Browsing by Subject "SCOTS PINE"

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  • Back, J.; Aalto, J.; Hemmilä, Marja S; Hakola, H.; He, Q.; Boy, M. (2012)
  • Zamorano, Juan Gallego; Hokkanen, Tatu; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2018)
    Aims Understanding fluctuations in plant reproductive investment can constitute a key challenge in ecology, conservation and management. Masting events of trees (i.e. the intermittent and synchronous production of abundant seeding material) is an extreme example of such fluctuations. Our objective was to establish the degree of spatial and temporal synchrony in common four masting tree species in boreal Finland and account for potential causal drivers of these patterns. Methods We investigated the spatial intraspecific and temporal interspecific fluctuations in annual seed production of four tree species in Finland, silver birch Betula pendula Roth, downy birch Betula pubescens Ehrh., Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H.Karst. and rowanberry Sorbus aucuparia L. We also tested to see whether variations in seed production were linked to annual weather conditions. Seeding abundance data were derived from tens of stands per species across large spatial scales within Finland during 1979 to 2014 (for rowanberries only 1986 to 2014). Important Findings All species showed spatial synchrony in seed production at scales up to 1000 km. Annual estimates of seed production were strongly correlated between species. Spring and summer temperatures explained most variation in crop sizes of tree species with 0-to 2-year time lags, whereas rainfall had relatively little influence. Warm weather during flowering (May temperature) in the flowering year (Year t) and 2 years before (t-2) were correlated with seed production. However, high May temperatures during the previous year (t-1) adversely affected seed production. Summer temperatures in Year t-1 was positively correlated with seed production, likely because this parameter enhances the development of flower primordials, but the effect was negative with a time lag of 2 years. The negative feedback in temperature coefficients is also likely due to patterns of resource allocation, as abundant flowering and seed production in these species is thought to reduce the subsequent initiation of potential new flower buds. Since the most important weather variables also showed spatial correlation up to 1000 km, weather parameters likely explain much of the spatial and temporal synchrony in seed production of these four studied tree species.
  • Kaitaniemi, Pekka; Lintunen, Anna; Sievänen, Risto; Perttunen, Jari (2018)
    Foliar nitrogen is one of the key traits determining the photosynthetic capacity of trees. It is influenced by many environmental factors that are often confounded with the photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), which alone strongly modifies the nitrogen content and other foliar traits. We combined field measurements and computational estimates of light transmittance in 3D stands with different combinations of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) and silver birch (Betula pendula) to decouple the effect of PPFD from other potential effects exerted by the species of neighbouring trees on the leaf nitrogen content per unit leaf area (Narea) and leaf mass per area (LMA). Independent of the level of PPFD, silver birch had a significantly lower Narea and LMA when Scots pine was abundant in its neighbourhood compared with the presence of conspecific neighbours. In Scots pine, Narea and LMA were only dependent on PPFD and the branching order of shoots. In both species, the relationships between PPFD and Narea or LMA were nonlinear, especially at intermediate levels of PPFD. The levels of PPFD did not show any dependence on the species of the neighbouring trees. The responses of silver birch suggest that the species composition of the surrounding stand can influence foliar nitrogen, independent of the level of PPFD within the canopy.
  • Peltoniemi, Mikko; Markkanen, Tiina; Härkönen, Sanna; Muukkonen, Petteri; Thum, Tea; Aalto, Tuula; Mäkelä, Annikki (2015)
    We simulated Gross Primary Production (GPP) of Finnish forests using a landsurface model (LSM), JSBACH, and a semi-empirical stand-flux model PRELES, and compared their predictions with the MODIS GPP product. JSBACH used information about plant functional type fractions in 0.167 degrees pixels. PRELES applied inventory-scaled information about forest structure at high resolution. There was little difference between the models in the results aggregated to national level. Temporal trends in annual GPPs were also parallel. Spatial differences could be partially related to differences in model input data on soils and leaf area. Differences were detected in the seasonal pattern of GPP but they contributed moderately to the annual totals. Both models predicted lower GPPs than MODIS, but MODIS still showed similar south north distribution of GPP. Convergent results for the national total GPP between JSBACH and PRELES, and those derived for comparison from the forest ghg-inventory, implied that modelled GPP estimates can be realistically up-scaled to larger region in spite of the fact that model calibrations may not originate from the study region, or that a limited number of sites was used in the calibration of a model.
  • Mäki, Mari; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Hellen, Heidi; Back, Jaana (2017)
    Boreal forest floor emits biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from the understorey vegetation and the heterogeneous soil matrix, where the interactions of soil organisms and soil chemistry are complex. Earlier studies have focused on determining the net exchange of VOCs from the forest floor. This study goes one step further, with the aim of separately determining whether the photosynthesized carbon allocation to soil affects the isoprenoid production by different soil organisms, i.e., decomposers, mycorrhizal fungi, and roots. In each treatment, photosynthesized carbon allocation through roots for decomposers and mycorrhizal fungi was controlled by either preventing root ingrowth (50 mu m mesh size) or the ingrowth of roots and fungi (1 mu m mesh) into the soil volume, which is called the trenching approach. Isoprenoid fluxes were measured using dynamic (steady-state flow-through) chambers from the different treatments. This study aimed to analyze how important the understorey vegetation is as a VOC sink. Finally, a statistical model was constructed based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, trenching treatments, understory vegetation cover, above canopy photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), soil water content, and soil temperature to estimate isoprenoid fluxes. The final model included parameters with a statistically significant effect on the isoprenoid fluxes. The results show that the boreal forest floor emits monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and isoprene. Monoterpenes were the most common group of emitted isoprenoids, and the average flux from the non-trenched forest floor was 23 mu gm(-2) h(-1). The results also show that different biological factors, including litterfall, carbon availability, biological activity in the soil, and physico-chemical processes, such as volatilization and absorption to the surfaces, are important at various times of the year. This study also discovered that understorey vegetation is a strong sink of monoterpenes. The statistical model, based on prevailing temperature, seasonality, vegetation effect, and the interaction of these parameters, explained 43% of the monoterpene fluxes, and 34-46% of individual alpha pinene, camphene, beta-pinene, and Delta(3)-carene fluxes.
  • Mäki, Mari; Mali, Tuulia; Hellén, Heidi; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Lundell, Taina; Bäck, Jaana (2021)
    Wood-decaying fungi in the phylum Basidiomycota play a significant role in the global carbon cycle, as they decompose deadwood effectively. Fungi may compete for utilizable substrate and growth space by producing soluble metabolites and by releasing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). We determined the role of wood substrate (Scots pine or Norway spruce) on the generation of hyphal biomass, secreted metabolites and enzyme activities, wood decomposition rate, and fungal species-species interactions on VOC release. We studied one brown-rot species (Fomitopsis pinicola) and two white-rot species (Phlebia radiata and Trichaptum abietinum) cultivated individually or in combinations. Wood substrate quality influences VOC release by the wood-decaying fungi, with signature differences caused by the decomposition trait (brown rot or white rot) and species-species interactions. VOC release was higher in the cultures of Basidiomycota than in uncolonized sawdust. Fungal biomass, decomposition activity, iron reduction, enzyme activities, oxalate anion content, and oxalic acid production explained VOC release from decaying wood.
  • Palviainen, Marjo; Laurén, Ari; Pumpanen, Jukka; Bergeron, Yves; Bond-Lamberty, Ben; Larjavaara, Markku; Kashian, Daniel; Köster, Kajar; Prokushkin, Anatoly; Chen, Han; Seedre, Meelis; Wardle, David; Gundale, Michael; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wang, Chuankuan; Berninger, Frank (2020)
    Boreal forests store 30% of the world's terrestrial carbon (C). Consequently, climate change mediated alterations in the boreal forest fire regime can have a significant impact on the global C budget. Here we synthesize the effects of forest fires on the stocks and recovery rates of C in boreal forests using 368 plots from 16 long-term (>= 100 year) fire chronosequences distributed throughout the boreal zone. Forest fires led to a decrease in total C stocks (excluding mineral soil) by an average of 60% (range from 80%), which was primarily a result of C stock declines in the living trees and soil organic layer. Total C stocks increased with time since fire largely following a sigmoidal shape Gompertz function, with an average asymptote of 8.1 kg C m(-2). Total C stocks accumulated at a rate of 2-60 g m(-2) yr(-1)during the first 100 years. Potential evapotranspiration (PET) was identified as a significant driver of C stocks and their post-fire recovery, likely because it integrates temperature, radiation, and the length of the growing season. If the fire return interval shortens to
  • Saksa, Timo; Uusitalo, Jori; Lindeman, Harri; Häyrynen, Esko; Kulju, Sampo; Huuskonen, Saija (2021)
    Precision forestry-i.e., the division of a stand to smaller units and managing of the stand at a micro-stand level-provides new possibilities to increase forest growth, arrange forest stand structure and enhance forest health. In the regeneration phase by adjusting the tree species selection, soil preparation, intensity of regeneration measures (method, planting density, and material), and young stand management procedures according to precise information on soil properties (e.g., site fertility, wetness, and soil type) and microtopography will inevitably lead to an increase in growth of the whole stand. A new approach to utilizing harvester data to delineate micro-stands inside a large forest stand and to deciding the tree species to plant for each micro-stand was piloted in central Finland. The case stands were situated on Finsilva Oyj forest property. The calculation of the local growth (m(3)/ha/year) for each 16 x 16-m grid cell was based on the height of the dominant trees and the stand age of the previous tree generation. Tree heights and geoinformation were collected during cutting operation as the harvester data, and the dominant height was calculated as the mean of the three largest stems in each grid cell. The stand age was obtained from the forest management plan. The estimated local growth (average of nine neighboring grid cells) varied from 3 to 14 m(3)/ha/year in the case stands. When creating micro-stands, neighboring grid cells with approximately the same local growth were merged. The minimum size for an acceptable micro-stand was set to 0.23 ha. In this case study, tree species selection (Scots pine or Norway spruce) was based on the mean growth of each micro-stand. Different threshold values, varying from 6 to 8 m(3)/ha/year, were tested for tree species change, and they led to different solutions in the delineation of micro-stands. Further stand development was simulated with the Motti software and the net present values (NPVs (3%)) for the next rotation were estimated for different micro-stand solutions. The mixed Norway spruce-Scots pine stand structure never produced a clearly economically inferior solution compared to the single species stand, and in one case out of six, it provided a distinctly better solution in terms of NPV (3%) than the single species option did. Our case study showed that this kind of method could be used as a decision support tool at the regeneration phase.
  • Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Makela, Annikki; Fronzek, Stefan; Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko (2018)
    We are bound to large uncertainties when considering impacts of climate change on forest productivity. Studies formally acknowledging and determining the relative importance of different sources of this uncertainty are still scarce, although the choice of the climate scenario, and e.g. the assumption of the CO2 effects on tree water use can easily result in contradicting conclusions of future forest productivity. In a large scale, forest productivity is primarily driven by two large fluxes, gross primary production (GPP), which is the source for all carbon in forest ecosystems, and heterotrophic respiration. Here we show how uncertainty of GPP projections of Finnish boreal forests divides between input, mechanistic and parametric uncertainty. We used the simple semi-empirical stand GPP and water balance model PRELES with an ensemble of downscaled global circulation model (GCM) projections for the 21st century under different emissions and forcing scenarios (both RCP and SRES). We also evaluated the sensitivity of assumptions of the relationships between atmospheric CO2 concentration (C-a), photosynthesis and water use of trees. Even mean changes in climate projections of different meteorological variables for Finland were so high that it is likely that the primary productivity of forests will increase by the end of the century. The scale of productivity change largely depends on the long-term C-a fertilization effect on GPP and transpiration. However, GCM variability was the major source of uncertainty until 2060, after which emission scenario/pathway became the dominant factor. Large uncertainties with a wide range of projections can make it more difficult to draw ecologically meaningful conclusions especially on the local to regional scales, yet a thorough assessment of uncertainties is important for drawing robust conclusions.
  • Yrttimaa, Tuomas; Saarinen, Ninni; Luoma, Ville; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Kankare, Ville; Liang, Xinlian; Hyyppa, Juha; Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko (2019)
    Dead wood is a key forest structural component for maintaining biodiversity and storing carbon. Despite its important role in a forest ecosystem, quantifying dead wood alongside standing trees has often neglected when investigating the feasibility of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in forest inventories. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an automatic method for detecting and characterizing downed dead wood with a diameter exceeding 5 cm using multi-scan TLS data. The developed four-stage algorithm included (1) RANSAC-cylinder filtering, (2) point cloud rasterization, (3) raster image segmentation, and (4) dead wood trunk positioning. For each detected trunk, geometry-related quality attributes such as dimensions and volume were automatically determined from the point cloud. For method development and validation, reference data were collected from 20 sample plots representing diverse southern boreal forest conditions. Using the developed method, the downed dead wood trunks were detected with an overall completeness of 33% and correctness of 76%. Up to 92% of the downed dead wood volume were detected at plot level with mean value of 68%. We were able to improve the detection accuracy of individual trunks with visual interpretation of the point cloud, in which case the overall completeness was increased to 72% with mean proportion of detected dead wood volume of 83%. Downed dead wood volume was automatically estimated with an RMSE of 15.0 m(3)/ha (59.3%), which was reduced to 6.4 m(3)/ha (25.3%) as visual interpretation was utilized to aid the trunk detection. The reliability of TLS-based dead wood mapping was found to increase as the dimensions of dead wood trunks increased. Dense vegetation caused occlusion and reduced the trunk detection accuracy. Therefore, when collecting the data, attention must be paid to the point cloud quality. Nevertheless, the results of this study strengthen the feasibility of TLS-based approaches in mapping biodiversity indicators by demonstrating an improved performance in quantifying ecologically most valuable downed dead wood in diverse forest conditions.
  • Zweifel, Roman; Etzold, Sophia; Sterck, Frank; Gessler, Arthur; Anfodillo, Tommaso; Mencuccini, Maurizio; von Arx, Georg; Lazzarin, Martina; Haeni, Matthias; Feichtinger, Linda; Meusburger, Katrin; Knuesel, Simon; Walthert, Lorenz; Salmon, Yann; Bose, Arun K.; Schoenbeck, Leonie; Hug, Christian; De Girardi, Nicolas; Giuggiola, Arnaud; Schaub, Marcus; Rigling, Andreas (2020)
    Tree responses to altered water availability range from immediate (e.g. stomatal regulation) to delayed (e.g. crown size adjustment). The interplay of the different response times and processes, and their effects on long-term whole-tree performance, however, is hardly understood. Here we investigated legacy effects on structures and functions of mature Scots pine in a dry inner-Alpine Swiss valley after stopping an 11-yr lasting irrigation treatment. Measured ecophysiological time series were analysed and interpreted with a system-analytic tree model. We found that the irrigation stop led to a cascade of downregulations of physiological and morphological processes with different response times. Biophysical processes responded within days, whereas needle and shoot lengths, crown transparency, and radial stem growth reached control levels after up to 4 yr only. Modelling suggested that organ and carbon reserve turnover rates play a key role for a tree's responsiveness to environmental changes. Needle turnover rate was found to be most important to accurately model stem growth dynamics. We conclude that leaf area and its adjustment time to new conditions is the main determinant for radial stem growth of pine trees as the transpiring area needs to be supported by a proportional amount of sapwood, despite the growth-inhibiting environmental conditions.
  • Olsson, Per-Ola; Kantola, Tuula; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, Päivi; Jönsson, Anna Maria; Eklundh, Lars (2016)
    We investigated if coarse-resolution satellite data from the MODIS sensor can be used for regional monitoring of insect disturbances in Fennoscandia. A damage detection method based on z-scores of seasonal maximums of the 2-band Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI2) was developed. Time-series smoothing was applied and Receiver Operating Characteristics graphs were used for optimisation. The method was developed in fragmented and heavily managed forests in eastern Finland dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) (pinaceae) and with defoliation of European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer Geoffr.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae) and common pine sawfly (Diprion pini L.) (Hymenoptera: Diprionidae). The method was also applied to subalpine mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. Czerepanovii N. I. Orlova) forests in northern Sweden, infested by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata Borkhausen) and winter moth (Operophtera brumata L.). In Finland, detection accuracies were fairly low with 50% of the damaged stands detected, and a misclassification of healthy stands of 22%. In areas with long outbreak histories the method resulted in extensive misclassification. In northern Sweden accuracies were higher, with 75% of the damage detected and a misclassification of healthy samples of 19%. Our results indicate that MODIS data may fail to detect damage in fragmented forests, particularly when the damage history is long. Therefore, regional studies based on these data may underestimate defoliation. However, the method yielded accurate results in homogeneous forest ecosystems and when long-enough periods without damage could be identified. Furthermore, the method is likely to be useful for insect disturbance detection using future medium-resolution data, e. g. from Sentinel-2.
  • Liebmann, Jonathan; Karu, Einar; Sobanski, Nicolas; Schuladen, Jan; Ehn, Mikael; Schallhart, Simon; Quelever, Lauriane; Hellen, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Hoffmann, Thorsten; Williams, Jonathan; Fischer, Horst; Lelieveld, Jos; Crowley, John N. (2018)
    We present the first direct measurements of NO3 reactivity (or inverse lifetime, s(-1))in the Finnish boreal forest. The data were obtained during the IBAIRN campaign (Influence of Biosphere-Atmosphere Interactions on the Reactive Nitrogen budget) which took place in Hyytiala, Finland during the summer/autumn transition in September 2016. The NO3 reactivity was generally very high with a maximum value of 0.94 s(-1) and displayed a strong diel variation with a campaign-averaged nighttime mean value of 0.11 s(-1) compared to a daytime value of 0.04 s(-1). The highest nighttime NO3 reactivity was accompanied by major depletion of canopy level ozone and was associated with strong temperature inversions and high levels of monoterpenes. The daytime reactivity was sufficiently large that reactions of NO3 with organic trace gases could compete with photolysis and reaction with NO. There was no significant reduction in the measured NO3 reactivity between the beginning and end of the campaign, indicating that any seasonal reduction in canopy emissions of reactive biogenic trace gases was offset by emissions from the forest floor. Observations of biogenic hydrocarbons (BVOCs) suggested a dominant role for monoterpenes in determining the NO3 reactivity. Reactivity not accounted for by in situ measurement of NO and BVOCs was variable across the diel cycle with, on average, approximate to 30% "missing" during nighttime and approximate to 60% missing during the day. Measurement of the NO3 reactivity at various heights (8.5 to 25 m) both above and below the canopy, revealed a strong nighttime, vertical gradient with maximum values closest to the ground. The gradient disappeared during the daytime due to efficient vertical mixing.
  • Zhang, Chao; Atherton, Jon; Penuelas, Josep; Filella, Iolanda; Kolari, Pasi; Aalto, Juho; Ruhanen, Hanna; Back, Jaana; Porcar-Castell, Albert (2019)
    Chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) is closely related to photosynthesis and can be measured remotely using multiple spectral features as solar-induced fluorescence (SIF). In boreal regions, SIF shows particular promise as an indicator of photosynthesis, in part because of the limited variation of seasonal light absorption in these ecosystems. Seasonal spectral changes in ChlF could yield new information on processes such as sustained nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ(S)) but also disrupt the relationship between SIF and photosynthesis. We followed ChlF and functional and biochemical properties of Pinus sylvestris needles during the photosynthetic spring recovery period to answer the following: (a) How ChlF spectra change over seasonal timescales? (b) How pigments, NPQ(S), and total photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) absorption drive changes of ChlF spectra? (c) Do all ChlF wavelengths track photosynthetic seasonality? We found seasonal ChlF variation in the red and far-red wavelengths, which was strongly correlated with NPQ(S), carotenoid content, and photosynthesis (enhanced in the red), but not with PAR absorption. Furthermore, a rapid decrease in red/far-red ChlF ratio occurred in response to a cold spell, potentially relating to the structural reorganization of the photosystems. We conclude that all current SIF retrieval features can track seasonal photosynthetic dynamics in boreal evergreens, but the full SIF spectra provides additional insight.
  • Hamberg, Leena; Velmala, Sannakajsa M.; Sievänen, Risto; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Pennanen, Taina (2018)
    The relationship between the growth rate of aboveground parts of trees and fine root development is largely unknown. We investigated the early root development of fast-and slow-growing Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) families at a developmental stage when the difference in size is not yet observed. Seedling root architecture data, describing root branching, were collected with the WinRHIZO (TM) image analysis system, and mixed models were used to determine possible differences between the two growth phenotypes. A new approach was used to investigate the spatial extent of root properties along the whole sample root from the base of 1-year-old seedlings to the most distal part of a root. The root architecture of seedlings representing fastgrowing phenotypes showed similar to 30% higher numbers of root branches and tips, which resulted in larger root extensions and potentially a better ability to acquire nutrients. Seedlings of fast-growing phenotypes oriented and allocated root tips and bio-mass further away from the base of the seedling than those growing slowly, a possible advantage in nutrient-limited and heterogeneous boreal forest soils. We conclude that a higher long-term growth rate of the aboveground parts in Norway spruce may relate to greater allocation of resources to explorative roots that confers a competitive edge during early growth phases in forest ecosystems.
  • Cailleret, Maxime; Dakos, Vasilis; Jansen, Steven; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Aakala, Tuomas; Amoroso, Mariano M.; Antos, Joe A.; Bigler, Christof; Bugmann, Harald; Caccianaga, Marco; Camarero, Jesus-Julio; Cherubini, Paolo; Goeya, Marie R.; Cufar, Katarina; Das, Adrian J.; Davi, Hendrik; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Gillner, Sten; Haavik, Laurel J.; Hartmann, Henrik; Heres, Ana-Maria; Hultine, Kevin R.; Janda, Pavel; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kharuk, Vlachelsav I.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Klein, Tamir; Levanic, Tom; Linares, Juan-Carlos; Lombardi, Fabio; Mäkinen, Harri; Meszaros, Ilona; Metsaranta, Juha M.; Oberhuber, Walter; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Petritan, Any Mary; Rohner, Brigitte; Sanguesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Smith, Jeremy M.; Stan, Amanda B.; Stojanovic, Dejan B.; Laura Suarez, Maria; Svoboda, Miroslav; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Villalba, Ricardo; Westwood, Alana R.; Wyckoff, Peter H.; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi (2019)
    Tree mortality is a key driver of forest dynamics and its occurrence is projected to increase in the future due to climate change. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to death, we still lack robust indicators of mortality risk that could be applied at the individual tree scale. Here, we build on a previous contribution exploring the differences in growth level between trees that died and survived a given mortality event to assess whether changes in temporal autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony in time-series of annual radial growth data can be used as early warning signals of mortality risk. Taking advantage of a unique global ring-width database of 3065 dead trees and 4389 living trees growing together at 198 sites (belonging to 36 gymnosperm and angiosperm species), we analyzed temporal changes in autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony before tree death (diachronic analysis), and also compared these metrics between trees that died and trees that survived a given mortality event (synchronic analysis). Changes in autocorrelation were a poor indicator of mortality risk. However, we found a gradual increase in inter- annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony in the last similar to 20 years before mortality of gymnosperms, irrespective of the cause of mortality. These changes could be associated with drought-induced alterations in carbon economy and allocation patterns. In angiosperms, we did not find any consistent changes in any metric. Such lack of any signal might be explained by the relatively high capacity of angiosperms to recover after a stress-induced growth decline. Our analysis provides a robust method for estimating early-warning signals of tree mortality based on annual growth data. In addition to the frequently reported decrease in growth rates, an increase in inter-annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony may be powerful predictors of gymnosperm mortality risk, but not necessarily so for angiosperms.
  • Parkatti, Vesa-Pekka; Tahvonen, Olli (2021)
    We study forestry in the Sámi people homeland to understand an ongoing conflict between conventional forestry and maintaining forests as reindeer pastures vital for indigenous Sámi livelihood. Conventional logging affects pastures by creating stand densities suboptimal to lichen growth and by decreasing old-growth forest areas, both of which are essential to reindeer survivability during the subarctic winter. Our model includes timber production, carbon sequestration, externalities on reindeer husbandry, and optimization between rotation forestry and forestry with continuous forest cover. We show that the profitability of conventional forestry relies on utilizing existing forests, an outcome we label as forest capital mining. By varying the carbon price between €0 and €60 per tCO2 and assuming a 3% interest rate, we show that continuous cover forestry, which better preserves pastures, is always optimal. A carbon price of €60 − €100 chokes off timber production. Given the present management practices and an oldgrowth forest as the initial state, the carbon choke price decreases to €14–€20. Our economic analysis on maintaining old-growth forest versus conversion to timber production is an alternative to the frequently applied approach based on carbon debts and carbon payback periods.
  • Assmuth, Aino; Ramo, Janne; Tahvonen, Olli (2018)
    We study the economics of carbon storage using a model that includes forest size structure and determines the choice between rotation forestry and continuous cover forestry. Optimal harvests may rely solely on thinning, implying infinite rotation and continuous cover forestry, or both thinning and clearcuts, implying finite rotation periods. Given several carbon prices and interest rates, we optimize the timing and intensity of thinnings along with the choice of management regime. In addition to the carbon storage in living trees, we include the carbon dynamics of dead trees and timber products. Forest growth is specified by an empirically validated transition matrix model for Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.). The optimization problem is solved in its general dynamic form by applying bilevel optimization with gradient-based interior point methods and a genetic algorithm. Carbon pricing postpones thinnings, increases stand density by directing harvests to larger trees, and typically yields a regime shift from rotation forestry to continuous cover forestry. In continuous cover solutions, the steady-state harvesting interval and the diameter distribution of standing and harvested trees are sensitive to carbon price, implying that carbon pricing increases the sawlog ratio of timber yields. Additionally, we obtain relatively inexpensive stand-level marginal costs of carbon storage.
  • Gennaretti, Fabio; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Boucher, Etienne; Berninger, Frank; Arseneault, Dominique; Guiot, Joel (2017)
    A better understanding of the coupling between photosynthesis and carbon allocation in the boreal forest, together with its associated environmental factors and mechanistic rules, is crucial to accurately predict boreal forest carbon stocks and fluxes, which are significant components of the global carbon budget. Here, we adapted the MAIDEN ecophysiological forest model to consider important processes for boreal tree species, such as nonlinear acclimation of photosynthesis to temperature changes, canopy development as a function of previous-year climate variables influencing bud formation and the temperature dependence of carbon partition in summer. We tested these modifications in the eastern Canadian taiga using black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) gross primary production and ring width data. MAIDEN explains 90% of the observed daily gross primary production variability, 73% of the annual ring width variability and 20-30% of its high-frequency component (i.e., when decadal trends are removed). The positive effect on stem growth due to climate warming over the last several decades is well captured by the model. In addition, we illustrate how we improve the model with each introduced model adaptation and compare the model results with those of linear response functions. Our results demonstrate that MAIDEN simulates robust relationships with the most important climate variables (those detected by classical response-function analysis) and is a powerful tool for understanding how environmental factors interact with black spruce ecophysiol-ogy to influence present-day and future boreal forest carbon fluxes.
  • Kauppi, P. E.; Birdsey, R. A.; Pan, Y.; Ihalainen, A.; Nöjd, P.; Lehtonen, A. (2015)