which are required to provide both a therapeutic and a safe material environment, often for extended periods of treatment and rehabilitation. By taking into consideration variable trends in psychiatric service provision and myriad clinical, legal and ethical issues, interdisciplinary forensic facility design teams are at the very forefront in implementing the latest developments in medical architecture. Also, although there are significant differences in how forensic psychiatric services are organized around the world, the underlying clinical challenges and increasingly research-based treatment principles are similar worldwide; it is therefore becoming less acceptable to operate and develop national forensic services without reference to international standards. Accordingly, we here review the literature on what features of forensic psychiatric facilities best serve the needs of those patients who need to rely on them, and we present a systematic and widely applicable approach to the complex and costly challenge of modern forensic psychiatric hospital design.
  • Solin, Otto; Granvik, Mikael (2018)
    Aims. We present an automated system called neoranger that regularly computes asteroid-Earth impact probabilities for objects on the Minor Planet Center's (MPC) Near-Earth-Object Confirmation Page (NEOCP) and sends out alerts of imminent impactors to registered users. In addition to potential Earth-impacting objects, neoranger also monitors for other types of interesting objects such as Earth's natural temporarily-captured satellites. Methods. The system monitors the NEOCP for objects with new data and solves, for each object, the orbital inverse problem, which results in a sample of orbits that describes the, typically highly-nonlinear, orbital-element probability density function (PDF). The PDF is propagated forward in time for seven days and the impact probability is computed as the weighted fraction of the sample orbits that impact the Earth. Results. The system correctly predicts the then-imminent impacts of 2008 TC3 and 2014 Lambda Lambda based on the first data sets available. Using the same code and configuration we find that the impact probabilities for objects typically on the NEOCP, based on eight weeks of continuous operations, are always less than one in ten million, whereas simulated and real Earth-impacting asteroids always have an impact probability greater than 10% based on the first two tracklets available.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Ramos-Escobar, Neus; Sierpowska, Joanna; Rueda, Nohora; Susana, Redón; Rifà, Xavi; Veciana de las Heras, Misericordia; Pedro, Jordi; Särkämö, Teppo Tapio; Duarte, Esther; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni (2018)
    The effect of music-supported therapy (MST) as a tool to restore hemiparesis of the upper extremity after a stroke has not been appropriately contrasted with conventional therapy. The aim of this trial was to test the effectiveness of adding MST to a standard rehabilitation program in subacute stroke patients. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in which patients were randomized to MST or conventional therapy in addition to the rehabilitation program. The intensity and duration of the interventions were equated in both groups. Before and after 4 weeks of treatment, motor and cognitive functions, mood, and quality of life (QoL) of participants were evaluated. A follow-up at 3 months was conducted to examine the retention of motor gains. Both groups significantly improved their motor function, and no differences between groups were found. The only difference between groups was observed in the language domain for QoL. Importantly, an association was encountered between the capacity to experience pleasure from music activities and the motor improvement in the MST group. MST as an add-on treatment showed no superiority to conventional therapies for motor recovery. Importantly, patient's intrinsic motivation to engage in musical activities was associated with better motor improvement.