Browsing by Subject "SCORE"

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  • Huvinen, Emilia; Lahti, Jari; Klemetti, Miira M.; Bergman, Paula H.; Räikkönen, Katri; Orho-Melander, Marju; Laivuori, Hannele; Koivusalo, Saila B. (2022)
    Aims/hypothesis The aim of this study was to assess the interaction between genetic risk and lifestyle intervention on the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and postpartum diabetes. Methods The RADIEL study is an RCT aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes through lifestyle intervention. Participants with a BMI >= 30 kg/m(2) and/or prior GDM were allocated to intervention and control groups before pregnancy or in early pregnancy. The study visits took place every 3 months before pregnancy, once in each trimester, and at 6 weeks and 6 and 12 months postpartum. We calculated a polygenic risk score (PRS) based on 50 risk variants for type 2 diabetes. Results Altogether, 516 participants provided genetic and GDM data. The PRS was associated with higher glycaemic levels (fasting glucose and/or HbA(1c)) and a lower insulin secretion index in the second and third trimesters and at 12 months postpartum, as well as with a higher occurrence of GDM and glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum (n = 356). There was an interaction between the PRS and lifestyle intervention (p=0.016 during pregnancy and p=0.024 postpartum) when analysing participants who did not have GDM at the first study visit during pregnancy (n = 386). When analysing women in tertiles according to the PRS, the intervention was effective in reducing the age-adjusted occurrence of GDM only among those with the highest genetic risk (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.17, 0.82). The risk of glycaemic abnormalities at 12 months postpartum was reduced in the same group after adjusting additionally for BMI, parity, smoking and education (OR 0.35; 95% CI 0.13, 0.97). Conclusions/interpretation Genetic predisposition to diabetes modifies the response to a lifestyle intervention aimed at prevention of GDM and postpartum diabetes. This suggests that lifestyle intervention may benefit from being tailored according to genetic risk.
  • Anillo Arrieta, Luis A.; Acosta Vergara, Tania; Tuesca, Rafael; Rodriguez Acosta, Sandra; Florez Lozano, Karen C.; Aschner, Pablo; Gabriel, Rafael; De la Rosa, Sandra; Nieto Castillo, Julieth P.; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    Purpose The purpose of this study was to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) characteristics in a population at risk of developing type 2 diabetes in Barranquilla and Bogota, Colombia. Methods A cross-sectional study with 1135 participants older than 30 years-of-age recruited in Bogota D.C., and Barranquilla by cluster sampling in 2018 to 2019. The Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) was used to detect participants at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). HRQoL was assessed using the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire. Unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals CI). Results Moderate or extreme problems appeared more frequently in the dimensions of Pain/Discomfort (60.8%) and Anxiety/Depression (30.8%). The mean score of the EQ-VAS was 74.3 (+/- 17.3), significantly larger in the state of complete health (11111) compared with those with problems in more than one of the quality-of-life dimensions. Being female and living in Bogota D.C., were associated with greater odds of reporting problems in the Pain (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.2) and Discomfort dimensions (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.2-2.0) respectively and Anxiety/Depression (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.3-2.7), (OR 9.1; 95% CI 6.6-12.4), respectively. Conclusions As living place and sex were associated with dimensions of Pain/Discomfort and Anxiety/Depression in the HRQoL in people at risk of T2D, greater attention should be paid to these determinants of HRQoL to design and reorient strategies with a territorial and gender perspective to achieve better health outcomes. Plain English summary Diabetes is one of the four non-communicable diseases with increasing prevalence in the world, which has made it a serious public health problem. In Colombia, in 2019 diabetes affected 8.4% of the Colombian adult population and more than one million Colombian adults of this age group have hidden or undetected diabetes. This disease is not only characterized by increased premature mortality, loss of productivity, and economic impact, but it also involves a deterioration in the quality of life of people with diabetes with their respective families. However, very Little is known about health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a population at risk or with prediabetes. This study has evaluated the quality of life in patients at risk of diabetes and their behavior with some variables as sociodemographic, lifestyle, history, and established their difference in two territories of the Colombian Caribbean. The results of this study indicate that the HRQoL of people at risk of type 2 diabetes is affected by factors such as gender, city, dysglycemia, medication for hypertension and education level. Therefore, greater attention should be paid to these determinants of HRQL to design and implement strategies that reduce this risk of developing type 2 diabetes, prevent prediabetes and improve the quality of life in prediabetic or diabetic patients.
  • INTERACT2 Investigators; Kaste, Markku; Tatlisumak, Turgut (2017)
    Objective: To clarify associations between intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) location and clinical outcomes among participants of the main phase Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial (INTERACT2). Methods: Associations between ICH sites and poor outcomes (death [6] or major disability [3-5] of modified Rankin Scale) and European Quality of Life Scale (EQ-5D) utility scores at 90 days were assessed in logistic regression models. Results: Of 2,066 patients included in the analyses, associations were identified between ICH sites and poor outcomes: involvement of posterior limb of internal capsule increased risks of death or major disability (odds ratio [OR] 2.10) and disability (OR 1.81); thalamic involvement increased risks of death or major disability (OR 2.24) and death (OR 1.97). Involvement of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, thalamus, and infratentorial sites were each associated with poor EQ-5D utility score ( Conclusion: Poor clinical outcomes are related to ICH affecting the posterior limb of internal capsule, thalamus, and infratentorial sites. The highest association with death or major disability and poor EQ-5D utility score was seen in ICH encompassing the thalamus and posterior limb of internal capsule.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Korja, Miikka (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have suggested that aneurysm morphology is a risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether various morphological indices of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) predict a future rupture. METHODS: A total of 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 were followed prospectively until SAH, death, or the last contact. Morphological UIA indices from standard angiographic projections were measured at baseline and adjusted inmulti-variable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for established risk factors for SAH. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3064 person-years, 34 patients suffered from an aneurysm rupture. In multivariable analyses, aneurysm volume, volume-to-ostium area ratio, and the bottleneck factor separately as continuous variables predicted aneurysm rupture. All the morphological indices were higher (P <.01) after the rupture than before. In final multivariable analyses, current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.03-6.10, P = .044), location in the anterior communicating artery (4.28, 1.38-13.28, P = .012), age (inversely; 0.95 per year, 0.91-1.00, P = .043), and UIA diameter >= 7 mm at baseline (2.68, 1.16-6.21, P = .021) were independent risk factors for a future rupture. Aneurysm growth during the follow-up was associated with smoking (P <.05) and SAH (P <.001), but not with the aneurysm indices. CONCLUSION: Of the morphological indices, UIA volume seems to predict a future rupture. However, as volume correlates with the maximum diameter of the aneurysm, it seems to add little to the predictive value of the maximum diameter. Retrospective studies using indices that are measured after rupture are of little value in risk prediction.
  • Måseide, Ragnhild J.; Berntorp, Erik; Astermark, Jan; Olsson, Anna; Bruzelius, Maria; Frisk, Tony; Nummi, Vuokko; Lassila, Riitta; Tjonnfjord, Geir E.; Holme, Pål A. (2020)
    Introduction The prevalence of arthropathy in moderate haemophilia A (MHA) and B (MHB) is not well known. Aim We evaluated joint health in Nordic patients in relation to their treatment modality. Methods A cross-sectional, multicentre study covering MHA and MHB in Sweden, Finland and Norway. Arthropathy was evaluated by ultrasound (HEAD-US) and Haemophilia Joint Health Score (HJHS). Results We report on 145 patients: median age 28 years (IQR 13-52) and 61% MHA. Baseline factor VIII/factor IX activity (FVIII/FIX:C) was 2 IU/dL (median) (IQR 2-4): lower for MHB (2 IU/dL, IQR 1-2) than MHA (3 IU/dL, IQR 2-4) (P <.01). Eighty-five per cent of MHA and 73% MHB had a history of haemarthrosis (P = .07). Age at first joint bleed was lower for MHA (5 years [median], IQR 3-7) than MHB (7 years, IQR 5-12) (P = .01). Thirty-eight per cent received prophylaxis, started at median 10 years of age (IQR 4-24). Median joint bleeds and serious other bleeds during the last 12 months were both zero (IQR 0-1). Total HEAD-US captured 0/48 points (median) (IQR 0-2) and HJHS 4/120 points (IQR 1-10) with strong correlation between them (r = .72). FVIII/FIX:C
  • Unkuri, J. H.; Salminen, P.; Kallio, P.; Kosola, S. (2018)
    Background: Kick scooters are popular among children in both transportation and recreational activities. The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the incidence of and injury patterns associated with kick scooter accidents in school-aged children and adolescents. Methods: All 171 patients at the age of 7-15 years who were treated for kick scooter-related injuries in the metropolitan Helsinki area, Southern Finland from January 2008 to December 2013 were included. Electronic medical records were reviewed and Pediatric Trauma Scores and Injury Severity Scores were utilized to assess the injuries. Results: The annual number of patients increased from 7 in 2008 to 55 in 2013. Almost all patients (94%, n = 161) were injured after a fall from their own height. Most patients (n = 118; 69%) were diagnosed with a fracture but only 26 patients (15%) required surgical procedures under general anesthesia. Pediatric Trauma Scores were low and only one patient had an Injury Severity Score > 15 which can be considered major trauma. Conclusion: Most injuries acquired from kick scooter injuries were easily treatable fractures and bruises. Considering the background population of 105,000 in the respective age group and the 6-year period of data collection from tertiary care, scooting seems a safe means of increasing the physical activity levels of school-aged children and adolescents.
  • CardShock Investigators; Hongisto, Mari; Kataja, Anu; Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Holopainen, Anu; Javanainen, Tuija; Jurkko, Raija; Jäntti, Toni; Kimmoun, Antoine; Levy, Bruno; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Pulkki, Kari; Sionis, Alessandro; Tolppanen, Heli; Wollert, Kai C.; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; Lassus, Johan (2019)
    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the levels, kinetics, and prognostic value of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF-15) in cardiogenic shock (CS). Methods and Results: Levels of GDF-15 were determined in serial plasma samples (0-120 h) from 177 CS patients in the CardShock study. Kinetics of GDF-15, its association with 90-day mortality, and incremental value for risk stratification were assessed. The median GDF-15(0h) level was 9647 ng/L (IQR 4500-19,270 ng/L) and levels above median were significantly associated with acidosis, hyperlactatemia, renal dysfunction, and higher 90-day mortality (56% vs 28%, P7000 ng/L was identified as a strong predictor of death (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.9-3.8, P=.002). Adding GDF-15(12h) >7000 ng/L to the CardShock risk score improved discrimination and risk stratification for 90-day mortality. Conclusions: GDF-15 levels are highly elevated in CS and associated with markers of systemic hypoperfusion and end-organ dysfunction. GDF-15 helps to discriminate survivors from non-survivors very early in CS.
  • Thorlacius, Elin M.; Wåhlander, Håkan; Ojala, Tiina; Ylänen, Kaisa; Keski-Nisula, Juho; Synnergren, Mats; Romlin, Birgitta S.; Ricksten, Sven-Erik; Castellheim, Albert (2020)
    Objective : We aimed to determine the differential effects of intra-operative administration of milrinone versus levosimendan on myocardial function after pediatric cardiac surgery. Transthoracic echocardiography was employed for myocardial function evaluation, utilizing biventricular longitudinal strain with two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography in addition to conventional echocardiographic variables. Design : A secondary analysis of a randomized, prospective, double-blinded clinical drug trial Setting : Two pediatric tertiary university hospitals Participants : Infants between 1-12 months of age diagnosed with ventricular septal defect, complete atrioventricular septal defect, or tetralogy of Fallot who were scheduled for corrective surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Interventions : The patients were randomized to receive an infusion of milrinone or levosimendan at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass and for 26 consecutive hours. Measurements and main results : Biventricular longitudinal strain and conventional echocardiographic variables were measured preoperatively, on the first postoperative morning and prior to hospital discharge. The association between perioperative parameters and postoperative myocardial function was also investigated. Images were analyzed for left ventricular (n=67) and right ventricular (n=44) function. The day after surgery, left ventricular longitudinal strain was deteriorated in both the milrinone and levosimendan groups; 33% and 39%, respectively. The difference was not significant. The corresponding deterioration in right ventricular longitudinal strain was 42% and 50% (non-significant difference). For both groups, biventricular longitudinal strain approached their preoperative values at hospital discharge. Preoperative N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide could predict the left ventricular strain on postoperative day one (p=0.014). Conclusions : Levosimendan was comparable to milrinone for left and right ventricular inotropic support in pediatric cardiac surgery.
  • Jaskari, Joel; Myllärinen, Janne; Leskinen, Markus; Rad, Ali Bahrami; Hollmen, Jaakko; Andersson, Sture; Särkkä, Simo (2020)
    Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children under the age of five. In particular, low birth weight and low gestational age are associated with an increased risk of mortality. Preterm birth also increases the risks of several complications, which can increase the risk of death, or cause long-term morbidities with both individual and societal impacts. In this work, we use machine learning for prediction of neonatal mortality as well as neonatal morbidities of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, and retinopathy of prematurity, among very low birth weight infants. Our predictors include time series data and clinical variables collected at the neonatal intensive care unit of Children's Hospital, Helsinki University Hospital. We examine 9 different classifiers and present our main results in AUROC, similar to our previous studies, and in F1-score, which we propose for classifier selection in this study. We also investigate how the predictive performance of the classifiers evolves as the length of time series is increased, and examine the relative importance of different features using the random forest classifier, which we found to generally perform the best in all tasks. Our systematic study also involves different data preprocessing methods which can be used to improve classifier sensitivities. Our best classifier AUROC is 0.922 in the prediction of mortality, 0.899 in the prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 0.806 in the prediction of necrotizing enterocolitis, and 0.846 in the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity. Our best classifier F1-score is 0.493 in the prediction of mortality, 0.704 in the prediction of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, 0.215 in the prediction of necrotizing enterocolitis, and 0.368 in the prediction of retinopathy of prematurity.
  • Räty, Silja; Sallinen, Hanne; Virtanen, Pekka; Haapaniemi, Elena; Wu, Teddy Y.; Putaala, Jukka; Meretoja, Atte; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Strbian, Daniel (2021)
    Objectives Posterior location affects the clinical presentation and outcome of ischemic stroke, but little is known about occipital intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). We studied non-traumatic occipital ICH phenotype, outcome, and post-ICH epilepsy. Materials and Methods Occipital ICH patients were retrospectively identified from the Helsinki ICH Study registry of 1013 consecutive ICH patients treated in our tertiary center in 2005-2010. They were compared to non-occipital ICH patients to evaluate the effect of location on functional outcome at discharge (dichotomized modified Rankin Scale, mRS), 3- and 12-month mortality, and incidence of epilepsy. Results We found 19 occipital ICH patients (5.3% of lobar and 1.9% of all ICH). Compared to non-occipital lobar ICHs, they were younger (median age 63 vs 71 years,P= .007) and had lower National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission (1 vs 8,P<.001), smaller hematoma volume (6.3 vs 17.7 ML,P= .008), and more frequently structural etiology underlying the ICH (26% vs 7%,P= .01). Mortality at both 3 and 12 months was 6%, whereas 84% reached favorable outcome (mRS 0-2) at discharge. Occipital location was associated with favorable outcome at discharge in lobar ICH (OR 11.02, 95% CI 1.55-78.20). Incidence of post-ICH epilepsy (median follow-up 2.7 years) was 18%, equaling to that of non-occipital lobar ICH. Conclusions Occipital ICH patients are younger, have less severe clinical presentation, smaller hematoma volume, more often structural etiology, and better outcome than other ICH patients. They exhibit a similar risk of epilepsy as non-occipital ICHs.
  • Smeds, Marika; Skrifvars, Markus B.; Reinikainen, Matti; Bendel, Stepani; Hoppu, Sanna; Laitio, Ruut; Ala-Kokko, Tero; Curtze, Sami; Sibolt, Gerli; Martinez-Majander, Nicolas; Raj, Rahul (2022)
    Background: Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) entails significant mortality and morbidity. Severely ill ICH patients are treated in intensive care units (ICUs), but data on 1-year healthcare costs and patient care cost-effectiveness are lacking. Methods: Retrospective multi-center study of 959 adult patients treated for spontaneous ICH from 2003 to 2013. The primary outcomes were 12-month mortality or permanent disability, defined as being granted a permanent disability allowance or pension by the Social Insurance Institution by 2016. Total healthcare costs were hospital, rehabilitation, and social security costs within 12 months. A multivariable linear regression of log transformed cost data, adjusting for case mix, was used to assess independent factors associated with costs. Results: Twelve-month mortality was 45% and 51% of the survivors were disabled at the end of follow-up. The mean 12-month total cost was euro49,754, of which rehabilitation, tertiary hospital and social security costs accounted for 45%, 39%, and 16%, respectively. The highest effective cost per independent survivor (ECPIS) was noted among patients aged >70 years with brainstem ICHs, low Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores, larger hematoma volumes, intraventricular hemorrhages, and ICH scores of 3. In multivariable analysis, age, GCS score, and severity of illness were associated independently with 1-year healthcare costs. Conclusions: Costs associated with ICHs vary between patient groups, and the ECPIS appears highest among patients older than 70 years and those with brainstem ICHs and higher ICH scores. One-third of financial resources were used for patients with favorable outcomes. Further detailed cost-analysis studies for patients with an ICH are required.
  • Eloranta, Sini; Rantanen, Virpi; Kauppila, Marjo; Hautaniemi, Soili; Vahlberg, Tero; Laasik, Maren; Joronen, Kirsi; Sintonen, Harri; Ala-Nissilä, Seija (2019)
    Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence of pelvic floor disorders and to describe health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among older women. We also compared participants' HRQoL with the age-matched general female population and analysed factors associated with HRQoL. Study design: This is a population-based study of a cohort of women born in 1948 and in 1950 (n = 143) which is also part of the Women's Gynaecological Health study in Lieto, Finland. Methods: The data were collected by questionnaires which pertained to socio-demographics, health-related variables, pelvic floor disorders and HRQoL (15D). Linear model was conducted to estimate a model of factors that associated with HRQoL. Results: The prevalence of urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse was 50%, 13% and 12%, respectively. The overall HRQoL score of the study cohort is broadly similar to that of the age-matched general Finnish female population (mean +/- SD15D scores 0.905 +/- 0.084 vs 0.912 +/- 0.077). Higher number of medications was the most important explanatory factor for lower HRQoL. Conclusion: Urinary incontinence was common; however, the impact on HRQoL was minor. The overall HRQoL score of the study cohort was broadly similar to that of age-matched general female population. Women who used a higher number of medications had lower HRQoL compared to women who used fewer medications.
  • Heikkila, Arto; Venermo, Maarit; Kautiainen, Hannu; Aarnio, Pertti; Korhonen, Paivi (2016)
    Background: Peripheral, arterial disease (PAD) is an underdiagnosed and undertreated disease because it remains asymptomatic for so long. The ankle brachial index (ABI) is a valid method for detecting PAD: in lower extremities. ABI Methods: A total of 193 subjects with borderline ABI were examined in 2005-2006. None of them had previously diagnosed diabetes, cardiovascular or renal disease or intermittent claudication. They were given conventional treatment for multiple risk factors of cardiovascular diseases (hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, elevated blood glucose, smoking, and overweight). Sixty-four percent of these subjects (n = 1.23) attended a follow-up visit in 2012. Results: Of the 123 subjects with borderline ABI (mean age 59.0 years, 62% female) at baseline, 18 (15%, 95% confidence intervals {Cl] 9%-22%) developed incident PAD during the follow-up. The mean ABI was 0.97 +/- 0.03 at baseline and 1.01 +/- 0.12 at 7-year follow-up visit. The change in mean ABI was 70:04 (95% CI: 0.03-0.07), P <0.001. ABI improved significantly in 25 (20%) subjects. In multivariate ordered logistic regression analyses high and even moderate leisure-time physical activity :(LTPA; odds ratio 6.15; 95% CI: 1.99-19.1) predicted a rise in ABI in comparison to low LTPA. Conclusions: Physical activity seems to improve significantly ABI values among men and women with borderline ABI (0.91-1.00).
  • Peake, Sandra L.; Delaney, Anthony; Bailey, Michael; Bellomo, Rinaldo; ARISE Investigators; Pettilä, Ville (2017)
    Study objective: The influence of the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3) on the conduct of future sepsis research is unknown. We seek to examine the potential effect of the new definitions on the identification and outcomes of patients enrolled in a sepsis trial. Methods: This was a post hoc analysis of the Australasian Resuscitation in Sepsis Evaluation (ARISE) trial of early goal-directed therapy that recruited 1,591 adult patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with early septic shock diagnosed by greater than or equal to 2 systemic inflammatory response syndrome criteria and either refractory hypotension or hyperlactatemia. The proportion of participants who would have met the Sepsis-3 criteria for quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qS0FA) score, sepsis (an increased Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score >= 2 because of infection) and septic shock before randomization, their baseline characteristics, interventions delivered, and mortality were determined. Results: There were 1,139 participants who had a qSOFA score of greater than or equal to 2 at baseline (71.6% [95% confidence interval [Cl) 69.4% to 73.8%]). In contrast, 1,347 participants (84.7% [95% CI 82.9% to 86.4%]) met the Sepsis-3 criteria for sepsis. Only 1,010 participants were both qSOFA positive and met the Sepsis-3 criteria for sepsis (63.5% [95% CI 61.1% to 65.8%]). The Sepsis-3 definition for septic shock was met at baseline by 203 participants (12.8% [95% CI 11.2% to 14.5%]), of whom 175 (86.2% [95% CI 81.5% to 91.0%]) were also qSOFA positive. Ninety-day mortality for participants fulfilling the Sepsis-3 criteria for sepsis and septic shock was 20.4% (95% CI 18.2% to 22.5%) (274/1,344) and 29.6% (95% CI 23.3% to 35.8% [60/203]) versus 9.4% (95% CI 5.8% to 13.1%) (23/244) and 17.1% (95% CI 15.1% to 19.1% [237/1,388]), respectively, for participants not meeting the criteria (risk differences 11.0% [95% CI 6.2% to 14.8%] and 12.5% [95% CI 6.3% to 19.4%], respectively). Conclusion: Most ARISE participants did not meet the Sepsis-3 definition for septic shock at baseline. However, the majority fulfilled the new sepsis definition and mortality was higher than for participants not fulfilling the criteria. A quarter of participants meeting the new sepsis definition did not fulfill the qSOFA screening criteria, potentially limiting its utility as a screening tool for sepsis trials with patients with suspected infection in the ED. The implications of the new definitions for patients not eligible for recruitment into the ARISE trial are unknown.
  • Xu, Shishi; Scott, Charles A. B.; Coleman, Ruth L.; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Holman, Rury R. (2021)
    Aims Robust diabetes risk estimates in Asian patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and coronary heart disease (CHD) are lacking. We developed a Chinese type 2 diabetes risk calculator using Acarbose Cardiovascular Evaluation (ACE) trial data. Methods There were 3105 placebo-treated ACE participants with requisite data for model development. Clinically relevant variables, and those showing nominal univariate association with new-onset diabetes (P <.10), were entered into BASIC (clinical variables only), EXTENDED (clinical variables plus routinely available laboratory results), and FULL (all candidate variables) logistic regression models. External validation was performed using the Luzhou prospective cohort of 1088 Chinese patients with IGT. Results Over median 5.0 years, 493 (15.9%) ACE participants developed diabetes. Lower age, higher body mass index, and use of corticosteroids or thiazide diuretics were associated with higher diabetes risk. C-statistics for the BASIC (using these variables), EXTENDED (adding male sex, fasting plasma glucose, 2-hour glucose, and HbA1c), and FULL models were 0.610, 0.757, and 0.761 respectively. The EXTENDED model predicted a lower 13.9% 5-year diabetes risk in the Luzhou cohort than observed (35.2%, 95% confidence interval 31.3%-39.5%, C-statistic 0.643). Conclusion A risk prediction model using routinely available clinical variables can be used to estimate diabetes risk in Chinese people with CHD and IGT.
  • Tuesca Molina, R.; Rios Garcia, A. L.; Acosta Vergara, T.; Florez-Garcia, V. A.; Rodriguez Gutierrez, Jorge; Florez Lozano, K.; Barengo, N. C. (2022)
    Background: Nutritional habits low in fruits and vegetables and sedentary lifestyle are associated with a higher risk of developing Type 2 Diabetes (T2D). However, it is important to assess differences between urban and rural areas. This study aimed to analyze the associations between the risk of developing T2D and setting in the Colombian north coast in 2017. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,005 subjects. Data was collected by interviewing self-identified members of an urban community and a rural-indigenous population. The interaction terms were evaluated as well as the confounders. Then, adjusted binary logistic regressions were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Results: subjects with a high risk of T2D are more likely to belong to the urban setting (OR = 1.908; 95%CI = 1.201-2.01) compared with those with lower T2D after adjusting for age, Body Mass Index (BMI), physical activity, history of high levels of glycemia, and diabetes in relatives. Conclusions: Urban communities are more likely to have T2D compared with rural-indigenous populations. These populations have differences from the cultural context, including personal, and lifestyle factors.
  • Pietiläinen, Laura; Bäcklund, Minna; Hästbacka, Johanna; Reinikainen, Matti (2022)
    Background Poor premorbid functional status (PFS) is associated with mortality after intensive care unit (ICU) admission in patients aged 80 years or older. In the subgroup of very old ICU patients, the ability to recover from critical illness varies irrespective of age. To assess the predictive ability of PFS also among the patients aged 85 or older we set out the current study. Methods In this nationwide observational registry study based on the Finnish Intensive Care Consortium database, we analysed data of patients aged 85 years or over treated in ICUs between May 2012 and December 2015. We defined PFS as good for patients who had been independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and able to climb stairs and as poor for those who were dependent on help or unable to climb stairs. To assess patients' functional outcome one year after ICU admission, we created a functional status score (FSS) based on how many out of five physical activities (getting out of bed, moving indoors, dressing, climbing stairs, and walking 400 m) the patient could manage. We also assessed the patients' ability to return to their previous type of accommodation. Results Overall, 2037 (3.3% of all adult ICU patients) patients were 85 years old or older. The average age of the study population was 87 years. Data on PFS were available for 1446 (71.0%) patients (good for 48.8% and poor for 51.2%). The one-year mortalities of patients with good and those with poor PFS were 29.2% and 50.1%, respectively, p < 0.001. Poor PFS increased the probability of death within 12 months, adjusted odds ratio (OR), 2.15; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.68-2.76, p < 0.001. For 69.5% of survivors, the FSS one year after ICU admission was unchanged or higher than their premorbid FSS and 84.2% of patients living at home before ICU admission still lived at home. Conclusions Poor PFS doubled the odds of death within one year. For most survivors, functional status was comparable to the premorbid status.
  • Kivi, Anna; Metsäranta, Marjo; Toiviainen-Salo, Sanna; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Haataja, Leena (2022)
    Aim To characterise the spectrum of findings in sequential neurological examinations, general movements (GM) assessment and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of infants with perinatal asphyxia. Methods The prospective cohort study of term infants with perinatal asphyxia treated at Helsinki University Hospital's neonatal units in 2016-2020 used Hammersmith Neonatal Neurological Examination (HNNE) and brain MRI at 2 weeks and Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (HINE) and GM assessment at 3 months of age. Results Analysis included 50 infants: 33 displaying perinatal asphyxia without hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), seven with HIE1 and 10 with HIE2. Of the infants with atypical HNNE findings, 24/25 perinatal asphyxia without HIE cases, 5/6 HIE1 cases and all 10 HIE2 cases showed atypical findings in the HINE. The HINE identified atypical spontaneous movements significantly more often in infants with white matter T2 hyperintensity. Conclusion In this cohort, most infants with perinatal asphyxia, with or without HIE, presented atypical neurological findings in sequential examinations. The profile of neurological findings for children with perinatal asphyxia without HIE resembled that of children with HIE. White matter T2 hyperintensity was associated with atypical spontaneous movements in the HINE and was a frequent MRI finding also in perinatal asphyxia without HIE.
  • Karihtala, Peeter; Jääskeläinen, Anniina; Roininen, Nelli; Jukkola, Arja (2020)
    Objectives Although novel early breast cancer prognostic factors are being continuously discovered, only rare factors predicting survival in metastatic breast cancer have been validated. The prognostic role of early breast cancer prognostic factors in metastatic disease also remains mostly unclear. Design and setting Prospective cohort study in a Finnish University Hospital. Participants and outcomes 594 women with early breast cancer were originally followed. Sixty-one of these patients developed distant metastases during the follow-up, and their primary breast cancer properties, such as tumour size, nodal status, oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression, grade, proliferation rate, histopathological subtype and breast cancer subtype were analysed as potential prognostic factors for metastatic disease. Results In multivariate analysis, the presence of lymph node metastases at the time of early breast cancer surgery (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.09-4.31; p=0.027) and ER status (negative vs positive, HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.14-4.10; p=0.018) were significant predictors of survival in metastatic disease. Conclusions These results confirm ER status as a primary prognostic factor in metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, it also suggests that the presence of initial lymph node metastases could serve as a prognostic factor in recurrent breast cancer.