Browsing by Subject "SKIN"

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  • Wang, Ling; Zanjanizadeh Ezazi, Nazanin; Liu, Jin-Liang; Ajdary, Rubina; Xiang, Wenchao; Borghei, Maryam; Santos, Hélder A.; Rojas, Orlando J. (2020)
    Partially deacetylated chitin nanofibers (ChNF) were isolated from shell residues derived from crab biomass and used to prepare hydrogels, which were easily transformed into continuous microfibers by wet-spinning. We investigated the effect of ChNF solid content, extrusion rate and coagulant type, which included organic (acetone) and alkaline (NaOH and ammonia) solutions, on wet spinning. The properties of the microfibers and associated phenomena were assessed by tensile strength, quartz crystal microgravimetry, dynamic vapor sorption (DVS), thermogravimetric analysis and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS). The as-spun microfibers (14 GPa stiffness) comprised hierarchical structures with fibrils aligned in the lateral direction. The microfibers exhibited a remarkable water sorption capacity (up to 22 g g−1), while being stable in the wet state (50% of dry strength), which warrants consideration as biobased absorbent systems. In addition, according to cell proliferation and viability of rat cardiac myoblast H9c2 and mouse bone osteoblast K7M2, the wet-spun ChNF microfibers showed excellent results and can be considered as fully safe for biomedical uses, such as in sutures, wound healing patches and cell culturing.
  • Ferone, Giustina; Thomason, Helen A.; Antonini, Dario; De Rosa, Laura; Hu, Bing; Gemei, Marica; Zhou, Huiqing; Ambrosio, Raffaele; Rice, David P.; Acampora, Dario; van Bokhoven, Hans; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Koster, Maranke I.; Tadini, Gianluca; Spencer-Dene, Bradley; Dixon, Michael; Dixon, Jill; Missero, Caterina (2012)
  • Ala-Houhala, Meri J.; Karppinen, Toni; Vahavihu, Katja; Kautiainen, Hannu; Dombrowski, Yvonne; Snellman, Erna; Schauber, Juergen; Reunala, Timo (2014)
  • Niskanen, Julia; Dillard, Kati; Arumilli, Meharji; Salmela, Elina; Anttila, Marjukka; Lohi, Hannes; Hytonen, Marjo K. (2017)
    A rare hereditary mechanobullous disorder called epidermolysis bullosa (EB) causes blistering in the skin and the mucosal membranes. To date, nineteen EB-related genes have been discovered in human and other species. We describe here a novel EB variant in dogs. Two newborn littermates of Central Asian Shepherd dogs with severe signs of skin blistering were brought to a veterinary clinic and euthanized due to poor prognosis. In post-mortem examination, the puppies were shown to have findings in the skin and the mucosal membranes characteristic of EB. A whole-genome sequencing of one of the affected puppies was performed to identify the genetic cause. The resequencing data were filtered under a recessive model against variants from 31 other dog genomes, revealing a homozygous case-specific nonsense variant in one of the known EB-causing genes, COL7A1 (c.4579C> T, p.R1527*). The variant results in a premature stop codon and likely absence of the functional protein in the basement membrane of the skin in the affected dogs. This was confirmed by immunohistochemistry using a COL7A1 antibody. Additional screening of the variant indicated full penetrance and breed specificity at similar to 28% carrier frequency. In summary, this study reveals a novel COL7A1 variant causing recessive dystrophic EB and provides a genetic test for the eradication of the disease from the breed.
  • Koljonen, Virve; Sahi, Helka; Bohling, Tom; Mäkisalo, Heikki (2016)
    Malignant tumours are the foremost complications of immunosuppressive treatment. They are a major challenge for organ transplant recipients and their treating physicians. This paper reviews the aetiology and current treatment of an unusual neuroendocrine skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), caused by a Merkel cell polyomavirus infection. MCC occurs more frequently than expected in immunosuppressed subjects, especially in organ transplant recipients. The current literature comprises reports of 79 organ transplant recipients with MCC. The risk of MCC in organ transplant recipients is increased up to 66-182-fold compared with the general population. In addition to the increased risk of developing MCC, immunosuppressed individuals have poorer MCC-specific survival. The aim of this review article is to familiarize organ transplant doctors with this unique and clinically challenging skin cancer, and to provide recent data on the diagnosis and current treatment recommendations for an immunosuppressed population.
  • Peromaa, Tarja; Olkkonen, Maria (2019)
    The color red seems to be consistently associated with the concept of anger. Beyond semantic associations, it has been suggested that the color red enhances our ability to perceive anger in faces. However, previous studies often lack proper color control or the results are confounded by the presence of several emotions. Moreover, the magnitude of the (potential) effect of red has not been quantified. To address these caveats, we quantified the effect of facial color and background color on anger with psychometric functions measured with the method-of-constant-stimuli while facial hue or surround hue was varied in CIELAB color space. Stimulus sequences were generated by morphing between neutral and angry faces. For the facial color, the average chromaticity of the faces was shifted by Delta E 12/20 in red, yellow, green and blue directions. For the background color, the hue was either neutral or saturated red, green or blue. Both facial redness and surround redness enhanced perceived anger slightly, by 3-4 morph-%. Other colors did not affect perceived anger. As the magnitude of the enhancement is generally small and the effect is robust only in a small subset of the participants, we question the practical significance of red in anger recognition.
  • Moilanen, Jyri M.; Loeffek, Stefanie; Kokkonen, Nina; Salo, Sirpa; Vayrynen, Juha P.; Hurskainen, Tiina; Manninen, Aki; Riihila, Pilvi; Heljasvaara, Ritva; Franzke, Claus-Werner; Kahari, Veli-Matti; Salo, Tuula; Makinen, Markus J.; Tasanen, Kaisa (2017)
    Collagen XVII and integrin alpha 6 beta 4 have well-established roles as epithelial adhesion molecules. Their binding partner laminin 332 as well as integrin alpha 6 beta 4 are largely recognized to promote invasion and metastasis in various cancers, and collagen XVII is essential for the survival of colon and lung cancer stem cells. We have studied the expression of laminin.2, collagen XVII and integrin beta 4 in tissue microarray samples of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and its precursors, actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. The expression of laminin.2 was highest in SCC samples, whereas the expression of collagen XVII and integrin beta 4 varied greatly in SCC and its precursors. Collagen XVII and integrin beta 4 were also expressed in SCC cell lines. Virus-mediated RNAi knockdown of collagen XVII and integrin beta 4 reduced the migration of less aggressive SCC-25 cells in horizontal scratch wound healing assay. Additionally, in a 3D organotypic myoma invasion assay the loss of collagen XVII or integrin beta 4 suppressed equally the migration and invasion of SCC-25 cells whereas there was no effect on the most aggressive HSC-3 cells. Variable expression patterns and results in migration and invasion assays suggest that collagen XVII and integrin beta 4 contribute to SCC tumorigenesis.
  • Johansson, Benjamin; Sahi, Helka; Koljonen, Virve; Böhling, Tom (2019)
    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) tumor samples frequently express B-lymphoid lineage markers. However, the reasons for expression of specific B-lymphoid lineage markers are still unclear. We studied the expression of TdT and PAX5 (two B-cell lymphoid lineage markers) in a large pool of MCC tissue microarray samples. Methods: Immunoexpression and staining intensities of TdT and Pax-5 were statistically correlated with patient, tumor, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), and disease-specific parameters. Results: In a cohort of 117 MCC patients and their corresponding tumor samples, TdT was expressed in 37 (31.6%) samples and PAX5 in 26 (22.2%). Simultaneous immunostaining for TdT and PAX5 was observed in 13 (11.1%) samples. A statistically significant relationship was observed between MCV virus copy number and positive TdT expression (P = 0.0056). Similarly, a significant relationship was also observed between positive TdT and tumor MCV virus positivity (P = 0.000495). Conclusion: We observed frequent TdT and PAX5 immunoexpression in MCC tumor samples. However, simultaneous immunoexpression of these markers was scarce. TdT expression was statistically significantly associated with MCV positivity. The absence of a statistically significant association between tumor parameters and disease progression markers undermines the systemic use of these markers in clinical practice.
  • Settembre, N.; Kagayama, T.; Kauhanen, P.; Vikatmaa, P.; Inoue, Y.; Venermo, M. (2018)
    Background and Aim: The toe skin temperature in vascular patients can be low, making reliable toe pressure measurements difficult to obtain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heating on the toe pressure measurements. Materials and Methods: A total of 86 legs were examined. Brachial pressure and toe pressure were measured at rest in a supine position using a laser Doppler device that also measured skin temperature. After heating the toes for 5 min with a heating pad, we re-measured the toe pressure. Furthermore, after heating the skin to 40 degrees with the probe, toe pressures were measured a third time. Results: The mean toe skin temperature at the baseline measurement was 24.0 degrees C (standard deviation: 2.8). After heating the toes for 5 min with a warm heating pad, the skin temperature rose to a mean 27.8 degrees C (standard deviation: 2.8; p = 0.000). The mean toe pressure rose from 58.5 (standard deviation: 32) to 62 (standard deviation: 32) mmHg (p = 0.029). Furthermore, after the skin was heated up to 40 degrees C with the probe, the mean toe pressure in the third measurement was 71 (standard deviation: 34) mmHg (p = 0.000). The response to the heating varied greatly between the patients after the first heatingfrom -34 mmHg (toe pressure decreased from 74 to 40 mmHg) to +91 mmHg. When the toes were heated to 40 degrees C, the change in to toe pressure from the baseline varied between -28 and +103 mmHg. Conclusion: Our data indicate that there is a different response to the heating in different clinical situations and in patients with a different comorbidity.