Browsing by Subject "SMOKING"

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  • Jokela, Markus; García-Velázquez, Regina; Gluschkoff, Kia; Airaksinen, Jaakko; Rosenström, Tom (2020)
    Objectives Smoking rates have declined with a slower pace among those with psychological distress compared to those without. We examined whether other health behaviors (heavy alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, short sleep duration) showed similar trends associated with sychological distress. We also examined differences by age and birth cohort. Methods Data were from the annually repeated cross-sectional U.S. National Health Interview Surveys (NHIS) of 1997-2016 (total n = 603,518). Psychological distress was assessed with the 6-item Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6). Results Psychological distress became more strongly associated with smoking (OR 1.09 per 10 years; 95% CI 1.07, 1.12), physical inactivity (OR 1.08; 1.05, 1.11), and short sleep (OR 1.12; 1.06, 1.18), but less strongly associated with heavy alcohol consumption (OR 0.93; 0.89, 0.98). The associations of smoking and alcohol consumption attenuated with age, whereas the association with physical inactivity strengthened with age. Compared to older birth cohorts, smoking became more strongly associated with psychological distress among younger birth cohorts up to those born in the 1980s. Conclusions The strength of associations between psychological distress and health behaviors may vary by time period, age, and birth cohort.
  • Räisänen, Petri; Backman, Helena; Hedman, Linnea; Andersson, Martin; Stridsman, Caroline; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Andersen, Heidi; Piirilä, Päivi; Lindberg, Anne; Lundback, Bo; Rönmark, Eva (2021)
    Background The prevalence of asthma has increased both among children and adults during the latter half of the 20th century. The prevalence among adults is affected by the incidence of asthma not only in childhood but also in adulthood. Time trends in asthma incidence have been poorly studied. Aims The aim of this study was to review the incidence of adult-onset asthma from 1996 to 2006 and 2006 to 2016 and compare the risk factor patterns. Methods In the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, two randomly selected population-based samples in the 20-69-year age group participated in postal questionnaire surveys about asthma in 1996 (n=7104, 85%) and 2006 (n=6165, 77%). A 10-year follow-up of the two cohorts with the same validated questionnaire was performed, and 5709 and 4552 responded, respectively. Different definitions of population at risk were used in the calculations of asthma incidence. The protocol followed a study performed between 1986 and 1996 in the same area. Results The crude incidence rate of physician-diagnosed asthma was 4.4 per 1000 person-years (men 3.8, women 5.5) from 1996 to 2006, and 4.8 per 1000 person-years (men 3.7, women 6.2) from 2006 to 2016. When correcting for possible under-diagnosis at study entry, the incidence rate was 2.4 per 1000 personyears from 1996 to 2006 and 2.6 per 1000 person-years from 2006 to 2016. The incidence rates were similar across age groups. Allergic rhino-conjunctivitis was the main risk factor for incident asthma in both observation periods (risk ratio 2.4-2.6). Conclusions The incidence of adult-onset asthma has been stable over the last two decades and has remained at a similar level since the 1980s. The high incidence contributes to the increase in asthma prevalence.
  • Böckerman, Petri; Hyytinen, Ari; Kaprio, Jaakko; Maczulskij, Terhi (2018)
    This paper examines the links between risky health behaviors and labor market success. We provide new evidence on the joint relationships between the most prominent forms of risky health behavior - alcohol consumption, smoking and physical inactivity - and long-term labor market outcomes. We use twin data for Finnish men and women linked to register-based individual information on earnings and labor market attachment. The twin data allow us to account for shared family and environmental factors and to measure risky health behaviors in 1975 and 1981. The long-term labor market outcomes were measured in adulthood as an average over the period 1990-2009. The sample sizes are 2156 and 2498 twins, for men and women, respectively. We find that being both a smoker and a heavy drinker in early adulthood is negatively related to long-term earnings and employment later in life, especially for men. We conclude that how and why risky health behaviors cluster and how that affects individual level outcomes call for more attention.
  • Makkonen, Petra; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Särkelä, Tytti; Anttila, Ahti (2017)
    Objective. Effectiveness of organized cervical cancer screening has been shown in several studies. However, screening among women aged Methods. In the Finnish Cancer Registry there were 284 cervical cancer cases diagnosed and tested below the age of 40 in 2004-2009. Screening histories and data on opportunistic testing for these women and their 1698 age-matched controls were derived from databases of the Mass Screening Registry and The National Institute for Health and Welfare from 1997 onward. OR's and 95% CI's for the association of cervical cancer diagnosis and participation in organized screening and opportunistic testing were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Results were corrected for self-selection bias and attendance rate. Results. Among women aged under 25, OR of cervical cancer for any Pap test taken 0.5-5.5 years before diagnosis was 1.25 (95% CI 0.46-3.43). Attending only organized screening at age 25-39 resulted in OR 0.52 (0.36-0.77), attending only opportunistic testing in OR 0.86 (0.60-1.25) and attending both in OR 0.48 (0.29-0.79). Conclusion. Opportunistic testing showed no clear additional benefit on preventing cervical cancer. The study also supports findings on a smaller effect of screening in younger age groups. (C) 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Juvela, Seppo; Korja, Miikka (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Retrospective studies have suggested that aneurysm morphology is a risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether various morphological indices of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) predict a future rupture. METHODS: A total of 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 were followed prospectively until SAH, death, or the last contact. Morphological UIA indices from standard angiographic projections were measured at baseline and adjusted inmulti-variable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for established risk factors for SAH. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3064 person-years, 34 patients suffered from an aneurysm rupture. In multivariable analyses, aneurysm volume, volume-to-ostium area ratio, and the bottleneck factor separately as continuous variables predicted aneurysm rupture. All the morphological indices were higher (P <.01) after the rupture than before. In final multivariable analyses, current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.03-6.10, P = .044), location in the anterior communicating artery (4.28, 1.38-13.28, P = .012), age (inversely; 0.95 per year, 0.91-1.00, P = .043), and UIA diameter >= 7 mm at baseline (2.68, 1.16-6.21, P = .021) were independent risk factors for a future rupture. Aneurysm growth during the follow-up was associated with smoking (P <.05) and SAH (P <.001), but not with the aneurysm indices. CONCLUSION: Of the morphological indices, UIA volume seems to predict a future rupture. However, as volume correlates with the maximum diameter of the aneurysm, it seems to add little to the predictive value of the maximum diameter. Retrospective studies using indices that are measured after rupture are of little value in risk prediction.
  • Huuskonen, Pasi; Keski-Nisula, Leea; Heinonen, Seppo; Voutilainen, Sari; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Pekkanen, Juha; Lampi, Jussi; Lehto, Soili M.; Haaparanta, Hannariikka; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka; Voutilainen, Raimo; Backman, Katri; Kokki, Hannu; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Paananen, Jussi; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Pasanen, Markku (2018)
    Background: A Finnish joint research effort Kuopio Birth Cohort (KuBiCo) seeks to evaluate the effects of genetics, epigenetics and different risk factors (medication, nutrition, lifestyle factors and environmental aspects) during pregnancy on the somatic and psychological health status of the mother and the child. Methods: KuBiCo will ultimately include information on 10,000 mother-child pairs who have given their informed consent to participate in this cohort. Identification of foetal health risk factors that can potentially later manifest as disease requires a repository of relevant biological samples and a flexible open up-to-date data handling system to register, store and analyse biological, clinical and questionnaire-based data. KuBiCo includes coded questionnaire-based maternal background data gathered before, during and after the pregnancy and bio-banking of maternal and foetal samples that will be stored in deep freezers. Data from the questionnaires and biological samples will be collected into one electronic database. KuBiCo consists of several work packages which are complementary to each other: Maternal, foetal and placental metabolism and omits; Paediatrics; Mental wellbeing; Prenatal period and delivery; Analgesics and anaesthetics during peripartum period; Environmental effects; Nutrition; and Research ethics. Discussion: This report describes the set-up of the KuBiCo and descriptive analysis from 3532 parturients on response frequencies and feedback to KuBiCo questionnaires gathered from June 2012 to April 2016. Additionally, we describe basic demographic data of the participants (n = 1172). Based on the comparison of demographic data between official national statistics and our descriptive analysis, KuBiCo represents a cross-section of Finnish pregnant women.
  • Dobewall, Henrik; Koivusilta, Leena; Karvonen, Sakari; Lindfors, Pirjo; Kinnunen, Jaana M.; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Rimpelä, Arja (2020)
    Background: The Finnish government has emphasized the need to expedite educational transitions. We study if a late start of upper secondary education is related to health-related selection, namely health-compromising behaviours in adolescence. Methods: A large cohort of adolescents from the seventh (12-13 years) and ninth (15-16 years) grades answered online classroom surveys (total n = 10 873). They were followed to the start of upper secondary education, obtained from the Joint Application Registry. We compared those who continued studies directly from the ninth grade with later starters. We measured late bedtime, breakfast not every school day, tooth brushing less than twice-a-day, monthly alcohol consumption, weekly smoking, daily energy drinks, physical activity <6 days/week and excessive screen time. Multilevel logistic regressions and latent class analyses were conducted. Results: In gender and school adjusted models in the seventh grade, all behaviours except physical activity predicted the late start. The strongest predictor was smoking, OR = 2.96 (CI = 2.25-3.89). In the ninth grade, smoking, breakfast, tooth brushing and energy drinks, OR = 1.80, (CI = 1.36-2.39, strongest), were predictive. After controlling for sociodemographic background and academic achievement, associations for alcohol and screen time became non-significant in the seventh grade. In the ninth grade, only screen time remained significant, OR = 1.33 (CI = 1.04-1.71). Health-compromising behaviours formed clusters. Belonging to the unhealthy cluster predicted the late start in both grades, in adjusted models only in the seventh grade. Conclusions: Students with health-compromising behaviours are less likely to start upper secondary education directly after the compulsory education. This may increase the risk for fragmentary educational trajectories and work careers.
  • Kankaanpää, Anna; Tolvanen, Asko; Bollepalli, Sailalitha; Leskinen, Tuija; Kujala, Urho M.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Ollikainen, Miina; Sillanpää, Elina (2021)
    Purpose: Greater leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) associates with healthier lives, but knowledge regarding occupational physical activity (OPA) is more inconsistent. DNA methylation (DNAm) patterns capture age-related changes in different tissues. We aimed to assess how LTPA and OPA are associated with three DNAm-based epigenetic age estimates, namely, DNAm age, PhenoAge, and GrimAge. Methods: The participants were young adult (21-25 yr, n = 285) and older (55-74 yr, n = 235) twin pairs, including 16 pairs with documented long-term LTPA discordance. Genome-wide DNAm from blood samples was used to compute DNAm age, PhenoAge, and GrimAge Age acceleration (Acc), which describes the difference between chronological and epigenetic ages. Physical activity was assessed with sport, leisure-time, and work indices based on the Baecke Questionnaire. Genetic and environmental variance components of epigenetic age Acc were estimated by quantitative genetic modeling. Results: Epigenetic age Acc was highly heritable in young adult and older twin pairs (similar to 60%). Sport index was associated with slower and OPA with faster DNAm GrimAge Acc after adjusting the model for sex. Genetic factors and nonshared environmental factors in common with sport index explained 1.5%-2.7% and 1.9%-3.5%, respectively, of the variation in GrimAge Acc. The corresponding proportions considering OPA were 0.4%-1.8% and 0.7%-1.8%, respectively. However, these proportions were minor (
  • Virtanen, Marianna; Ervasti, Jenni; Head, Jenny; Oksanen, Tuula; Salo, Paula; Pentti, Jaana; Kouvonen, Anne; Väänänen, Ari; Suominen, Sakari; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi; Elovainio, Marko; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Kivimäki, Mika (2018)
    Background Lifestyle factors influence the risk of morbidity and mortality, but the extent to which they are associated with employees' absence from work due to illness is unclear. We examined the relative contributions of smoking, alcohol consumption, high body-mass index, and low physical activity to diagnosis-specific sickness absence. Methods We did a multicohort study with individual-level data of participants of four cohorts from the UK, France, and Finland. Participants' responses to a lifestyle survey were linked to records of sickness absence episodes, typically lasting longer than 9 days; for each diagnostic category, the outcome was the total number of sickness absence days per year. We estimated the associations between lifestyle factors and sickness absence by calculating rate ratios for the number of sickness absence days per year and combining cohort-specific estimates with meta-analysis. The criteria for assessing the evidence included the strength of association, consistency across cohorts, robustness to adjustments and multiple testing, and impact assessment by use of population attributable fractions (PAF), with both internal lifestyle factor prevalence estimates and those obtained from European populations (PAF external). Findings For 74 296 participants, during 446 478 person-years at risk, the most common diagnoses for sickness absence were musculoskeletal diseases (70.9 days per 10 person-years), depressive disorders (26.5 days per 10 person-years), and external causes (such as injuries and poisonings; 12.8 days per 10 person-years). Being overweight (rate ratio [adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, and chronic disease at baseline] 1.30, 95% CI 1.21-1.40; PAF external 8.9%) and low physical activity (1.23, 1.14-1.34; 7.8%) were associated with absences due to musculoskeletal diseases; heavy episodic drinking (1.90, 1.41-2.56; 15.2%), smoking (1.70, 1.42-2.03; 11.8%), low physical activity (1.67, 1.42-1.96; 19.8%), and obesity (1.38, 1.11-1.71; 5.6%) were associated with absences due to depressive disorders; heavy episodic drinking (1.64, 1.33-2.03; 11.3%), obesity (1.48, 1.27-1.72; 6.6%), smoking (1.35, 1.20-1.53; 6.3%), and being overweight (1.20, 1.08-1.33; 6.2%) were associated with absences due to external causes; obesity (1.82, 1.40-2.36; 11.0%) and smoking (1.60, 1.30-1.98; 10.3%) were associated with absences due to circulatory diseases; low physical activity (1.37, 1.25-1.49; 12.0%) and smoking (1.27, 1.16-1.40; 4.9%) were associated with absences due to respiratory diseases; and obesity (1.67, 1.34-2.07; 9.7%) was associated with absences due to digestive diseases. Interpretation Lifestyle factors are associated with sickness absence due to several diseases, but observational data cannot determine the nature of these associations. Future studies should investigate the cost-effectiveness of lifestyle interventions aimed at reducing sickness absence and the use of information on lifestyle for identifying groups at risk. Copyright (c) The Author (s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Figueiredo, Rejane Augusta De Oliveira; Roos, Eva; Eriksson, Johan G.; Simola-Strom, Sabina; Weiderpass, Elisabete (2017)
    Aims: Little is known about impact of maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption on adolescents' body size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether maternal alcohol or tobacco consumption is associated with their children's body size in adolescence, assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI). Methods: This study was conduct in subjects recruited into the Finnish Health in Teens cohort (Fin-HIT) between 2011 and 2014. A total of 4525 subjects aged between 9 and 14 years and their mothers or female adults responsible for the children were analysed. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Multinomial Logistic Regression. Results: Most children were normal weight (74.5%), 10.6% were underweight and 14.9% were overweight or obese. Among mothers, 50.6% were never smokers, 35.7% were former smokers, and 13.7% were current smokers. Alcohol consumption was classified by Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), 12.7% were abstainers (score=0), 65.0% were low-moderate drinkers (scores 1-4) and 22.3% were harmful drinkers (scores. 5). There were statistically significant associations between currently smoking mothers and children's overweight (RR=1.36; 95% CI: 1.05-1.76). There was an inverse association between maternal former smoking and children's underweight (RR=0.70; CI: 0.56-0.87) compared with never smoker mothers. Among children in puberty, abstainer mothers were more likely to have underweight children compared with low-moderate mothers (RR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.03-2.41). Conclusions: Current smoker mothers were associated with children's overweight and former-smoker mothers were inversely associated with the children's underweight. Being an abstainer mother was associated with the children's underweight in puberty stage. If other studies confirm these results, public health interventions aiming at healthy weight of adolescents should target the whole family, not only the adolescents themselves.
  • Simoila, Laura; Isometsä, Erkki; Gissler, Mika; Suvisaari, Jaana; Sailas, Ella; Halmesmäki, Erja; Lindberg, Nina (2019)
    Schizophrenia may affect a mother's ability to parent. We investigated out-of-home placements among children with a biological mother having schizophrenia, and their relation to maternal characteristics and adverse perinatal health outcomes of the offspring. For each Finnish woman born between 1 JAN 1965 - 31 DEC 1980 and diagnosed with schizophrenia before 31 DEC 2013 (n = 5214), five matched controls were randomly selected from the Finnish Central Population Register. Children born to these women were identified and followed till 31 DEC 2013. The Child Welfare Register, the Medical Birth Register and the Register of Congenital Malformations were used to gather information. Altogether 35.1% of children with an affected mother and 3.2% of control children were placed out of home during the follow-up. The incidence rate ratio (IRR) of out-of-home placement among children with an affected mother was 12.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 10.80-13.46) when children with a non-affected mother served as a reference. Single motherhood (IRR 2.2, 95% CI 1.88-2.60) and maternal smoking (IRR 1.9, 95% CL 1.68-2.16), but not an adverse perinatal outcome of the offspring, increased the risk of out-of-home placement. To conclude, maternal schizophrenia is a strong risk factor for placement of children in out-of-home care.
  • Strang-Karlsson, Sonja; Alenius, Suvi; Näsänen-Gilmore, Pieta; Nurhonen, Markku; Haaramo, Peija; Evensen, Kari Anne I.; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Gissler, Mika; Hovi, Petteri; Kajantie, Eero (2021)
    Objective Being born preterm is related to adverse health effects later in life. We studied whether preterm birth predicts the risk of migraine. Methods In this nationwide register study, we linked data from six administrative registers for all 235,624 children live-born in Finland (January 1987 to September 1990) and recorded in the Finnish Medical Birth Register. n = 228,610 (97.0%) had adequate data and were included. Migraine served as primary outcome variable and was stringently defined as a diagnosis from specialised health care and/or >= 2 reimbursed purchases of triptans. We applied sex- and birth year-stratified Cox proportional hazard regression models to compute hazard ratios and confidence intervals (95% confidence intervals) for the association between preterm categories and migraine. The cohort was followed up until an average age of 25.1 years (range: 23.3-27.0). Results Among individuals born extremely preterm (23-27 completed weeks of gestation), the adjusted hazard ratios for migraine was 0.55 (0.25-1.24) when compared with the full-term reference group (39-41 weeks). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the other preterm categories were: Very preterm (28-31 weeks); 0.95 (0.68-1.31), moderately preterm (32-33 weeks); 0.96 (0.73-1.27), late preterm (34-36 weeks); 1.01 (0.91-1.11), early term (37-38 weeks); 0.98 (0.93-1.03), and post term (42 weeks); 0.98 (0.89-1.08). Migraine was predicted by parental migraine, lower socioeconomic position, maternal hypertensive disorder and maternal smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion We found no evidence for a higher risk of migraine among individuals born preterm.
  • Lilja, Markus; Markkanen-Leppanen, Mari; Viitasalo, Sanna; Saarilahti, Kauko; Lindford, Andrew; Lassus, Patrik; Makitie, Antti (2018)
    The senses of smell and taste can be adversely affected by both tumour- and treatment-related factors amongst head and neck cancer patients. The consequences may negatively impact nutritional status as well as quality of life in this patient population. This prospective longitudinal follow-up study is consisted of 44 patients treated for oral cavity, oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer with tumour resection and microvascular free tissue transfer reconstruction at the Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. Thirty-nine (89%) of them also received radiotherapy. The senses of smell (odour detection, identification and threshold test) and taste (electrogustometry) and quality of life (UW-QOL) were evaluated preoperatively, and at 6 weeks, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months, postoperatively. There were higher scores in the odour detection values in the 6-week and 3-month tests compared with preoperative values for the tumour side. Other detection scores did not differ statistically from the preoperative values neither in the tumour nor the contralateral side. However, in the odour identification test, all posttreatment values were statistically significantly higher than pretreatment ones. In the olfactory threshold test, no statistically significant differences were found between pre- and posttreatment values. Electrogustometry values for the taste on the tumour side were statistically significantly impaired at 6 weeks (p <0.05) and at 3 months (p <0.01) compared with the pretreatment results. They were also impaired at 6 months and at 12 months, although the differences were not statistically significant. The quality of life was impaired after treatment in this patient series. However, the correlation between quality of life and sense of taste was found only at one time point (3 months) and only with contralateral side measurements. We conclude that in oral and pharyngeal cancer patients the postoperative taste problems are related to the impairment on the taste sensation in the tongue but not with the sense of smell. Moreover, the impairment in the quality of life is not clearly related to the impaired sense of taste.
  • Shekarchizadeh, Hajar; Khami, Mohammad R.; Mohebbi, Simin Z.; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Virtanen, Jorma I. (2013)
  • Bruserud, Oyvind; Costea, Danieta-Elena; Laakso, Saila; Garty, Ben-Zion; Mathisen, Eirik; Mäkitie, Antti; Mäkitie, Outi; Husebye, Eystein S. (2018)
    Autoimmune polyendocrinopathy-candidiasis-ectodermal dystrophy (APECED) or Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type-1 (APS-1) (APECED, OMIM 240300) is a rare, childhood onset, monogenic disease caused by mutations in the Autoimmune Regulator (AIRE) gene. The overall mortality is increased compared to the general population and a major cause of death includes malignant diseases, especially oral and esophageal cancers. We here present a case series of four APS-1 patients with oral tongue cancers, an entity not described in detail previously. Scrutiny of history and clinical phenotypes indicate that chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis and smoking are significant risk factors. Preventive measures and early diagnosis are important to successfully manage this potentially fatal disease.
  • Fortner, Renée T.; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Wentzensen, Nicolas A.; Trabert, Britton; White, Emily; Arslan, Alan A.; Patel, Alpa V.; Setiawan, V. Wendy; Visvanathan, Kala; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Adami, Hans-Olov; Black, Amanda; Bernstein, Leslie; Brinton, Louise A.; Buring, Julie; Clendenen, Tess V.; Fournier, Agnès; Fraser, Gary; Gapstur, Susan M.; Gaudet, Mia M.; Giles, Graham G.; Gram, Inger T.; Hartge, Patricia; Hoffman-Bolton, Judith; Idahl, Annika; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kirsh, Victoria A.; Knutsen, Synnove; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lacey Jr., James V.; Lee, I-Min; Lundin, Eva; Merritt, Melissa A.; Milne, Roger L.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Peters, Ulrike; Poynter, Jenny N.; Rinaldi, Sabina; Robien, Kim; Rohan, Thomas; Sánchez, Maria-José; Schairer, Catherine; Schouten, Leo J.; Tjonneland, Anne; Townsend, Mary K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Vineis, Paolo; Wilkens, Lynne; Wolk, Alicja; Yang, Hannah P.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S. (2019)
    Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in = 35 vs. 20 to <25 kg/m(2), 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.
  • 2015 European Soc Coloproctology; Kössi, Jyrki (2019)
    BACKGROUND Right hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection are used to treat benign conditions like Crohn's disease (CD) and malignant ones like colon cancer (CC). AIM To investigate differences in pre- and peri-operative factors and their impact on post-operative outcome in patients with CC and CD. METHODS This is a sub-group analysis of the European Society of Coloproctology's prospective, multi-centre snapshot audit. Adult patients with CC and CD undergoing right hemicolectomy or ileocecal resection were included. Primary outcome measure was 30-d post-operative complications. Secondary outcome measures were post-operative length of stay (LOS) at and readmission. RESULTS Three hundred and seventy-five patients with CD and 2,515 patients with CC were included. Patients with CD were younger (median = 37 years for CD and 71 years for CC (P <0.01), had lower American Society of Anesthesiology score (ASA) grade (P <0.01) and less comorbidity (P <0.01), but were more likely to be current smokers (P <0.01). Patients with CD were more frequently operated on by colorectal surgeons (P <0.01) and frequently underwent ileocecal resection (P <0.01) with higher rate of de-functioning/primary stoma construction (P <0.01). Thirty-day post-operative mortality occurred exclusively in the CC group (66/2515, 2.3%). In multivariate analyses, the risk of post-operative complications was similar in the two groups (OR 0.80, 95%CI: 0.54-1.17; P = 0.25). Patients with CD had a significantly longer LOS (Geometric mean 0.87, 95%CI: 0.79-0.95; P <0.01). There was no difference in re-admission rates. The audit did not collect data on post-operative enhanced recovery protocols that are implemented in the different participating centers. CONCLUSION Patients with CD were younger, with lower ASA grade, less comorbidity, operated on by experienced surgeons and underwent less radical resection but had a longer LOS than patients with CC although complication's rate was not different between the two groups.
  • Äyräväinen, Leena; Leirisalo-Repo, Marjatta; Kuuliala, Antti; Ahola, Kirsi; Koivuniemi, Riitta; Meurman, Jukka H.; Heikkinen, Anna Maria (2017)
    Objectives To investigate the association between rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and periodontitis with special emphasis on the role of antirheumatic drugs in periodontal health. Design Prospective follow-up study. Patients with early untreated RA and chronic active RA were examined at baseline and 16months later. Controls were examined once. Settings and participants The study was conducted in Finland from September 2005 to May 2014 at the Helsinki University Hospital. Overall, 124 participants were recruited for dental and medical examinations: 53 were patients with early disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) na1ve RA (ERA), 28 were patients with chronic RA (CRA) with insufficient response to conventional DMARDs. After baseline examination, patients with ERA started treatment with synthetic DMARDs and patients with CRA with biological DMARDs. Controls were 43 age-matched, gender-matched and community-matched participants. Outcome measures Degree of periodontitis (defined according to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the American Academy of Periodontology). Prevalence of periodontal bacteria (analysed from plaque samples), clinical rheumatological status by Disease Activity Score, 28-joint count (DAS28), function by Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) and treatment response by European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) criteria. Results Moderate periodontitis was present in 67.3% of patients with ERA, 64.3% of patients with CRA and 39.5% of control participants (p=0.001). Further, patients with RA had significantly more periodontal findings compared with controls, recorded with common periodontal indexes. In the re-examination, patients with RA still showed poor periodontal health in spite of treatment with DMARDs after baseline examination. The prevalence of Porphyromonas gingivalis was higher in patients with ERA with periodontal probing depth 4mm compared with patients with CRA and controls. Antirheumatic medication did not seem to affect the results. Conclusions Moderate periodontitis was more frequent in patients with RA than in controls. Patients with ERA and CRA exhibited poorer periodontal health parameters when compared with controls. There was no association between antirheumatic treatment and periodontal parameters.
  • Lindbohm, Joni V.; Rautalin, Ilari; Jousilahti, Pekka; Salomaa, Veikko; Kaprio, Jaakko; Korja, Miikka (2019)
    Benefit of physical activity in prevention of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is unclear. We aimed to clarify this by studying how different types of physical activity associate with SAH risk. By following 65 521 population-based FINRISK participants prospectively from medical and autopsy registries since 1972 until 2014, we detected 543 incident SAHs. At baseline, we measured leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), occupational physical activity (OPA), and commuting physical activity (CPA) levels. The Cox model adjusted for all well-known SAH risk factors and for socioeconomic status, provided hazard ratios (HRs) for physical activity variables. Every 30-minute increase in weekly LTPA decreased SAH risk linearly in men and women HR = 0.95 (95% CI = 0.90–1.00). CPA reduced SAH risk as well, but the association diminished as participants retired. In contrast, individuals with moderate (1.41, 1.04–1.92) and high OPA (1.34, 0.99–1.81) had elevated SAH risk. Protective association of LTPA persisted in all age and hypertension groups, and was even greater in current smokers 0.88 (0.81–0.96) than non-smokers (p = 0.04 for difference). Commuting and leisure time physical activity seem to reduce SAH risk in men and women and is most beneficial for smokers. Future intervention studies should investigate whether physical activity can reduce the rupture risk of intracranial aneurysms.
  • Matthew Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin; Hokkanen, Mirja; Pohjanvirta, Raimo (2020)
    Commercially processed meat and fish products are common sources of human exposure to chemical food mutagens. In this study, we investigated the mutagenic potential of 20 different commercially processed meat and fish products (7 product types with 2-3 lots of each), along with the presence of four principal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (benzo[a]pyrene [BaP], benzo[b]fluoranthene [BbF], benzo[a]anthracene [BaA] and chrysene [CHR]) in them. Sample extraction was carried out by an accelerated solvent extraction method, while the concentrations of the 4 PAHs were determined by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). The mutagenic potential of food extracts was assessed by the standard plate incorporation assay (Ames test) using two strains ofSalmonellatyphimurium (TA 100 and TA 98) both in the presence and the absence of metabolic activation (S9-mix). The results show that in the majority of food items investigated, PAH levels were below the limit of quantification (0.78 mu g/kg), except for smoked fish (0.8-15 mu g/kg for the 3 lots), one batch of which even exceeded the maximum limits for both the sum of the 4 PAHs (44 mu g/kg vs. 30 mu g/kg) and BaP (8.2 mu g/kg vs. 5.0 mu g/kg). Furthermore, all three batches of smoked fish were also found to be mutagenic on both strains ofSalmonella, both in the presence and the absence of metabolic activation. Overall, the data from both assays were in a fairly good agreement with one another, suggesting that PAHs are major contributors to mutagenicity of processed food products and the set maximum levels for PAHs are usually protective against food mutagenicity, although food samples harboring PAHs at levels approaching the maximum limits may exhibit mutagenic potential. Since the number of samples investigated was relatively small, further studies are warranted to verify the conclusions.