Browsing by Subject "RESUSCITATION"

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  • Holmström, Ester; Efendijev, Ilmar; Raj, Rahul; Pekkarinen, Pirkka T.; Litonius, Erik; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2021)
    BackgroundCardiac arrest (CA) is a leading cause of death worldwide. As population ages, the need for research focusing on CA in elderly increases. This study investigated treatment intensity, 12-month neurological outcome, mortality and healthcare-associated costs for patients aged over 75 years treated for CA in an intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary hospital.MethodsThis single-centre retrospective study included adult CA patients treated in a Finnish tertiary hospital's ICU between 2005 and 2013. We stratified the study population into two age groups: 75 years. We compared interventions defined by the median daily therapeutic scoring system (TISS-76) between the age groups to find differences in treatment intensity. We calculated cost-effectiveness by dividing the total one-year healthcare-associated costs of all patients by the number of survivors with a favourable neurological outcome. Favourable outcome was defined as a cerebral performance category (CPC) of 1-2 at 12 months after cardiac arrest. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent associations between age group, mortality and neurological outcome.ResultsThis study included a total of 1,285 patients, of which 212 (16%) were >= 75 years of age. Treatment intensity was lower for the elderly compared to the younger group, with median TISS scores of 116 and 147, respectively (p
  • FINNRESUSCI Study Grp; Oksanen, Tuomas; Tiainen, Marjaana; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Bendel, Stepani; Varpula, Tero; Skrifvars, Markus; Pettilä, Ville; Wilkman, Erika (2018)
    Background: Optimal hemodynamic goals in post-resuscitation patients are not clear. Previous studies have reported an association between lower heart rate and good outcome in patients receiving targeted temperature management (TTM) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Methods: We analyzed heart rate (HR) and outcome data of 504 post-resuscitation patients from the prospectively collected database of the FINNRESUSCI study. One-year neurologic outcome was dichotomized by the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) to good (1-2) or poor (3-5). Results: Of 504 patients, 40.1% (202/504) had good and 59.9% (302/504) had poor one-year neurologic outcome. Patients with good outcome had lower time-weighted mean HR during the first 48 h in the ICU (69.2 bpm [59.2-75.1] vs. 76.6 bpm [65.72-89.6], p <0.001) and the first 72 h in the ICU (71.2 bpm [65.0-79.0] vs. 77.1 bpm [69.1-90.1, p <0.001]). The percentage of HR registrations below HR threshold values (60, 80 and 100 bpm) were higher for patients with good neurologic outcome, p <0.001 for all. Lower time-weighted HR for 0-48 h and 0-72 h, and a higher percentage of HR recordings below threshold values were independently associated with good neurological one-year outcome (p <0.05 for all). When TTM and non-TTM patients were analyzed separately, HR parameters were independently associated with one-year neurologic outcome only in non-TTM patients. Conclusion: Lower heart rate was independently associated with good neurologic outcome. Whether HR in post-resuscitation patients is a prognostic indicator or an important variable to be targeted by treatment, needs to be assessed in future prospective controlled clinical trials.
  • Laurikkala, Johanna; Wilkman, Erika; Pettila, Ville; Kurola, Jouni; Reinikainen, Matti; Hoppu, Sanna; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Tallgren, Minna; Tiainen, Marjaana; Vaahersalo, Jukka; Varpula, Tero M; Skrifvars, Markus; FINNRESUSCI Study Grp (2016)
    The aim of the study: There are limited data on blood pressure targets and vasopressor use following cardiac arrest. We hypothesized that hypotension and high vasopressor load are associated with poor neurological outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). Methods: We included 412 patients with OHCA included in FINNRESUSCI study conducted between 2010 and 2011. Hemodynamic data and vasopressor doses were collected electronically in one, two or five minute intervals. We evaluated thresholds for time-weighted (TW) mean arterial pressure (MAP) and outcome by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and used multivariable analysis adjusting for co-morbidities, factors at resuscitation, an illness severity score, TW MAP and total vasopressor load (VL) to test associations with one-year neurologic outcome, dichotomized into either good (1-2) or poor (3-5) according to the cerebral performance category scale. Results: Of 412 patients, 169 patients had good and 243 patients had poor one-year outcomes. The lowest MAP during the first six hours was 58 (inter-quartile range [IQR] 56-61) mmHg in those with a poor outcome and 61 (59-63) mmHg in those with a good outcome (p <0.01), and lowest MAP was independently associated with poor outcome (OR 1.02 per mmHg, 95% CI 1.00-1.04, p = 0.03). During the first 48h the median (IQR) of the 1W mean MAP was 80 (78-82) mmHg in patients with poor, and 82 (81-83) mmHg in those with good outcomes (p=0.03) but in multivariable analysis TWA MAP was not associated with outcome. Vasopressor load did not predict one-year neurologic outcome. Conclusions: Hypotension occurring during the first six hours after cardiac arrest is an independent predictor of poor one-year neurologic outcome. High vasopressor load was not associated with poor outcome and further randomized trials are needed to define optimal MAP targets in OHCA patients. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Elmasry, Moustafa; Steinvall, Ingrid; Vuola, Jyrki (2018)
    B-type natriuretic peptide has shown promising results as a biomarker for acute kidney injury in general intensive care patients. It may also indirectly reflect fluid balance of the circulation. Among burn patients, it has been observed to indicate excessive fluid resuscitation and organ dysfunction, although its clinical use to indicate acute kidney injury or guide fluid resuscitation has not been validated. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values are related to the amount of fluids given after severe burn injury and whether it can act as a novel biomarker for acute kidney injury in these patients. Nineteen consecutive burn patients were included. Plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide was measured daily during 1 week from admission. Other variables such as laboratory values and intravenous infusions were also recorded. The association between acute kidney injury and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values was analyzed with a multivariable panel regression model, adjusted for burned total body surface area, age, body mass index, and laboratory values. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values varied between single patients, and even more between the patients who developed acute kidney injury. Older age, lower body mass index, and cumulative infusions were independently associated with higher N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values, whereas acute kidney injury was not. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values correlated with cumulative infusions given during the first week. The authors could not validate the role of N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide as a biomarker for acute kidney injury in burns.
  • Jakkula, Pekka; Hästbacka, Johanna; Reinikainen, Matti; Pettilä, Ville; Loisa, Pekka; Tiainen, Marjaana; Wilkman, Erika; Bendel, Stepani; Birkelund, Thomas; Pulkkinen, Anni; Bäcklund, Minna; Heino, Sirkku; Karlsson, Sari; Kopponen, Hiski; Skrifvars, Markus B. (2019)
    BackgroundCerebral hypoperfusion may aggravate neurological damage after cardiac arrest. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on cerebral oxygenation but its relevance during post-resuscitation care is undefined. We investigated whether cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) measured with NIRS correlates with the serum concentration of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), a marker of neurological injury, and with clinical outcome in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients.MethodsWe performed a post hoc analysis of a randomised clinical trial (COMACARE, NCT02698917) comparing two different levels of carbon dioxide, oxygen and arterial pressure after resuscitation from OHCA with ventricular fibrillation as the initial rhythm. We measured rSO(2) in 118 OHCA patients with NIRS during the first 36h of intensive care. We determined the NSE concentrations from serum samples at 48h after cardiac arrest and assessed neurological outcome with the Cerebral Performance Category (CPC) scale at 6months. We evaluated the association between rSO(2) and serum NSE concentrations and the association between rSO(2) and good (CPC 1-2) and poor (CPC 3-5) neurological outcome.ResultsThe median (inter-quartile range (IQR)) NSE concentration at 48h was 17.5 (13.4-25.0) g/l in patients with good neurological outcome and 35.2 (22.6-95.8) g/l in those with poor outcome, p
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Niiya, Tomohisa; Silvasti-Lundell, Marja; Schramko, Alexey; Hernesniemi, Juha; Randell, Tarja; Niemi, Tomi (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgery in general anesthesia exposes patients to hemodynamic alterations in both the prone and the sitting position. We aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic profile during stroke volume-directed fluid administration in patients undergoing neurosurgery either in the sitting or the prone position. METHODS: In 2 separate prospective trials, 30 patients in prone and 28 patients in sitting position were randomly assigned to receive either Ringer acetate (RAC) or hydroxyethyl starch (HES; 130 kDa/0.4) for optimization of stroke volume. After combining data from these 2 trials, 2-way analysis of variance was performed to compare patients' hemodynamic profile between the 2 positions and to evaluate differences between RAC and HES consumption. RESULTS: To achieve comparable hemodynamics during surgery, a higher mean cumulative dose of RAC than HES was needed (679 mL +/- 390 vs. 455 mL +/- 253; P <0.05). When fluid consumption was adjusted with weight, statistical difference was lost. Fluid administration did not differ between the prone and sitting position. Mean arterial pressure was lower and cardiac index and stroke volume index were higher over time in patients in the sitting position. CONCLUSIONS: The sitting position does not require excess fluid treatment compared with the prone position. HES is slightly more effective than RAC in achieving comparable hemodynamics, but the difference might be explained by patient weight. With goal-directed fluid administration and moderate use of vasoactive drugs, it is possible to achieve stable hemodynamics in both positions.
  • Vaara, Suvi T.; Ostermann, Marlies; Selander, Tuomas; Bitker, Laurent; Schneider, Antoine; Poli, Elettra; Hoste, Eric; Joannidis, Michael; Zarbock, Alexander; van Haren, Frank; Prowle, John; Pettilä, Ville; Bellomo, Rinaldo (2020)
    Abstract Background Fluid accumulation frequently coexists with acute kidney injury (AKI) and is associated with increased risk for AKI progression and mortality. Among septic shock patients, restricted use of resuscitation fluid has been reported to reduce the risk of worsening of AKI. Restrictive fluid therapy, however, has not been studied in the setting of established AKI. Here, we present the protocol and statistical analysis plan of the REstricted fluid therapy VERsus Standard trEatment in Acute Kidney Injury - the REVERSE-AKI trial that compares a restrictive fluid therapy regimen to standard therapy in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods REVERSE-AKI is an investigator-initiated, multinational, open-label, randomized, controlled, feasibility pilot trial conducted in 7 ICUs in 5 countries. We aim to randomize 100 critically ill patients with AKI to a restrictive fluid treatment regimen versus standard management. In the restrictive fluid therapy regimen, the daily fluid balance target is neutral or negative. The primary outcome is the cumulative fluid balance assessed after 72 hrs from randomization. Secondary outcomes include safety, feasibility, duration and severity of AKI, and outcome at 90 days (mortality and dialysis dependence). Conclusions This is the first multinational trial investigating the feasibility and safety of a restrictive fluid therapy regimen in critically ill patients with AKI.
  • Vesel, Linda; Manu, Alexander; Lohela, Terhi; Gabrysch, Sabine; Okyere, Eunice; ten Asbroek, Augustinus H. A.; Hill, Zelee; Agyemang, Charlotte Tawiah; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Kirkwood, Betty R. (2013)
  • REVERSE-AKI Study Team; Vaara, Suvi T.; Ostermann, Marlies; Bitker, Laurent; Pettilä, Ville (2021)
    Purpose We compared a restrictive fluid management strategy to usual care among critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) who had received initial fluid resuscitation. Methods This multicenter feasibility trial randomized 100 AKI patients 1:1 in seven ICUs in Europe and Australia. Restrictive fluid management included targeting negative or neutral daily fluid balance by minimizing fluid input and/or enhancing urine output with diuretics administered at the discretion of the clinician. Fluid boluses were administered as clinically indicated. The primary endpoint was cumulative fluid balance 72 h from randomization. Results Mean (SD) cumulative fluid balance at 72 h from randomization was - 1080 mL (2003 mL) in the restrictive fluid management arm and 61 mL (3131 mL) in the usual care arm, mean difference (95% CI) - 1148 mL (- 2200 to - 96) mL, P = 0.033. Median [IQR] duration of AKI was 2 [1-3] and 3 [2-7] days, respectively (median difference - 1.0 [- 3.0 to 0.0], P = 0.071). Altogether, 6 out of 46 (13%) patients in the restrictive fluid management arm and 15 out of 50 (30%) in the usual care arm received renal replacement therapy (RR 0.42; 95% CI 0.16-0.91), P = 0.043. Cumulative fluid balance at 24 h and 7 days was lower in the restrictive fluid management arm. The dose of diuretics was not different between the groups. Adverse events occurred more frequently in the usual care arm. Conclusions In critically ill patients with AKI, a restrictive fluid management regimen resulted in lower cumulative fluid balance and less adverse events compared to usual care. Larger trials of this intervention are justified.
  • Skrifvars, Markus B.; Hästbacka, Johanna (2018)
  • Heinonen, J. A.; Schramko, A.; Skrifvars, M. B.; Litonius, E.; Backman, J. T.; Mervaala, E.; Rosenberg, P. H. (2017)
    Local anesthetic toxicity is thought to be mediated partly by inhibition of cardiac mitochondrial function. Intravenous (i.v.) lipid emulsion may overcome this energy depletion, but doses larger than currently recommended may be needed for rescue effect. In this randomized study with anesthetized pigs, we compared the effect of a large dose, 4 mL/kg, of i.v. 20% Intralipid (R) (n = 7) with Ringer's acetate (n = 6) on cardiovascular recovery after a cardiotoxic dose of bupivacaine. We also examined mitochondrial respiratory function in myocardial cell homogenates analyzed promptly after needle biopsies from the animals. Bupivacaine plasma concentrations were quantified from plasma samples. Arterial blood pressure recovered faster and systemic vascular resistance rose more rapidly after Intralipid than Ringer's acetate administration (p <0.0001), but Intralipid did not increase cardiac index or left ventricular ejection fraction. The lipid-based mitochondrial respiration was stimulated by approximately 30% after Intralipid (p <0.05) but unaffected by Ringer's acetate. The mean (standard deviation) area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of total bupivacaine was greater after Intralipid (105.2 (13.6) mg.min/L) than after Ringer's acetate (88.1 (7.1) mg.min/L) (p = 0.019). After Intralipid, the AUC of the lipid-un-entrapped bupivacaine portion (97.0 (14.5) mg.min/L) was 8% lower than that of total bupivacaine (p <0.0001). To conclude, 4 mL/kg of Intralipid expedited cardiovascular recovery from bupivacaine cardiotoxicity mainly by increasing systemic vascular resistance. The increased myocardial mitochondrial respiration and bupivacaine entrapment after Intralipid did not improve cardiac function.
  • Kortelainen, Jukka; Vayrynen, Eero; Huuskonen, Usko; Laurila, Jouko; Koskenkari, Juha; Backman, Janne T.; Alahuhta, Seppo; Seppanen, Tapio; Ala-Kokko, Tero (IEEE, 2016)
    IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings
    Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a severe consequence of cardiac arrest (CA) representing a substantial diagnostic challenge. We have recently designed a novel method for the assessment of HIE after CA. The method is based on estimating the severity of the brain injury by analyzing changes in the electroencephalogram (EEG) slow wave activity while the patient is exposed to an anesthetic drug propofol in a controlled manner. In this paper, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) was used to analyze EEG slow wave activity during anesthesia in ten post-CA patients. The recordings were made in the intensive care unit 36-48 hours after the CA in an experiment, during which the propofol infusion rate was incrementally decreased to determine the drug-induced changes in the EEG at different anesthetic levels. HHT was shown to successfully capture the changes in the slow wave activity to the behavior of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs). While, in patients with good neurological outcome defined after a six-month control period, propofol induced a significant increase in the amplitude of IMFs representing the slow wave activity, the patients with poor neurological outcome were unable to produce such a response. Consequently, the proposed method offer substantial prognostic potential by providing a novel approach for early estimation of HIE after CA.
  • CTR-TBI Investigators Participants; Huijben, Jilske A.; Volovici, Victor; Cnossen, Maryse C.; Haitsma, Iain K.; Stocchetti, Nino; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Menon, David K.; Ercole, Ari; Citerio, Giuseppe; Nelson, David; Polinder, Suzanne; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Lingsma, Hester F.; van der Jagt, Mathieu; Raj, Rahul (2018)
    Background: General supportive and preventive measures in the intensive care management of traumatic brain injury (TBI) aim to prevent or limit secondary brain injury and optimize recovery. The aim of this survey was to assess and quantify variation in perceptions on intensive care unit (ICU) management of patients with TBI in European neurotrauma centers. Methods: We performed a survey as part of the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study. We analyzed 23 questions focused on: 1) circulatory and respiratory management; 2) fever control; 3) use of corticosteroids; 4) nutrition and glucose management; and 5) seizure prophylaxis and treatment. Results: The survey was completed predominantly by intensivists (n = 33, 50%) and neurosurgeons (n = 23, 35%) from 66 centers (97% response rate). The most common cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) target was > 60 mmHg (n = 39, 60%) and/or an individualized target (n = 25, 38%). To support CPP, crystalloid fluid loading (n = 60, 91%) was generally preferred over albumin (n = 15, 23%), and vasopressors (n = 63, 96%) over inotropes (n = 29, 44%). The most commonly reported target of partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) was 36-40 mmHg (4.8-5.3 kPa) in case of controlled intracranial pressure (ICP) <20 mmHg (n = 45, 69%) and PaCO2 target of 30-35 mmHg (4-4.7 kPa) in case of raised ICP (n = 40, 62%). Almost all respondents indicated to generally treat fever (n = 65, 98%) with paracetamol (n = 61, 92%) and/or external cooling (n = 49, 74%). Conventional glucose management (n = 43, 66%) was preferred over tight glycemic control (n = 18, 28%). More than half of the respondents indicated to aim for full caloric replacement within 7 days (n = 43, 66%) using enteral nutrition (n = 60, 92%). Indications for and duration of seizure prophylaxis varied, and levetiracetam was mostly reported as the agent of choice for both seizure prophylaxis (n = 32, 49%) and treatment (n = 40, 61%). Conclusions: Practice preferences vary substantially regarding general supportive and preventive measures in TBI patients at ICUs of European neurotrauma centers. These results provide an opportunity for future comparative effectiveness research, since a more evidence-based uniformity in good practices in general ICU management could have a major impact on TBI outcome.
  • Picetti, Edoardo; Rossi, Sandra; Abu-Zidan, Fikri M.; Ansaloni, Luca; Armonda, Rocco; Baiocchi, Gian Luca; Bala, Miklosh; Balogh, Zsolt J.; Berardino, Maurizio; Biffl, Walter L.; Bouzat, Pierre; Buki, Andras; Ceresoli, Marco; Chesnut, Randall M.; Chiara, Osvaldo; Citerio, Giuseppe; Coccolini, Federico; Coimbra, Raul; Di Saverio, Salomone; Fraga, Gustavo P.; Gupta, Deepak; Helbok, Raimund; Hutchinson, Peter J.; Kirkpatrick, Andrew W.; Kinoshita, Takahiro; Kluger, Yoram; Leppäniemi, Ari; Maas, Andrew I. R.; Maier, Ronald V.; Minardi, Francesco; Moore, Ernest E.; Myburgh, John A.; Okonkwo, David O.; Otomo, Yasuhiro; Rizoli, Sandro; Rubiano, Andres M.; Sahuquillo, Juan; Sartelli, Massimo; Scalea, Thomas M.; Servadei, Franco; Stahel, Philip F.; Stocchetti, Nino; Taccone, Fabio S.; Tonetti, Tommaso; Velmahos, George; Weber, Dieter; Catena, Fausto (2019)
    The acute phase management of patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and polytrauma represents a major challenge. Guidelines for the care of these complex patients are lacking, and worldwide variability in clinical practice has been documented in recent studies. Consequently, the World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) decided to organize an international consensus conference regarding the monitoring and management of severe adult TBI polytrauma patients during the first 24 hours after injury. A modified Delphi approach was adopted, with an agreement cut-off of 70%. Forty experts in this field (emergency surgeons, neurosurgeons, and intensivists) participated in the online consensus process. Sixteen recommendations were generated, with the aim of promoting rational care in this difficult setting.