Browsing by Subject "SARS-CoV-2"

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  • Ahava, M. J.; Kurkela, S.; Kuivanen, S.; Lappalainen, M.; Jarva, H.; Jääskeläinen, A. J. (2022)
    SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected in respiratory samples for weeks after onset of COVID-19 disease. Therefore, one of the diagnostic challenges of PCR positive cases is differentiating between acute COVID-19 disease and convalescent phase. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen in serum and plasma samples of COVID-19 patients has been demonstrated previously. Our study aimed to characterize the analytical specificity and sensitivity of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Salocor SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Quantitative Assay Kit (c) (Salofa Ltd, Salo, Finland)) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen in serum, and to characterize the kinetics of antigenemia. The evaluation material included a negative serum panel of 155 samples, and 126 serum samples from patients with PCR-confirmed COVID-19. The specificity of the Salocor SARS-CoV-2 serum nucleocapsid antigen test was 98.0 %. In comparison with simultaneous positive PCR from upper respiratory tract (URT) specimens, the test sensitivity was 91.7 %. In a serum panel in which the earliest serum sample was collected two days before the collection of positive URT specimen, and the latest 48 days after (median 1 day post URT sample collection), the serum N antigen test sensitivity was 95.6 % within 14 days post onset of symptoms. The antigenemia resolved approximately two weeks after the onset of disease and diagnostic PCR. The combination of simultaneous SARS-CoV-2 antigen and antibody testing appeared to provide useful in-formation for timing of COVID-19. Our results suggest that SARS-CoV-2 N-antigenemia may be used as a diag-nostic marker in acute COVID-19.
  • Schloer, Sebastian; Brunotte, Linda; Mecate-Zambrano, Angeles; Zheng, Shuyu; Tang, Jing; Ludwig, Stephan; Rescher, Ursula (2021)
    Background and Purpose The SARS-COV-2 pandemic and the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) urgently call for efficient and safe antiviral treatment strategies. A straightforward approach to speed up drug development at lower costs is drug repurposing. Here, we investigated the therapeutic potential of targeting the interface of SARS CoV-2 with the host via repurposing of clinically licensed drugs and evaluated their use in combinatory treatments with virus- and host-directed drugs in vitro. Experimental Approach We tested the antiviral potential of the antifungal itraconazole and the antidepressant fluoxetine on the production of infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles in the polarized Calu-3 cell culture model and evaluated the added benefit of a combinatory use of these host-directed drugs with the direct acting antiviral remdesivir, an inhibitor of viral RNA polymerase. Key Results Drug treatments were well-tolerated and potently impaired viral replication. Importantly, both itraconazole?remdesivir and fluoxetine?remdesivir combinations inhibited the production of infectious SARS-CoV-2 particles?>?90% and displayed synergistic effects, as determined in commonly used reference models for drug interaction. Conclusion and Implications Itraconazole?remdesivir and fluoxetine?remdesivir combinations are promising starting points for therapeutic options to control SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe progression of COVID-19.
  • Resal, Tamas; Bor, Renata; Szanto, Kata; Fabian, Anna; Rutka, Mariann; Sacco, Marco; Ribaldone, Davide Guiseppe; Molander, Pauliina; Nancey, Stephane; Kopytov, Uri; Vavricka, Stephan; Drobne, David; Lukas, Milan; Farkas, Klaudia; Szepes, Zoltan; Molnar, Tamas (2021)
    Introduction: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a challenge to healthcare. Staff and patients are at increased risk during an examination or intervention, so certain restrictions ought to be introduced. Hence, we aimed to measure the effect of the pandemic on endoscopy units in real-life settings. Methods: This was an observational, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, carried out between 7 April and 15 June 2020. Responds came from many countries, and the participation was voluntary. The survey contained 40 questions, which evaluated the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on the endoscopy units and assessed the infection control. Results: A total of 312 questionnaires were filled, 120 from Hungary, and 192 internationally, and 54 questionnaires (17.3%) were sent from high-risk countries; 84.9% of the gastroenterologists declared that they read the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE) statement, while only 32.1% participated in any advanced training at their workplace. Overall, 92.1% of gastroenterologists realized risk stratification, and 72.1% claimed to have enough protective equipment. In 52.6% of the endoscopy units, at least one endoscopist had to discontinue the work due to any risk factor, while 40.6% reported that the reduced staff did not affect the workflow. Gastroenterologists considered that the five most important examinations both in low and high-risk patients are the following: lower/upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding with hemodynamic instability, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in obstructive jaundice, foreign body in the esophagus, ERCP in acute biliary pancreatitis, and iron deficiency anemia with hemodynamic instability, which correlates well with the ESGE recommendation. Significant correlation was found in the usage of the necessary protective equipment in high-risk patients depending on the countries (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The survey found weak correlation in preliminary training depending on countries; nevertheless, in Hungary during the examined period, endoscopists considered the recommendations more strictly than in other countries. Although many physicians left the endoscopy lab, the workflow was not affected, probably due to the reduced number of examinations.
  • Indolfi, Giuseppe; Stivala, Micol; Lenge, Matteo; Diaz Naderi, Ruben; McIntosh, Jennifer; Llandrich, Ricard Casadevall; Gannon, Joe; McGreevy, Kathleen S.; Trapani, Sandra; Miettinen, Päivi; Lahdenne, Pekka; Desborough, Louisa; Pavare, Jana; van Rossum, Annemarie; Zyska, Dagmara; Resti, Massimo; Zanobini, Alberto (2021)
    The Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic impacted the organization of paediatric hospitals. This study aimed to evaluate the preparedness for the pandemic among a European network of children's hospitals and to explore the strategies to restart health care services. A cross-sectional, web-based survey was distributed in May 2020 to the 13 children's tertiary care hospitals belonging to the European Children's Hospitals Organisation. Responses were obtained from eight hospitals (62%). Significant reductions were observed in accesses to the emergency departments (41.7%), outpatient visits (35.7%), intensive and non-intensive care unit inpatient admissions (16.4 and 13%, respectively) between February 1 and April 30, 2020 as compared with the same period of 2019. Overall, 93 children with SARS CoV-2 infection were admitted to inpatient wards. All the hospitals created SARS-CoV-2 preparedness plans for the diagnosis and management of infected patients. Routine activities were re-scheduled. Four hospitals shared their own staff with adult units, two designated bed spaces for adults and only one admitted adults to inpatient wards. The three main components for the resumption of clinical activities were testing, source control, and reorganization of spaces and flows. Telemedicine and telehealth services were used before the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic by three hospitals and by all the hospitals during it. Conclusion: The present study provides a perspective on preparedness to SARS-CoV-2 pandemic among eight large European children's hospitals, on the impact of the pandemic on the hospital activities and on the strategies adopted to restart clinical activities.
  • De Luca, Giuseppe; Debel, Niels; Cercek, Miha; Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Vavlukis, Marija; Calmac, Lucian; Johnson, Tom; Rourai Ferrer, Gerard; Ganyukov, Vladimir; Wojakowski, Wojtek; Kinnaird, Tim; von Birgelen, Clemens; Cottin, Yves; IJsselmuiden, Alexander; Tuccillo, Bernardo; Versaci, Francesco; Royaards, Kees-Jan; ten Berg, Jurrien; Laine, Mika; Dirksen, Maurits; Siviglia, Massimo; Casella, Gianni; Kala, Petr; Gil, Jose Luis Diez; Banning, Adrian; Becerra, Victor; De Simone, Ciro; Santucci, Andrea; Carrillo, Xavier; Scoccia, Alessandra; Amoroso, Giovanni; van't Hof, Arnoud Wj; Kovarnik, Tomas; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Mehilli, Julinda; Gabrielli, Gabriele; Rios, Xacobe Flores; Bakraceski, Nikola; Levesque, Sebastien; Cirrincione, Giuseppe; Guiducci, Vincenzo; Kidawa, Michal; Spedicato, Leonardo; Marinucci, Lucia; Ludman, Peter; Zilio, Filippo; Galasso, Gennaro; Fabris, Enrico; Menichelli, Maurizio; Garcia-Touchard, Arturo; Manzo, Stephane; Caiazzo, Gianluca; Moreu, Jose; Fores, Juan Sanchis; Donazzan, Luca; Vignali, Luigi; Teles, Rui; Benit, Edouard; Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Ojeda, Francisco Bosa; Lehtola, Heidi; Camacho-Freiere, Santiago; Kraaijeveld, Adriaan; Antti, Ylitalo; Boccalatte, Marco; Deharo, Pierre; Martinez-Luengas, Inigo Lozano; Scheller, Bruno; Varytimiadi, Efthymia; Moreno, Raul; Uccello, Giuseppe; Faurie, Benjamin; Barrios, Alejandro Gutierrez; Milewski, Marek; Bruwiere, Ewout; Smits, Pieter; Wilbert, Bor; Di Uccio, Fortunato Scotto; Parodi, Guido; Kedhi, Elvin; Verdoia, Monica (2021)
    Background and aims: SARS-Cov-2 predisposes patients to thrombotic complications, due to excessive inflam-mation, endothelial dysfunction, platelet activation, and coagulation/fibrinolysis disturbances. The aim of the present study was to evaluate clinical characteristics and prognostic impact of SARS-CoV-2 positivity among STEMI patients undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). Methods: We selected SARS-CoV-2 positive patients included in the ISACS-STEMI COVID-19, a retrospective multicenter European registry including 6609 STEMI patients treated with PPCI from March 1st until April 30th, in 2019 and 2020. As a reference group, we randomly sampled 5 SARS-Cov-2 negative patients per each SARS-CoV-2 positive patient, individually matched for age, sex, and hospital/geographic area. Study endpoints were in-hospital mortality, definite stent thrombosis, heart failure. Results: Our population is represented by 62 positive SARS-CoV-2 positive patients who were compared with a matched population of 310 STEMI patients. No significant difference was observed in baseline characteristics or the modality of access to the PCI center. In the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients, the culprit lesion was more often located in the RCA (p < 0.001). Despite similar pre and postprocedural TIMI flow, we observed a trend in higher use of GP IIb-IIIa inhibitors and a significantly higher use of thrombectomy in the SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. SARS-CoV-2 positivity was associated with a remarkably higher in hospital mortality (29% vs 5.5%, p < 0.001), definite in-stent thrombosis (8.1% vs 1.6%, p symbolscript 0.004) and heart failure (22.6% vs 10.6%, p symbolscript 0.001) that was confirmed after adjustment for confounding factors. Conclusions: Our study showed that among STEMI patients, SARS-CoV-2 positivity is associated with larger thrombus burden, a remarkably higher mortality but also higher rates of in-stent thrombosis and heart failure.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Löndahl, Jakob; Thuresson, Sara; Alsved, Malin; Al-Hunaiti, Afnan; Saksela, Kalle; Aqel, Hazem; Junninen, Heikki; Mahura, Alexander; Kulmala, Markku (2021)
    Transmission of respiratory viruses is a complex process involving emission, deposition in the airways, and infection. Inhalation is often the most relevant transmission mode in indoor environments. For severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the risk of inhalation transmission is not yet fully understood. Here, we used an indoor aerosol model combined with a regional inhaled deposited dose model to examine the indoor transport of aerosols from an infected person with novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) to a susceptible person and assess the potential inhaled dose rate of particles. Two scenarios with different ventilation rates were compared, as well as adult female versus male recipients. Assuming a source strength of 10 viruses/s, in a tightly closed room with poor ventilation (0.5 h−1), the respiratory tract deposited dose rate was 140–350 and 100–260 inhaled viruses/hour for males and females; respectively. With ventilation at 3 h−1 the dose rate was only 30–90 viruses/hour. Correcting for the half-life of SARS-CoV-2 in air, these numbers are reduced by a factor of 1.2–2.2 for poorly ventilated rooms and 1.1–1.4 for well-ventilated rooms. Combined with future determinations of virus emission rates, the size distribution of aerosols containing the virus, and the infectious dose, these results could play an important role in understanding the full picture of potential inhalation transmission in indoor environments.
  • Kaivola, Juha; Nyman, Tuula Anneli; Matikainen, Sampsa (2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 is a new type of coronavirus that has caused worldwide pandemic. The disease induced by SARS-CoV-2 is called COVID-19. A majority of people with COVID-19 have relatively mild respiratory symptoms. However, a small percentage of COVID-19 patients develop a severe disease where multiple organs are affected. These severe forms of SARS-CoV-2 infections are associated with excessive production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, so called "cytokine storm". Inflammasomes, which are protein complexes of the innate immune system orchestrate development of local and systemic inflammation during virus infection. Recent data suggest involvement of inflammasomes in severe COVID-19. Activation of inflammasome exerts two major effects: it activates caspase-1-mediated processing and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1 beta and IL-18, and induces inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis, via protein called gasdermin D. Here, we provide comprehensive review of current understanding of the activation and possible functions of different inflammasome structures during SARS-CoV-2 infection and compare that to response caused by influenza A virus. We also discuss how novel SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines activate innate immune response, which is a prerequisite for the activation of protective adaptive immune response.
  • Herring, Shawn; Oda, Jessica M.; Wagoner, Jessica; Kirchmeier, Delaney; O'Connor, Aidan; Nelson, Elizabeth A.; Huang, Qinfeng; Liang, Yuying; DeWald, Lisa Evans; Johansen, Lisa M.; Glass, Pamela J.; Olinger, Gene G.; Ianevski, Aleksandr; Aittokallio, Tero; Paine, Mary F.; Fink, Susan L.; White, Judith M.; Polyak, Stephen J. (2021)
    Neglected diseases caused by arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV) and filoviruses like Ebola virus (EBOV) primarily afflict resource-limited countries, where antiviral drug development is often minimal. Previous studies have shown that many approved drugs developed for other clinical indications inhibit EBOV and LASV and that combinations of these drugs provide synergistic suppression of EBOV, often by blocking discrete steps in virus entry. We hypothesize that repurposing of combinations of orally administered approved drugs provides effective suppression of arenaviruses. In this report, we demonstrate that arbidol, an approved influenza antiviral previously shown to inhibit EBOV, LASV, and many other viruses, inhibits murine leukemia virus (MLV) reporter viruses pseudotyped with the fusion glycoproteins (GPs) of other arenaviruses (Junin virus (JUNV], lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), and Pichinde virus (PICA). Arbidol and other approved drugs, including aripiprazole, amodiaquine, sertraline, and niclosamide, also inhibit infection of cells by infectious PICV, and arbidol, sertraline, and niclosamide inhibit infectious LASV. Combining arbidol with aripiprazole or sertraline results in the synergistic suppression of LASV and JUNV GP-bearing pseudoviruses. This proof-of-concept study shows that arenavirus infection in vitro can be synergistically inhibited by combinations of approved drugs. This approach may lead to a proactive strategy with which to prepare for and control known and new arenavirus outbreaks.
  • Pavel, Alisa; del Giudice, Giusy; Federico, Antonio; Di Lieto, Antonio; Kinaret, Pia A. S.; Serra, Angela; Greco, Dario (2021)
    The COVID-19 disease led to an unprecedented health emergency, still ongoing worldwide. Given the lack of a vaccine or a clear therapeutic strategy to counteract the infection as well as its secondary effects, there is currently a pressing need to generate new insights into the SARS-CoV-2 induced host response. Biomedical data can help to investigate new aspects of the COVID-19 pathogenesis, but source heterogeneity represents a major drawback and limitation. In this work, we applied data integration methods to develop a Unified Knowledge Space (UKS) and used it to identify a new set of genes associated with SARS-CoV-2 host response, both in vitro and in vivo. Functional analysis of these genes reveals possible long-term systemic effects of the infection, such as vascular remodelling and fibrosis. Finally, we identified a set of potentially relevant drugs targeting proteins involved in multiple steps of the host response to the virus.
  • Malmgren, Rasmus Albert (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The COVID-19 pandemic of 2019 has had a huge impact on the hospitality industry, decreasing production by 35.4% in Q4 of 2020. To keep the industry functional, new safety solutions have to be studied and developed for mitigation of the pandemic. In this study, airborne transmission of viruses in an indoor space was studied, and air purifiers and space dividers were tested as potential intervention methods against SARS-CoV-2 by using a non-pathogenic model virus phi 6. Filtered air purifiers were found to work as a possible solution for the mitigation of viruses spreading through aerosols in public spaces such as restaurants, however, the positioning of the devices is crucial, as the air flow to them may increase the concentration of viruses locally. Space dividers were found to increase the possibility of infection via aerosols. Other types of air purifiers were also tested: an ionizer prototype and a hydroxyl radical emitting unit, of which the ionizer prototype proved to be efficient in reducing the virus concentrations in the air. Most importantly, it was confirmed that enveloped viruses resembling coronaviruses are capable of spreading via aerosol transmission indoors.
  • Virtanen, Jenni; Uusitalo, Ruut; Korhonen, Essi M.; Aaltonen, Kirsi; Smura, Teemu; Kuivanen, Suvi; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Mero, Sointu; Patjas, Anu; Riekkinen, Marianna; Kantele, Anu; Nurmi, Visa; Hedman, Klaus; Hepojoki, Jussi; Sironen, Tarja; Huhtamo, Eili; Vapalahti, Olli (2021)
    Increasing evidence suggests that some newly emerged SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VoCs) resist neutralization by antibodies elicited by the early-pandemic wild-type virus. We applied neutralization tests to paired recoveree sera (n = 38) using clinical isolates representing the first wave (D614G), VoC1, and VoC2 lineages (B.1.1.7 and B 1.351). Neutralizing antibodies inhibited contemporary and VoC1 lineages, whereas inhibition of VoC2 was reduced 8-fold, with 50% of sera failing to show neutralization. These results provide evidence for the increased potential of VoC2 to reinfect previously SARS-CoV-infected individuals. The kinetics of NAbs in different patients showed similar decline against all variants, with generally low initial anti-B.1.351 responses becoming undetectable, but with anti-B.1.1.7 NAbs remaining detectable (>20) for months after acute infection.
  • Jarva, H.; Lappalainen, M.; Luomala, O.; Jokela, P.; Jääskeläinen, A. E.; Jääskeläinen, A. J.; Kallio-Kokko, H.; Kekäläinen, E.; Mannonen, L.; Soini, H.; Suuronen, S.; Toivonen, A.; Savolainen-Kopra, C.; Loginov, R.; Kurkela, S. (2021)
    Objectives: The aim was to characterise age-and sex-specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease-2 (SARS-CoV-2) RT-PCR sampling frequency and positivity rate in Greater Helsinki area in Finland during February & ndash;June 2020. We also describe the laboratory capacity building for these diagnostics. Methods: Laboratory registry data for altogether 80,791 specimens from 70,517 individuals was analysed. The data included the date of sampling, sex, age and the SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR test result on specimens collected between 1 February and 15 June 2020. Results: Altogether, 4057/80,791 (5.0%) of the specimens were positive and 3915/70,517 (5.6%) of the individuals were found positive. In all, 37% of specimens were from male and 67% from female subjects. While the number of positive cases was similar in male and female subjects, the positivity rate was significantly higher in male subjects: 7.5% of male and 4.4% of female subjects tested positive. The highest incidence/100,000 was observed in those aged >80 years. The proportion of young adults in positive cases increased in late May 2020. Large dips in testing frequency were observed during every weekend and also during public holidays. Conclusions: Our data suggest that men pursue SARS-CoV-2 testing less frequently than women. Consequently, a subset of coronavirus disease-2019 infections in men may have gone undetected. People sought testing less frequently on weekends and public holidays, and this may also lead to missing of positive cases. The proportion of young adults in positive cases increased towards the end of the study period, which may suggest their returning back to social behaviour with an increased risk of infection. (c) 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • Klimek, Ludger; Jutel, Marek; Bousquet, Jean; Agache, Ioana; Akdis, Cezmi A.; Hox, Valerie; Gevaert, Philippe; Tomazic, Peter Valentin; Rondon, Carmen; Cingi, Cemal; Toppila-Salmi, Sanna; Karavelia, Aspasia; Bozkurt, Banu; Foerster-Ruhrmann, Ulrike; Becker, Sven; Chaker, Adam M.; Wollenberg, Barbara; Moesges, Ralph; Huppertz, Tilman; Hagemann, Jan; Bachert, Claus; Fokkens, Wytske (2021)
    BackgroundChronic rhinosinusitis is regarded as a chronic airway disease. According to WHO recommendations, it may be a risk factor for COVID-19 patients. In most CRSwNP cases, the inflammatory changes affecting the nasal and paranasal mucous membranes are type-2 (T2) inflammation endotypes. MethodsThe current knowledge on COVID-19 and on treatment options for CRS was analyzed by a literature search in Medline, Pubmed, international guidelines, the Cochrane Library and the Internet. ResultsBased on international literature, on current recommendations by WHO and other international organizations as well as on previous experience, a panel of experts from EAACI and ARIA provided recommendations for the treatment of CRS during the COVID-19 pandemic. ConclusionIntranasal corticosteroids remain the standard treatment for CRS in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Surgical treatments should be reduced to a minimum and surgery preserved for patients with local complications and for those with no other treatment options. Systemic corticosteroids should be avoided. Treatment with biologics can be continued with careful monitoring in noninfected patients and should be temporarily interrupted during the course of the COVID-19 infection.
  • WAPM World Assoc Perinatal Med Wor; Saccone, Gabriele; Sen, Cihat; Di Mascio, Daniele; Stefanovic, Vedran; Nupponen, Irmeli; Nelskylä, Kaisa; D'Antonio, Francesco (2021)
    Objectives To evaluate the maternal and perinatal outcomes of pregnancies affected by SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods This was a multinational retrospective cohort study including women with a singleton pregnancy and laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, conducted in 72 centers in 22 different countries in Europe, the USA, South America, Asia and Australia, between 1 February 2020 and 30 April 2020. Confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as a positive result on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay of nasopharyngeal swab specimens. The primary outcome was a composite measure of maternal mortality and morbidity, including admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), use of mechanical ventilation and death. Results In total, 388 women with a singleton pregnancy tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR of a nasopharyngeal swab and were included in the study. Composite adverse maternal outcome was observed in 47/388 (12.1%) women; 43 (11.1%) women were admitted to the ICU, 36 (9.3%) required mechanical ventilation and three (0.8%) died. Of the 388 women included in the study, 122 (31.4%) were still pregnant at the time of data analysis. Among the other 266 women, six (19.4% of the 31 women with first-trimester infection) had miscarriage, three (1.1%) had termination of pregnancy, six (2.3%) had stillbirth and 251 (94.4%) delivered a liveborn infant. The rate of preterm birth before 37 weeks' gestation was 26.3% (70/266). Of the 251 liveborn infants, 69/251(27.5%) were admitted to the neonatal ICU, and there were five (2.0%) neonatal deaths. The overall rate of perinatal death was 4.1% (11/266). Only one (1/251, 0.4%) infant, born to a mother who tested positive during the third trimester, was found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR. Conclusions SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women is associated with a 0.8% rate of maternal mortality, but an 11.1% rate of admission to the ICU. The risk of vertical transmission seems to be negligible. (C) 2020 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Venkat, Vinaya (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The COVID-19 pandemic has brought into discussion the role of airborne transmission in infectious diseases. Many studies on enveloped viruses such as influenza suggest that respiratory viruses can be transmitted with large or small droplets formed when the patients talk, breathe, sneeze or cough. This comes under the category of direct contact. These droplets may also be transmitted indirectly as fomites through contact with contaminated surfaces. It has been difficult to prove that aerosols' transmission as the methods to capture virus in the air are not very sensitive. SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus affecting millions of people since 2019, and it has been challenging to contain the spread of this virus. Hence it is of vital importance to understand the transmission of the virus through aerosol and droplets. In this study, aerosol samples were collected from patients in the Surgical Hospital in Helsinki and patients at home in quarantine using various bioaerosols sampling devices like Biospot, Dekati, Button, and Andersen samplers, and passive sampling techniques to capture aerosols and droplets in the air. Such samples were subjected to cell culture on TMPRSS2 expressing Vero E6 cells to check for infectious viruses and RT-PCR using the N-gene targeting method to detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the samples. Out of the 32 saliva samples collected, 19 samples were tested positive by RT-PCR, but cell culture was not always positive. Bioaerosol samples collected using Dekati, Button, and Biospot samplers were negative by PCR. However, Andersen samplers showed positive results along with various passive aerosol samples collected on MEM, indicating aerosols' production of small sizes that can be transmitted air in the air to far distances and settling due to gravity. A relation between saliva samples and symptom days indicates the decrease in saliva viruses' infectivity with the prolonged infection as seen from the RT-PCR. From these findings, it can be concluded that SARS-CoV-2 can be spread by airborne and fomite transmission, and more so by patients with symptoms day 2-7 who are proven to be more infectious. Additionally, it was inferred that the Six Stage Andersen impactor would be the most efficient for aerosol sampling. Further studies are still needed to understand the characteristics of the spread and extent of infection caused by the variants of SARS-CoV-2.
  • Strandberg, Timo (2021)
  • Ahmed, Warish; Simpson, Stuart L.; Bertsch, Paul M.; Bibby, Kyle; Bivins, Aaron; Blackall, Linda L.; Bofill-Mas, Silvia; Bosch, Albert; Brandao, Joao; Choi, Phil M.; Ciesielski, Mark; Donner, Erica; D'Souza, Nishita; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Gerrity, Daniel; Gonzalez, Raul; Griffith, John F.; Gyawali, Pradip; Haas, Charles N.; Hamilton, Kerry A.; Hapuarachchi, Hapuarachchige Chandithal; Harwood, Valerie J.; Haque, Rehnuma; Jackson, Greg; Khan, Stuart J.; Khan, Wesaal; Kitajima, Masaaki; Korajkic, Asja; La Rosa, Giuseppina; Layton, Blythe A.; Lipp, Erin; McLellan, Sandra L.; McMinn, Brian; Medema, Gertjan; Metcalfe, Suzanne; Meijer, Wim G.; Mueller, Jochen F.; Murphy, Heather; Naughton, Coleen C.; Noble, Rachel T.; Payyappat, Sudhi; Petterson, Susan; Pitkänen, Tarja; Rajal, Veronica B.; Reyneke, Brandon; Jr, Fernando A. Roman; Rose, Joan B.; Rusinol, Marta; Sadowsky, Michael J.; Sala-Comorera, Laura; Setoh, Yin Xiang; Sherchan, Samendra P.; Sirikanchana, Kwanrawee; Smith, Wendy; Steele, Joshua A.; Subburg, Rosalie; Symonds, Erin M.; Thai, Phong; Thomas, Kevin; Tynan, Josh; Toze, Simon; Thompson, Janelle; Whiteley, Andy S.; Wong, Judith Chui Ching; Sano, Daisuke; Wuertz, Stefan; Xagoraraki, Irene; Zhang, Qian; Zimmer-Faust, Amity G.; Shanks, Orin C. (2022)
    Wastewater surveillance for pathogens using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is an effective and resource-efficient tool for gathering community-level public health information, including the incidence of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). Surveillance of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in wastewater can potentially provide an early warning signal of COVID-19 infections in a community. The capacity of the world's environmental microbiology and virology laboratories for SARS-CoV-2 RNA characterization in wastewater is increasing rapidly. However, there are no standardized protocols or harmonized quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) procedures for SARS-CoV-2 wastewater surveillance. This paper is a technical review of factors that can cause false-positive and false-negative errors in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in wastewater, culminating in recommended strategies that can be implemented to identify and mitigate some of these errors. Recommendations include stringent QA/QC measures, representative sampling approaches, effective virus concentration and efficient RNA extraction, PCR inhibition assessment, inclusion of sample processing controls, and considerations for RT-PCR assay selection and data interpretation. Clear data interpretation guidelines (e.g., determination of positive and negative samples) are critical, particularly when the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater is low. Corrective and confirmatory actions must be in place for inconclusive results or results diverging from current trends (e.g., initial onset or reemergence of COVID-19 in a community). It is also prudent to perform interlaboratory comparisons to ensure results' reliability and interpretability for prospective and retrospective analyses. The strategies that are recommended in this review aim to improve SARS-CoV-2 characterization and detection for wastewater surveillance applications. A silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is that the efficacy of wastewater surveillance continues to be demonstrated during this global crisis. In the future, wastewater should also play an important role in the surveillance of a range of other communicable diseases. Crown Copyright (C) 2021 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Vuorinen, Ville; Aarnio, Mia; Alava, Mikko; Alopaeus, Ville; Atanasova, Nina; Auvinen, Mikko; Balasubramanian, Nallannan; Bordbar, Hadi; Erasto, Panu; Grande, Rafael; Hayward, Nick; Hellsten, Antti; Hostikka, Simo; Hokkanen, Jyrki; Kaario, Ossi; Karvinen, Aku; Kivisto, Ilkka; Korhonen, Marko; Kosonen, Risto; Kuusela, Janne; Lestinen, Sami; Laurila, Erkki; Nieminen, Heikki J.; Peltonen, Petteri; Pokki, Juho; Puisto, Antti; Raback, Peter; Salmenjoki, Henri; Sironen, Tarja; Osterberg, Monika (2020)
    We provide research findings on the physics of aerosol and droplet dispersion relevant to the hypothesized aerosol transmission of SARS-CoV-2 during the current pandemic. We utilize physics-based modeling at different levels of complexity, along with previous literature on coronaviruses, to investigate the possibility of airborne transmission. The previous literature, our 0D-3D simulations by various physics-based models, and theoretical calculations, indicate that the typical size range of speech and cough originated droplets (d
  • Ianevski, Aleksandr; Yao, Rouan; Lysvand, Hilde; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Legrand, Nicolas; Oksenych, Valentyn; Zusinaite, Eva; Tenson, Tanel; Bjoras, Magnar; Kainov, Denis E. (2021)
    SARS-CoV-2 and its vaccine/immune-escaping variants continue to pose a serious threat to public health due to a paucity of effective, rapidly deployable, and widely available treatments. Here, we address these challenges by combining Pegasys (IFN alpha) and nafamostat to effectively suppress SARS-CoV-2 infection in cell culture and hamsters. Our results indicate that Serpin E1 is an important mediator of the antiviral activity of IFN alpha and that both Serpin E1 and nafamostat can target the same cellular factor TMPRSS2, which plays a critical role in viral replication. The low doses of the drugs in combination may have several clinical advantages, including fewer adverse events and improved patient outcome. Thus, our study may provide a proactive solution for the ongoing pandemic and potential future coronavirus outbreaks, which is still urgently required in many parts of the world.