Browsing by Subject "SEARCH"

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  • Huitu, Katri; Kärkkäinen, Timo J.; Mondal, Subhadeep; Rai, Santosh Kumar (2018)
    We consider a neutrinophilic Higgs scenario where the Standard Model is extended by one additional Higgs doublet and three generations of singlet right-handed Majorana neutrinos. Light neutrino masses are generated through mixing with the heavy neutrinos via the Type-I seesaw mechanism when the neutrinophilic Higgs gets a vacuum expectation value (VEV). The Dirac neutrino Yukawa coupling in this scenario can be sizable compared to those in the canonical Type-I seesaw mechanism owing to the small neutrinophilic Higgs VEV giving rise to interesting phenomenological consequences. We have explored various signal regions likely to provide a hint of such a scenario at the LHC as well as at future e(+)e(-) colliders. We have also highlighted the consequences of light neutrino mass hierarchies in collider phenomenology that can complement the findings of neutrino oscillation experiments.
  • Salmela, Leena; Mukherjee, Kingshuk; Puglisi, Simon J.; Muggli, Martin D.; Boucher, Christina (2020)
    Motivation: Optical mapping data is used in many core genomics applications, including structural variation detection, scaffolding assembled contigs and mis-assembly detection. However, the pervasiveness of spurious and deleted cut sites in the raw data, which are called Rmaps, make assembly and alignment of them challenging. Although there exists another method to error correct Rmap data, named cOMet, it is unable to scale to even moderately large sized genomes. The challenge faced in error correction is in determining pairs of Rmaps that originate from the same region of the same genome. Results: We create an efficient method for determining pairs of Rmaps that contain significant overlaps between them. Our method relies on the novel and nontrivial adaption and application of spaced seeds in the context of optical mapping, which allows for spurious and deleted cut sites to be accounted for. We apply our method to detecting and correcting these errors. The resulting error correction method, referred to as Elmeri, improves upon the results of state-of-the-art correction methods but in a fraction of the time. More specifically, cOMet required 9.9 CPU days to error correct Rmap data generated from the human genome, whereas Elmeri required less than 15 CPU hours and improved the quality of the Rmaps by more than four times compared to cOMet.
  • Gaia Collaboration; Eyer, L.; Muinonen, K.; Fedorets, G.; Granvik, M.; Siltala, L. (2019)
    Context. The ESA Gaia mission provides a unique time-domain survey for more than 1.6 billion sources with G less than or similar to 21 mag. Aims. We showcase stellar variability in the Galactic colour-absolute magnitude diagram (CaMD). We focus on pulsating, eruptive, and cataclysmic variables, as well as on stars that exhibit variability that is due to rotation and eclipses. Methods. We describe the locations of variable star classes, variable object fractions, and typical variability amplitudes throughout the CaMD and show how variability-related changes in colour and brightness induce "motions". To do this, we use 22 months of calibrated photometric, spectro-photometric, and astrometric Gaia data of stars with a significant parallax. To ensure that a large variety of variable star classes populate the CaMD, we crossmatched Gaia sources with known variable stars. We also used the statistics and variability detection modules of the Gaia variability pipeline. Corrections for interstellar extinction are not implemented in this article. Results. Gaia enables the first investigation of Galactic variable star populations in the CaMD on a similar, if not larger, scale as was previously done in the Magellanic Clouds. Although the observed colours are not corrected for reddening, distinct regions are visible in which variable stars occur. We determine variable star fractions to within the current detection thresholds of Gaia. Finally, we report the most complete description of variability-induced motion within the CaMD to date. Conclusions. Gaia enables novel insights into variability phenomena for an unprecedented number of stars, which will benefit the understanding of stellar astrophysics. The CaMD of Galactic variable stars provides crucial information on physical origins of variability in a way that has previously only been accessible for Galactic star clusters or external galaxies. Future Gaia data releases will enable significant improvements over this preview by providing longer time series, more accurate astrometry, and additional data types (time series BP and RP spectra, RVS spectra, and radial velocities), all for much larger samples of stars.
  • Huitu, Katri; Keus, Venus; Koivunen, Niko; Lebedev, Oleg (2016)
    ATLAS and CMS have reported an excess in the flavor violating decay of the Higgs boson, h -> mu tau. We show that this result can be accommodated through a mixing of the Higgs with a flavon, the field responsible for generating the Yukawa matrices in the lepton sector. We employ a version of the Froggatt-Nielsen mechanism at the electroweak scale, with only the leptons and the flavon transforming non-trivially under the corresponding symmetry group. Non-observation of charged lepton flavor violation (LFV) in other processes imposes important constraints on the model, which we find to be satisfied in substantial regions of parameter space.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Kim, D. J.; Krizek, F.; Novitzky, Norbert; Onnerstad, B.S.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, Jan; Rytkönen, Heidi Maria; Räsänen, Sami; Saarimäki, Oskari Antti Matti; Slupecki, M.; Trzaska, W. H. (2021)
    Deuteron production in high-energy collisions is sensitive to the space-time evolution of the collision system, and is typically described by a coalescence mechanism. For the first time, we present results on jet-associated deuteron production in pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV, providing an opportunity to test the established picture for deuteron production in events with a hard scattering. Using a trigger particle with high transverse-momentum (p(T) > 5 GeV/c) as a proxy for the presence of a jet at midrapidity, we observe a measurable population of deuterons being produced around the jet proxy. The associated deuteron yield measured in a narrow angular range around the trigger particle differs by 2.4-4.8 standard deviations from the uncorrelated background. The data are described by PYTHIA model calculations featuring baryon coalescence. (C) 2021 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Hekkala, Anne M.; Ilonen, Jorma; Toppari, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Veijola, Riitta (2018)
    We studied the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in a region where newborn infants have since 1995 been recruited for genetic screening for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-conferred disease susceptibility and prospective follow up. The aim was to study whether participation in newborn screening and follow up affected the frequency of DKA, and to follow the time trends in DKA frequency. We first included children born in Oulu University Hospital since 1995 when the prospective studies have been ongoing and diagnosed with T1D
  • Yuan, Changhe; Malone, Brandon (2013)
  • Leisti, Tuomas; Häkkinen, Jukka (2018)
    Certain experiments have shown that reasoning may weaken the stability of people's preferences, especially with regard to well-learned perceptual judgment and decision-making tasks, while learning has an opposite, consistency-enhancing effect on preferences. We examined the effects of these factors in a visual multi-attribute decision-making task where reasoning, in contrast, has been found to benefit judgments by making them more stable. The initial assumption in this study was that this benefit would be typical for novel tasks, like the one employed here, and that it would decrease when the task is thoroughly learned. This assumption was examined in three experiments by contrasting it with an alternative assumption that this previously obtained beneficial effect is caused solely by learning, not by reasoning. It was found that learning indeed makes preferences more stable by consolidating the weights of the attributes. Reasoning, however, does not benefit this task when it is completely novel but facilitates learning and stability of the preferences long run, therefore increasing the consistency of the participants in the macrolevel. Copyright (c) 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Frank, Mariana; Fuks, Benjamin; Huitu, Katri; Mondal, Subhadeep; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Waltari, Harri (2020)
    We investigate the possibility that a minimal realization of left-right supersymmetry can be reachable at a high-energy upgrade of the LHC, expected to operate at a center-of-mass energy of 27 TeV. This minimal scenario has a relatively light SU(2)(R) doubly charged Higgs boson, which could decay dominantly into tau-lepton pairs. We explore the associated signals comprised of at least three hadronically decaying taus, or with at least two hadronic taus and one same-sign-same-flavor charged lepton pair. Our analysis shows that the former signature is challenging to use for getting handles on the signal due to the large corresponding background, and that the latter one can lead to a handful of new physics events in an almost backgroundfree environment. We however find that a signal comprised of three hadronically decaying tau leptons is likely to be observed at a low luminosity of proton-proton collisions at a 27 TeV upgrade of the LHC.
  • Chakraborty, Indrani; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup; Mondal, Subhadeep (2017)
    We estimate the smallest branching ratio for the Higgs decay channel h -> mu tau, which can be probed at an e(+)e(-) collider, and compare it with the projected reach at the high-luminosity run of the LHC. Using a model-independent approach, Higgs production is considered in two separate cases. In the first case, hWW and hZZ couplings are allowed to be scaled by a factor allowed by the latest experimental limits on hWW and hZZ couplings. In the second case, we have introduced higher-dimensional effective operators for these interaction vertices. Keeping BR(h -> mu tau) as a purely phenomenological quantity, we find that this branching ratio can be probed down to approximate to 2.69 x 10(-3) and approximate to 5.83 x 10(-4), respectively, at the 250 GeV and 1000 GeV runs of an e(+)e(-) collider.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A measurement is presented of the Z/gamma*->tau tau cross section in pp collisions at root s = 13 TeV, using data recorded by the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 2.3 fb(-1). The product of the inclusive cross section and branching fraction is measured to be sigma(pp -> Z/gamma*+X) B(Z/gamma*->tau tau) = 1848 +/- 12 (stat) +/- 67 (syst + lumi) pb, in agreement with the standard model expectation, computed at next-to-next-to-leading order accuracy in perturbative quantum chromodynamics. The measurement is used to validate new analysis techniques relevant for future measurements of tau lepton production. The measurement also provides the reconstruction efficiency and energy scale for tau decays to hadrons + nu(tau) final states, determined with respective relative uncertainties of 2.2 and 0.9%.
  • The CMS collaboration; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Jarvinen, T.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampen, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Linden, T.; Luukka, P.; Maenpaa, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Karimäki, V.; Tuuva, T. (2019)
    Studies of on-shell and off-shell Higgs boson production in the four-lepton final state are presented, using data from the CMS experiment at the LHC that correspond to an integrated luminosity of 80.2 fb(-1) at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Joint constraints are set on the Higgs boson total width and parameters that express its anomalous couplings to two electroweak vector bosons. These results are combined with those obtained from the data collected at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, corresponding to integrated luminosities of 5.1 and 19.7 fb(-1), respectively. Kinematic information from the decay particles and the associated jets are combined using matrix element techniques to identify the production mechanism and to increase sensitivity to the Higgs boson couplings in both production and decay. The constraints on anomalous HVV couplings are found to be consistent with the standard model expectation in both the on-shell and off-shell regions. Under the assumption of a coupling structure similar to that in the standard model, the Higgs boson width is constrained to be 3.2(-2.2)(+2.8)MeV while the expected constraint based on simulation is 4.1(-4.0)(+5.0) MeV. The constraints on the width remain similar with the inclusion of the tested anomalous HVV interactions.
  • The TEDDY Study Group; Lindfors, Katri; Lin, Jake; Hyöty, Heikki; Nykter, Matti; Kurppa, Kalle; Liu, Edwin; Koletzko, Sibylle; Rewers, Marian; Hagopian, William; Toppari, Jorma; Ziegler, Annette-Gabriele; Akolkar, Beena; Krischer, Jeffrey P.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Lloyd, Richard E.; Agardh, Daniel (2020)
    Objective: Higher gluten intake, frequent gastrointestinal infections and adenovirus, enterovirus, rotavirus and reovirus have been proposed as environmental triggers for coeliac disease. however, it is not known whether an interaction exists between the ingested gluten amount and viral exposures in the development of coeliac disease. This study investigated whether distinct viral exposures alone or together with gluten increase the risk of coeliac disease autoimmunity (cDa) in genetically predisposed children. Design: The environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study prospectively followed children carrying the hla risk haplotypes DQ2 and/or DQ8 and constructed a nested case–control design. From this design, 83 cDa case–control pairs were identified. Median age of cDa was 31 months. stool samples collected monthly up to the age of 2 years were analysed for virome composition by illumina next-generation sequencing followed by comprehensive computational virus profiling. Results: The cumulative number of stool enteroviral exposures between 1 and 2 years of age was associated with an increased risk for cDa. in addition, there was a significant interaction between cumulative stool enteroviral exposures and gluten consumption. The risk conferred by stool enteroviruses was increased in cases reporting higher gluten intake. Conclusions: Frequent exposure to enterovirus between 1 and 2 years of age was associated with increased risk of cDa. The increased risk conferred by the interaction between enteroviruses and higher gluten intake indicate a cumulative effect of these factors in the development of cDa.
  • Chatterjee, Arindam; Frank, Mariana; Fuks, Benjamin; Huitu, Katri; Mondal, Subhadeep; Rai, Santosh Kumar; Waltari, Harri (2019)
    We perform a comprehensive dark matter analysis of left-right supersymmetric scenarios that includes constraints from dark matter direct and indirect detection experiments and that presents distinctive features from those available in minimal supersymmetry. We concentrate on dark matter candidates which, while satisfying all constraints, are different from those of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We consider in our analysis all possible co-annihilation channels relevant for setups in which several states are light and nearly degenerate, and devise a set of representative benchmark points, requiring co-annihilations, which satisfy all restrictions. We then study their consequent LHC signals, which exhibit promising new multileptonic signatures involving W-R, that if observed, would provide a strong support for left-right supersymmetry.
  • The ALICE collaboration; Acharya, S.; Brücken, E. J.; Chang, B.; Hilden, T. E.; Kim, D. J.; Litichevskyi, V.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Orava, R.; Parkkila, J. E.; Rak, J.; Räsänen, S. S.; Saarinen, S.; Slupecki, M.; Snellman, T. W.; Trzaska, W. H.; Vargyas, M.; Viinikainen, J. (2019)
    In this letter, the production of deuterons and anti-deuterons in pp collisions at root s = 7 TeV is studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity density at mid-rapidity with the ALICE detector at the LHC. Production yields are measured at mid-rapidity in five multiplicity classes and as a function of the deuteron transverse momentum (p(T)). The measurements are discussed in the context of hadron-coalescence models. The coalescence parameter B-2, extracted from the measured spectra of (anti-)deuteronsand primary (anti-)protons, exhibits no significant p(T)-dependence for p(T) < 3 GeV/c, in agreement with the expectations of a simple coalescence picture. At fixed transverse momentum per nucleon, the B-2 parameter is found to decrease smoothly from low multiplicity pp to Pb-Pb collisions, in qualitative agreement with more elaborate coalescence models. The measured mean transverse momentum of (anti-)deuterons in pp is not reproduced by the Blast-Wave model calculations that simultaneously describe pion, kaon and proton spectra, in contrast to central Pb-Pb collisions. The ratio between the p(T)-integrated yield of deuterons to protons, d/p, is found to increase with the charged-particle multiplicity, as observed in inelastic pp collisions at different centre-of-mass energies. The d/p ratios are reported in a wide range, from the lowest to the highest multiplicity values measured in pp collisions at the LHC. (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V
  • Bandyopadhyay, Priyotosh; Huitu, Katri; Niyogi, Saurabh (2016)
    We consider next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) which has a gauge singlet superfield. In the scale invariant superpotential we do not have the mass terms and the whole Lagrangian has an additional Z(3) symmetry. This model can have light scalar and/or pseudoscalar allowed by the recent data from LHC and the old data from LEP. We investigate the situation where a relatively light charged Higgs can decay to such a singlet-like pseudoscalar and a W-+/- boson giving rise to a final state containing tau and/or b-jets and lepton(s). Such decays evade the recent bounds on charged Higgs from the LHC, and according to our PYTHIA-FastJet based simulation can be probed with 10 fb(-1) at the LHC center of mass energy of 13 and 14 TeV.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    The observation of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson decay to a pair of bottom quarks is presented. The main contribution to this result is from processes in which Higgs bosons arc produced in association with a W or Z boson (VH), and are searched for in final states including 0, 1, or 2 charged leptons and two identified bottom quark jets. The results from the measurement of these processes in a data sample recorded by the CMS experiment in 2017, comprising 41.3 fb(-1) of proton-proton collisions at root s = 13 TeV, are described. When combined with previous VH measurements using data collected at root s = 7, 8, and 13 TeV, an excess of events is observed at m(H) = 125 GeV with a significance of 4.8 standard deviations, where the expectation for the SM Higgs boson is 4.9. The corresponding measured signal strength is 1.01 +/- 0.22. The combination of this result with searches by the CMS experiment for H -> b (b) over bar in other production processes yields an observed (expected) significance of 5.6 (5.5) standard deviations and a signal strength of 1.04 +/- 0.20.
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A measurement of the H -> tau tau signal strength is performed using events recorded in proton-proton collisions by the CMS experiment at the LHC in 2016 at a center-of-mass energy of 13TeV. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). The H -> tau tau signal is established with a significance of 4.9 standard deviations, to be compared to an expected significance of 4.7 standard deviations. The best fit of the product of the observed H -> tau tau signal production cross section and branching fraction is 1.09(-0.2)(6+0.27) times the standard model expectation. The combination with the corresponding measurement performed with data collected by the CMS experiment at center-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV leads to an observed significance of 5.9 standard deviations, equal to the expected significance. This is the first observation of Higgs boson decays to tau leptons by a single experiment. (c) 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Saad, Elyana; Wojciechowska, Maria; Silvanto, Juha (2015)
    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) and visual imagery are believed to involve overlapping neuronal representations in the early visual cortex. While a number of studies have provided evidence for this overlap, at the behavioral level VSTM and imagery are dissociable processes; this begs the question of how their neuronal mechanisms differ. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to examine whether the neural bases of imagery and VSTM maintenance are dissociable in the early visual cortex (EVC). We intentionally used a similar task for VSTM and imagery in order to equate their assessment. We hypothesized that any differential effect of TMS on VSTM and imagery would indicate that their neuronal bases differ at the level of EVC. In the "alone" condition, participants were asked to engage either in VSTM or imagery, whereas in the "concurrent" condition, each trial required both VSTM maintenance and imagery simultaneously. A dissociation between VSTM and imagery was observed for reaction times: TMS slowed down responses for VSTM but not for imagery. The impact of TMS on sensitivity did not differ between VSTM and imagery, but did depend on whether the tasks were carried concurrently or alone. This study shows that neural processes associated with VSTM and imagery in the early visual cortex can be partially dissociated. (C) 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (
  • The CMS collaboration; Sirunyan, A. M.; Eerola, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Havukainen, J.; Heikkilä, J. K.; Järvinen, T.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Laurila, S.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Siikonen, H.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuuva, T. (2018)
    A search has been performed for heavy resonances decaying to ZZ or ZW in 2l2q final states, with two charged leptons (l = e, mu) produced by the decay of a Z boson, and two quarks produced by the decay of a W or Z boson. The analysis is sensitive to resonances with masses in the range from 400 to 4500 GeV. Two categories are defined based on the merged or resolved reconstruction of the hadronically decaying vector boson, optimized for high- and low-mass resonances, respectively. The search is based on data collected during 2016 by the CMS experiment at the LHC in proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of root s = 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1). No excess is observed in the data above the standard model background expectation. Upper limits on the production cross section of heavy, narrow spin-1 and spin-2 resonances are derived as a function of the resonance mass, and exclusion limits on the production of W' bosons and bulk graviton particles are calculated in the framework of the heavy vector triplet model and warped extra dimensions, respectively.