Browsing by Subject "SEPSIS"

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  • Lindström, Mikael; Valkonen, Miia; Tohmola, Niina; Renkonen, Risto; Strandin, Tomas; Vaheri, Antti; Itkonen, Outi (2019)
    Background: Bradykinin is an important mediator of inflammation and vascular permeability and could have an important role in the development of septic shock. Measurement of bradykinin by immunological methods may suffer from interference and lack of specificity. We developed and validated a liquid chromatography mass spectrometry assay (LC-MS/MS) for plasma bradykinin. Methods: We used plasma samples from healthy volunteers (n = 19) and patients with septic shock (n = 47). Stable isotope bradykinin internal standard was added to samples before solid-phase extraction and quantification by LC-MS/MS. Stability of bradykinin was studied for 12 months. Results: Our assay has good sensitivity (0.1 nmol/l) and a wide linear range (0.1-1000 nmol/1). Bradykinin added to plasma was stable for 12 months at -20 degrees C when a mixture of protease inhibitors was added at sampling but degraded during repeated freezing and thawing. Bradykinin concentration in plasma from septic shock patients (<0.1-0.6 nmol/l) did not change significantly during shock and recovery but differed slightly from that in healthy individuals (0.5-1.1 nmol/1). Conclusions: Our bradykinin assay was successfully used to determine bradykinin concentrations in plasma samples. Intensive care unit patients with septic shock had low concentrations of plasma bradykinin during both shock and recovery phases.
  • Forsblom, E.; Ruotsalainen, E.; Jarvinen, A. (2017)
    Previous reports have associated hyperglycemia to poor outcome among aged and comorbid Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) patients. However, the prognostic impact of hyperglycemia in SAB irrespective of age and underlying conditions including a diagnosis of diabetes has received little attention. The objective here was to evaluate the prognostic relevance of hyperglycemia at onset of methicillin-sensitive SAB (MS-SAB). It was a retrospective study of MS-SAB patients. Blood glucose was measured within 24 h of positive blood cultures. The patient cohort was analyzed en bloc and by categorization according to age, underlying conditions and a diagnosis of diabetes. Altogether 161 patients were identified. High initial blood glucose levels were observed among diabetics (p <0.001), patients with deep infections (p <0.05) and poor outcome at 28- or 90-days (p <0.05). Receiver operating characteristics presented the glucose cut-off level of 7.2 mmol/L as a significant predictor of mortality with an area under the curve of 0.63 (95% CI 0.52-0.75, p <0.05). Blood glucose ae7.2 mmol/L connected to higher 28- (9 vs. 20%, p <0.05) and 90-day (14 vs. 29%, p <0.01) mortality. In Cox proportional hazard regression the blood glucose cut-off value of 7.2 mmol/L significantly predicted 90-day mortality (HR, 2.12; 95% CI, 1.01-4.46; p <0.05). Among young and healthy non-diabetics the negative prognostic impact of high glucose was further accentuated (HR 7.46, p <0.05). High glucose levels had no prognostic impact among diabetics. Hyperglycemia at SAB onset may associate to poor outcome. The negative prognostic impact is accentuated among young and healthy non-diabetics.
  • Kinnunen, Susanna; Karhapää, Pauli; Juutilainen, Auni; Finne, Patrik; Helanterä, Ilkka (2018)
    Background and objectives Infections are the most common noncardiovascular causes of death after kidney transplantation. We analyzed the current infection-related mortality among kidney transplant recipients in a nationwide cohort in Finland. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Altogether, 3249 adult recipients of a first kidney transplant from 1990 to 2012 were included. Infectious causes of death were analyzed, and the mortality rates for infections were compared between two eras (1990-1999 and 2000-2012). Risk factors for infectious deaths were analyzed with Cox regression and competing risk analyses. Results Altogether, 953 patients (29%) died during the follow-up, with 204 infection-related deaths. Mortality rate (per 1000 patient-years) due to infections was lower in the more recent cohort (4.6; 95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 6.1) compared with the older cohort (9.1; 95% confidence interval, 7.6 to 10.7); the incidence rate ratio of infectious mortality was 0.51 (95% confidence interval, 0.30 to 0.68). The main causes of infectious deaths were common bacterial infections: septicemia in 38% and pulmonary infections in 45%. Viral and fungal infections caused only 2% and 3% of infectious deaths, respectively (such as individual patients with Cytomegalovirus pneumonia, Herpes simplex virus meningoencephalitis, Varicella zoster virus encephalitis, and Pneumocystis jirovecii infection). Similarly, opportunistic bacterial infections rarely caused death; only one deathwas caused by Listeria monocytogenes, and two were caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Only 23 (11%) of infection-related deaths occurred during the first post-transplant year. Older recipient age, higher plasma creatinine concentration at the end of the first post-transplant year, diabetes as a cause of ESKD, longer pretransplant dialysis duration, acute rejection, low albumin level, and earlier era of transplantation were associated with increased risk of infectious death in multivariable analysis. Conclusions The risk of death due to infectious causes after kidney transplantation in Finland dropped by one half since the 1990s. Common bacterial infections remained the most frequent cause of infection-related mortality, whereas opportunistic viral, fungal, or unconventional bacterial infections rarely caused deaths after kidney transplantation.
  • Pelkonen, Tuula; Roine, Irmeli; Cruzeiro, Manuel Leite; Pitkäranta, Anne; Kataja, Matti; Peltola, Heikki (2011)
  • Tolonen, Matti; Kuuliala, Krista; Kuuliala, Antti; Leppäniemi, Ari; Kylänpää, Marja-Leena; Sallinen, Ville; Puolakkainen, Pauli; Mentula, Panu (2019)
    Background: There is a wide variety of disease severity in patients with complicated intraabdominal infection (cIAI). The prognostic role of intraabdominal view (IAV) was recently studied, and an IAV score was introduced. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between the preoperative levels of eight relevant circulating cytokines and IAV components, the IAV score, as well as outcome. Materials and methods: This was a single-center prospective study. The study cohort consisted of operatively managed adult patients with a cIAI. Preoperative plasma levels of eight cytokines were determined. The operating surgeon filled a form describing IAV. Outcomes analyzed were 30-day mortality and the development of organ dysfunctions requiring intensive care unit admission. Results: A total of 131 patients with cIAI were analyzed, 30-day mortality was 9.9% (n = 13), and 28 (21.4%) patients had postoperative organ dysfunctions. All components of IAV, the IAV score, and outcomes were associated with various cytokine levels. Interleukin-8 was the most competent marker associating with all the variables assessed in this study: diffuse peritonitis (P <0.001), substantial diffuse redness (P = 0.012), substantial diffuse fibrin (P = 0.003), fecal or bile as exudate (P = 0.001), nonappendiceal source of infection (P <0.001), IAV Score groups (P <0.001), organ dysfunctions (P <0.001), and 30-day mortality (P = 0.035). Conclusions: Various cytokines associate with the IAV and outcome. IL-8 showed the best overall performance. The results emphasize the role of the surgeons' perception of the IAV. IAV provides an approximation of the magnitude of the systemic inflammatory response. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Schuijt, Tim J.; Lankelma, Jacqueline M.; Scicluna, Brendon P.; e Melo, Felipe de Sousa; Roelofs, Joris J. T. H.; de Boer, J. Daan; Hoogendijk, Arjan J.; de Beer, Regina; de Vos, Alex; Belzer, Clara; de Vos, Willem M.; van der Poll, Tom; Wiersinga, W. Joost (2016)
    Objective Pneumonia accounts for more deaths than any other infectious disease worldwide. The intestinal microbiota supports local mucosal immunity and is increasingly recognised as an important modulator of the systemic immune system. The precise role of the gut microbiota in bacterial pneumonia, however, is unknown. Here, we investigate the function of the gut microbiota in the host defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae infections. Design We depleted the gut microbiota in C57BL/6 mice and subsequently infected them intranasally with S. pneumoniae. We then performed survival and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) experiments and measured parameters of inflammation and alveolar macrophage whole-genome responses. Results We found that the gut microbiota protects the host during pneumococcal pneumonia, as reflected by increased bacterial dissemination, inflammation, organ damage and mortality in microbiota-depleted mice compared with controls. FMT in gut microbiota-depleted mice led to a normalisation of pulmonary bacterial counts and tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 levels 6 h after pneumococcal infection. Whole-genome mapping of alveolar macrophages showed upregulation of metabolic pathways in the absence of a healthy gut microbiota. This upregulation correlated with an altered cellular responsiveness, reflected by a reduced responsiveness to lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid. Compared with controls, alveolar macrophages derived from gut microbiota-depleted mice showed a diminished capacity to phagocytose S. pneumoniae. Conclusions This study identifies the intestinal microbiota as a protective mediator during pneumococcal pneumonia. The gut microbiota enhances primary alveolar macrophage function. Novel therapeutic strategies could exploit the gut-lung axis in bacterial infections.
  • Tolonen, Matti; Sallinen, Ville; Leppäniemi, Ari; Bäcklund, Minna; Mentula, Panu (2019)
    BackgroundThe prognostic role of what a surgeon observes in the abdomen of patients with complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI) is largely unknown. The aim of this prospective study was to systemically analyze components of the intra-abdominal view (IAV) and their association to severe complicated intra-abdominal sepsis (SCIAS) or mortality.MethodsThe study cohort consisted of adult patients with cIAI. The operating surgeon filled a paper form describing the intra-abdominal view. Demographics, operative details, and preoperative physiological status were collected. Descriptive, univariate, and multivariate statistical analyses were performed, and a new score was developed based on regression coefficients. The primary outcome was a composite outcome of SCIAS or 30-day mortality, in which SCIAS was defined as organ dysfunctions requiring intensive care unit admission.ResultsA total of 283 patients were analyzed. The primary outcome was encountered in 71 (25%) patients. In the IAV, independent risk factors for the primary outcome were fecal or bile as exudate (odds ratio (OR) 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.73), diffuse peritonitis (OR 2.15, 1.02-4.55), diffuse substantial redness of the peritoneum (OR 5.73, 2.12-15.44), and a non-appendiceal source of cIAI (OR 11.20, 4.11-30.54). Based on these factors, an IAV score was developed and its performance analyzed. The area under the receiver operating characteristic for the IAV score was 0.81. The IAV score also correlated significantly with several outcomes and organ dysfunctions.ConclusionsThe extent of peritonitis, diffuse substantial redness of the peritoneum, type of exudate, and source of infection associate independently with SCIAS or mortality. A high IAV score associates with mortality and organ dysfunctions, yet it needs further external validation. Combining components of IAV into comprehensive scoring systems for cIAI patients may provide additional value compared to the current scoring systems.Trial registrationThe study protocol was retrospectively registered on April 4, 2016, right after the first enrolled patient at database (NCT02726932).
  • Viitanen, Sanna Johanna; Lappalainen, Anu Katriina; Christensen, M. B.; Sankari, Satu Marja; Rajamäki, Minna (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are sensitive markers of inflammation, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) recently has been shown to be a useful diagnostic marker in dogs with bacterial pneumonia (BP). In humans with community-acquired pneumonia, APPs also have great utility as follow-up markers aiding in the assessment of treatment response. OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to investigate the applicability of APPs as markers of treatment response in dogs with BP. ANIMALS: Nineteen dogs diagnosed with BP and 64 healthy dogs. METHODS: The study was conducted as a prospective longitudinal observational study. Serum CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA), and haptoglobin concentrations were followed during a natural course of BP. Normalization of serum CRP was used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment (treatment was stopped 5-7 days after CRP normalized) in 8 of 17 dogs surviving to discharge; 9 of 17 dogs were treated according to conventional recommendations. RESULTS: All measured APPs initially were significantly increased, but the magnitude of increase was not correlated to disease severity. C-reactive protein and SAA concentrations decreased rapidly after initiation of antimicrobial treatment. When normalization of serum CRP was used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment, treatment duration was significantly (P = .015) decreased without increasing the number of relapses. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Serum CRP and SAA reflected the recovery process well and therefore may be used as markers of treatment response. According to the results, the normalization of serum CRP may be used to guide the duration of antibiotic treatment in dogs with BP.
  • FINNAKI Study Grp; Hoste, Eric A.; Vaara, Suvi T.; De Loor, Jorien; Haapio, Mikko; Nuytinck, Lieve; Demeyere, Kristel; Pettila, Ville; Meyer, Evelyne (2020)
    Background Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequently occurring syndrome in critically ill patients and is associated with worse outcomes. Biomarkers allow early identification and therapy of AKI which may improve outcomes. Urine chitinase 3-like protein 1 (uCHI3L1) was recently identified as a promising urinary biomarker for AKI. In this multicenter study, we evaluated the diagnostic performance for AKI stage 2 or greater of uCHI3L1 in comparison with the urinary cell cycle arrest biomarkers urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2)center dot insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 7 (IGFBP7) measured by NephroCheck Risk (R). Methods Post hoc laboratory study of the prospective observational FINNAKI study. Of this cohort, we included patients with stored admission urine samples and availability of serum creatinine at day 1 of admission. Patients who already had AKI stage 2 or 3 at ICU admission were excluded. AKI was defined and staged according to the KDIGO definition and staging system. The primary endpoint was AKI stage 2 or 3 at day 1. Biomarker performance was assessed by the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). We assessed individual performance and different combinations of urine biomarkers. Results Of 660 included patients, 49 (7.4%) had AKI stages 2-3 at day 1. All urine biomarkers were increased at admission in AKI patients. All biomarkers and most combinations had AUCs <0.700. The combination uCHI3L1 center dot TIMP-2 was best with a fair AUC of 0.706 (0.670, 0.718). uCHI3L1 had a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 2.25 which was comparable to that of the NephroCheck Risk (R) cutoff of 2.0, while the negative LR of 0.53 was comparable to that of the NephroCheck Risk (R) cutoff of 0.3. Conclusions We found that uCHI3L1 and NephroCheck Risk (R) had a comparable diagnostic performance for diagnosis of AKI stage 2 or greater within a 24-h period in this multicenter FINNAKI cohort. In contrast to initial discovery and validation studies, the diagnostic performance was poor. Possible explanations for this observation are differences in patient populations, proportion of emergency admissions, proportion of functional AKI, rate of developing AKI, and observation periods for diagnosis of AKI.
  • FINNAKI Study Grp; Törnblom, Sanna; Nisula, Sara; Petäjä, Liisa; Vaara, Suvi T.; Haapio, Mikko; Pesonen, Eero; Pettilä, Ville (2020)
    Background: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is released from kidney tubular cells under stress as well as from neutrophils during inflammation. It has been suggested as a biomarker for acute kidney injury (AKI) in critically ill patients with sepsis. To evaluate clinical usefulness of urine NGAL (uNGAL), we post-hoc applied recently introduced statistical methods to a sub-cohort of septic patients from the prospective observational Finnish Acute Kidney Injury (FINNAKI) study. Accordingly, in 484 adult intensive care unit patients with sepsis by Sepsis-3 criteria, we calculated areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) for the first available uNGAL to assess discrimination for four outcomes: AKI defined by Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria, severe (KDIGO 2-3) AKI, and renal replacement therapy (RRT) during the first 3 days of intensive care, and mortality at day 90. We constructed clinical prediction models for the outcomes and used risk assessment plots and decision curve analysis with predefined threshold probabilities to test whether adding uNGAL to the models improved reclassification or decision making in clinical practice. Results: Incidences of AKI, severe AKI, RRT, and mortality were 44.8% (217/484), 27.7% (134/484), 9.5% (46/484), and 28.1% (136/484). Corresponding AUCs for uNGAL were 0.690, 0.728, 0.769, and 0.600. Adding uNGAL to the clinical prediction models improved discrimination of AKI, severe AKI, and RRT. However, the net benefits for the new models were only 1.4% (severe AKI and RRT) to 2.5% (AKI), and the number of patients needed to be tested per one extra true-positive varied from 40 (AKI) to 74 (RRT) at the predefined threshold probabilities. Conclusions: The results of the recommended new statistical methods do not support the use of uNGAL in critically ill septic patients to predict AKI or clinical outcomes.
  • Hemila, Harri; de Man, Angelique M. E. (2021)
    In numerous animal studies, vitamin C has prevented and alleviated viral and bacterial infections. In a few dozen placebo-controlled trials with humans, vitamin C has shortened infections caused by respiratory viruses, which indicates that the vitamin can also influence viral infections in humans. In critically ill patients, plasma vitamin C levels are commonly very low. Gram doses of vitamin C are needed to increase the plasma vitamin C levels of critically ill patients to the levels of ordinary healthy people. A meta-analysis of 12 trials with 1,766 patients calculated that vitamin C reduced the length of ICU stay on average by 8%. Another meta-analysis found that vitamin C shortened the duration of mechanical ventilation in ICU patients. Two randomized placebo-controlled trials found statistically significant reduction in the mortality of sepsis patients. The effects of vitamin C on acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) frequently complicating COVID-19 pneumonia should be considered. Vitamin C is a safe and inexpensive essential nutrient.
  • Hemilä, Harri; Chalker, Elizabeth (2020)
    Background Our recent meta-analysis indicated that vitamin C may shorten the length of ICU stay and the duration of mechanical ventilation. Here we analyze modification of the vitamin C effect on ventilation time, by the control group ventilation time (which we used as a proxy for severity of disease in the patients of each trial). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and reference lists of relevant publications. We included controlled trials in which the administration of vitamin C was the only difference between the study groups. We did not limit our search to randomized trials and did not require placebo control. We included all doses and all durations of vitamin C administration. One author extracted study characteristics and outcomes from the trial reports and entered the data in a spreadsheet. Both authors checked the data entered against the original reports. We used meta-regression to examine whether the vitamin C effect on ventilation time depends on the duration of ventilation in the control group. Results We identified nine potentially eligible trials, eight of which were included in the meta-analysis. We pooled the results of the eight trials, including 685 patients in total, and found that vitamin C shortened the length of mechanical ventilation on average by 14% (P = 0.00001). However, there was significant heterogeneity in the effect of vitamin C between the trials. Heterogeneity was fully explained by the ventilation time in the untreated control group. Vitamin C was most beneficial for patients with the longest ventilation, corresponding to the most severely ill patients. In five trials including 471 patients requiring ventilation for over 10 h, a dosage of 1-6 g/day of vitamin C shortened ventilation time on average by 25% (P <0.0001). Conclusions We found strong evidence that vitamin C shortens the duration of mechanical ventilation, but the magnitude of the effect seems to depend on the duration of ventilation in the untreated control group. The level of baseline illness severity should be considered in further research. Different doses should be compared directly in future trials.