Browsing by Subject "STAR-FORMATION"

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  • Malinen, J.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, J.; Juvela, M.; Ristorcelli, I.; Clark, S. E.; Berne, O.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Pelkonen, V.-M.; Collins, D. C. (2016)
    The nearby cloud L1642 is one of only two known very high latitude (b| > 30 deg) clouds actively forming stars. It is a rare example of star formation in isolated conditions, and can reveal important details of star formation in general, e.g. of the effect of magnetic fields. We compareHerschel dust emission structures and magnetic field orientation revealed byPlanck polarization maps in L1642. The high-resolution (similar to 20 arcsec)Herschel data reveal a complex structure including a dense, compressed central clump, and low-density striations. ThePlanck polarization data (at 10 arcmin resolution) reveal an ordered magnetic field pervading the cloud and aligned with the surrounding striations. There is a complex interplay between the cloud structure and large-scale magnetic field. This suggests that the magnetic field is closely linked to the formation and evolution of the cloud. CO rotational emission confirms that the striations are connected with the main clumps and likely to contain material either falling into or flowing out of the clumps. There is a clear transition from aligned to perpendicular structures approximately at a column density ofN(H) = 1.6 x 10(21) cm(-2). Comparing theHerschel maps with thePlanck polarization maps shows the close connection between the magnetic field and cloud structure even in the finest details of the cloud.
  • Kim, Gwanjeong; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Liu, Tie; Yi, Hee-Weon; He, Jinhua; Hirano, Naomi; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Choi, Minho; Sanhueza, Patricio; Toth, L. Viktor; Evans, Neal J.; Feng, Siyi; Juvela, Mika; Kim, Kee-Tae; Vastel, Charlotte; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lu'o'ng, Quang Nguyen; Kang, Miju; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Feher, Orsolya; Wu, Yuefang; Ohashi, Satoshi; Wang, Ke; Kandori, Ryo; Hirota, Tomoya; Sakai, Takeshi; Lu, Xing; Thompson, Mark A.; Fuller, Gary A.; Li, Di; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Kim, Jungha (2020)
    We present the results of a single-pointing survey of 207 dense cores embedded in Planck Galactic Cold Clumps distributed in five different environments (lambda Orionis, Orion A, Orion B, the Galactic plane, and high latitudes) to identify dense cores on the verge of star formation for the study of the initial conditions of star formation. We observed these cores in eight molecular lines at 76-94 GHz using the Nobeyama 45 m telescope. We find that early-type molecules (e.g., CCS) have low detection rates and that late-type molecules (e.g., N(2)H(+)and c-C3H2) and deuterated molecules (e.g., N(2)D(+)and DNC) have high detection rates, suggesting that most of the cores are chemically evolved. The deuterium fraction (D/H) is found to decrease with increasing distance, indicating that it suffers from differential beam dilution between the D/H pair of lines for distant cores (>1 kpc). For lambda Orionis, Orion A, and Orion B located at similar distances, D/H is not significantly different, suggesting that there is no systematic difference in the observed chemical properties among these three regions. We identify at least eight high-D/H cores in the Orion region and two at high latitudes, which are most likely to be close to the onset of star formation. There is no clear evidence of the evolutionary change in turbulence during the starless phase, suggesting that the dissipation of turbulence is not a major mechanism for the beginning of star formation as judged from observations with a beam size of 0.04 pc.
  • Zhoolideh Haghighi, Mohammad H.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Khosroshahi, Habib. G.; Farhang, Amin; Gozaliasl, Ghassem (2020)
    We characterize the relaxation state of galaxy systems by providing an assessment of the reliability of the photometric and spectroscopic probe via the semianalytic galaxy evolution model. We quantify the correlations between the dynamical age of simuglated galaxy groups and popular proxies of halo relaxation in observation, which are mainly either spectroscopic or photometric. We find the photometric indicators demonstrate a stronger correlation with the dynamical relaxation of galaxy groups compared to the spectroscopic probes. We take advantage of the Anderson Darling statistic (A(2)) and the velocity segregation (Delta V) as our spectroscopic indicators, and use the luminosity gap (Delta m(12)) and the luminosity decentering (D-offset) as photometric ones. First, we find that a combination of Delta m(12) and D-offset evaluated by a bivariant relation (B = 0.04 x Delta m(12) - 0.11 x Log(Doff-set) + 0.28) shows a good correlation with the dynamical age compared to all other indicators. Second, by using the observational X-ray surface brightness map, we show that the bivariant relation brings about some acceptable correlations with X-ray proxies. These correlations are as well as the correlations between A(2) and X-ray proxies, offering a reliable yet fast and economical method of quantifying the relaxation of galaxy systems. This study demonstrates that using photometric data to determine the relaxation status of a group will lead to some promising results that are comparable with the more expensive spectroscopic counterpart.
  • Mattila, K.; Haas, M.; Haikala, L. K.; Jo, Y-S.; Lehtinen, K.; Leinert, Ch.; Väisänen, P. (2018)
    Context. Dark nebulae display a surface brightness because dust grains scatter light of the general interstellar radiation field (ISRF). High-galactic-latitudes dark nebulae are seen as bright nebulae when surrounded by transparent areas which have less scattered light from the general galactic dust layer. Aims. Photometry of the bright dark nebulae LDN 1780, LDN 1642, and LBN 406 shall be used to derive scattering properties of dust and to investigate the presence of UV fluorescence emission by molecular hydrogen and the extended red emission (ERE). Methods. We used multi-wavelength optical photometry and imaging at ground-based telescopes and archival imaging and spectroscopic UV data from the spaceborn GALEX and SPEAR/FIMS instruments. In the analysis we used Monte Carlo RT and both observational data and synthetic models for the ISRF in the solar neighbourhood. The line-of-sight extinctions through the clouds have been determined using near infrared excesses of background stars and the 200/250 mu m far infrared emission by dust as measured using the ISO and Herschel space observatories. Results. The optical surface brightness of the three target clouds can be explained in terms of scattered light. The dust albedo ranges from similar to 0.58 at 3500 angstrom to similar to 0.72 at 7500 angstrom. The spectral energy distribution of LDN 1780 is explained in terms of optical depth and background scattered light effects instead of the original published suggestion in terms of ERE. The far-ultraviolet surface brightness of LDN 1780 cannot be explained by scattered light only. In LDN 1780, H-2 fluorescent emission in the wavelength range 1400-1700 angstrom has been detected and analysed. Conclusions. Our albedo values are in good agreement with the predictions of the dust model of Weingartner and Draine and with the THEMIS CMM model for evolved core-mantle grains. The distribution of H-2 fluorescent emission in LDN 1780 shows a pronounced dichotomy with a strong preference for its southern side where enhanced illumination is impinging from the Sco OB2 association and the O star zeta Oph. A good correlation is found between the H-2 fluorescence and a previously mapped 21-cm excess emission. The H-2 fluorescence emission in LDN 1780 has been modelled using a PDR code; the resulting values for H-2 column density and the total gas density are consistent with the estimates derived from CO observations and optical extinction along the line of sight.
  • JCMT Large Program SCOPE Collabora; TRAO Key Sci Program TOP Collabora; Yi, Hee-Weon; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Choi, Minho; Eden, David; Evans, Neal J.; Di Francesco, James; Fuller, Gary; Hirano, N.; Juvela, Mika; Kang, Sung-ju; Kim, Gwanjeong; Koch, Patrick M.; Lee, Chang Won; Li, Di; Liu, H-Y B.; Liu, Hong-Li; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Ristorcelli, I.; Sanhueza, Patrico; Soam, Archana; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Thompson, Mark; Toth, L.; Wang, Ke; White, Glenn J.; Wu, Yuefang; Yang, Yao-Lun (2018)
    Based on the 850 mu m dust continuum data from SCUBA-2 at James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT), we compare overall properties of Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) in the lambda Orionis cloud to those of PGCCs in the Orion A and B clouds. The Orion A and B clouds are well-known active star-forming regions, while the A Orionis cloud has a different environment as a consequence of the interaction with a prominent OB association and a giant H-II region. PGCCs in the lambda Orionis cloud have higher dust temperatures (T-d = 16.13 +/- 0.15 K) and lower values of dust emissivity spectral index (beta = 1.65 +/- 0.02) than PGCCs in the Orion A (T-d = 13.79 +/- 0.21 K, beta = 2.07 +/- 0.03) and Orion B (T-d = 13.82 +/- 0.19 K, beta =1.96 +/- 0.02) clouds. We find 119 substructures within the 40 detected PGCCs and identify them as cores. Out of a total of 119 cores, 15 cores are discovered in the lambda Orionis cloud, while 74 and 30 cores are found in the Orion A and B clouds, respectively. The cores in the lambda Orionis cloud show much lower mean values of size R = 0.08 pc, column density N(H-2) (9.5 +/- 1.2) x 10(22)cm(-2) , number density n(H-2) - (2.9 +/- 0.4) x 10 5 CM -3 , and mass M-core = 1.0 +/- 0.3 M(circle dot)compared to the cores in the Orion A [R = 0.11 pc, N(H-2) = (2.3 +/- 0.3) x 10(23) cm(-2), n(H-2) = (3.8 +/- 0.5) x 10(5)cm(-3) , and M-core = 2.4 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot] and Orion B [R = 0.16 pc, N(H-2) (3.8 +/- 0.4) x 10(23) cm(-2), n(H-2) = (15.6 +/- 1.8) x 10(5) cm(-3) , and M-core = 2.7 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot] clouds. These core properties in the A Orionis cloud can be attributed to the photodissociation and external heating by the nearby H rr region, which may prevent the PGCCs from forming gravitationally bound structures and eventually disperse them. These results support the idea of negative stellar feedback on core formation.
  • Ade, P. A. R.; Keihanen, E.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lähteenmäki, Anne; Suur-Uski, A-S; Valiviita, J.; Ysard, N.; Planck Collaboration (2014)
  • Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Lahen, Natalia; Sawala, Till (2017)
    We present KETJU, a new extension of the widely used smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code GADGET-3. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of algorithmically regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries, and surrounding stellar systems at subparsec scales. The KETJU code includes post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs, which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale, pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to similar to 0.005 pc. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multicomponent merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the nonspherical shape of the merger remnants. For bulge-only models, the hardening rate decreases with increasing resolution, whereas for models that in addition include massive dark matter halos, the SMBH binary hardening rate becomes practically independent of the mass resolution of the stellar bulge. The SMBHs coalesce on average 200 Myr after the formation of the SMBH binary. However, small differences in the initial SMBH binary eccentricities can result in large differences in the SMBH coalescence times. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of KETJU, which allows for a straightforward inclusion of gas physics in the simulations.
  • Pasini, T.; Finoguenov, A.; Brueggen, M.; Gaspari, M.; de Gasperin, F.; Gozaliasl, G. (2021)
    We investigate the kinematic properties of a large (N = 998) sample of COSMOS spectroscopic galaxy members distributed among 79 groups. We identify the Brightest Group Galaxies (BGGs) and cross-match our data with the VLA-COSMOS Deep survey at 1.4 GHz, classifying our parent sample into radio/non-radio BGGs and radio/non-radio satellites. The radio luminosity distribution spans from L-R similar to 2 x 10(21) WHz-1 to LR similar to 3 x 10(25) WHz(-1). A phase-space analysis, performed by comparing the velocity ratio (line-of-sight velocity divided by the group velocity dispersion) with the galaxy-group centre offset, reveals that BGGs (radio and non-radio) are mostly (similar to 80 per cent) ancient infallers. Furthermore, the strongest (L-R > 10(23) W Hz(-1)) radio galaxies are always found within 0.2R(vir) from the group centre. Comparing our samples with HORIZON-AGN, we find that the velocities and offsets of simulated galaxies aremore similar to radio BGGs than to non-radio BGGs, albeit statistical tests still highlight significant differences between simulated and real objects. We find that radio BGGs are more likely to be hosted in high-mass groups. Finally, we observe correlations between the powers of BGG radio galaxies and the X-ray temperatures, T-x, and X-ray luminosities, L-x, of the host groups. This supports the existence of a link between the intragroup medium and the central radio source. The occurrence of powerful radio galaxies at group centres can be explained by Chaotic Cold Accretion, as the AGN can feed from both the galactic and intragroup condensation, leading to the observed positive L-R - T-x correlation.
  • Haikala, L. K.; Gahm, G. F.; Grenman, T.; Mäkelä, M. M.; Persson, C. M. (2017)
    Context. The Carina nebula hosts a large number of globulettes. An optical study of these tiny molecular clouds shows that the majority are of planetary mass, but there are also those with masses of several tens up to a few hundred Jupiter masses. Aims. We seek to search for, and hopefully detect, molecular line emission from some of the more massive objects; in case of successful detection we aim to map their motion in the Carina nebula complex and derive certain physical properties. Methods. We carried out radio observations of molecular line emission in (CO)-C-12 and (CO)-C-13 (2-1) and (3-2) of 12 globulettes in addition to positions in adjacent shell structures using APEX. Results. All selected objects were detected with radial velocities shifted relative to the emission from related shell structures and background molecular clouds. Globulettes along the western part of an extended dust shell show a small spread in velocity with small velocity shifts relative to the shell. This system of globulettes and shell structures in the foreground of the bright nebulosity surrounding the cluster Trumpler 14 is expanding with a few km s(-1) relative to the cluster. A couple of isolated globulettes in the area move at similar speed. Compared to similar studies of the molecular line emission from globulettes in the Rosette nebula, we find that the integrated line intensity ratios and line widths are very different. The results show that the Carina objects have a different density/temperature structure than those in the Rosette nebula. In comparison the apparent size of the Carina globulettes is smaller, owing to the larger distance, and the corresponding beam filling factors are small. For this reason we were unable to carry out a more detailed modelling of the structure of the Carina objects in the way as performed for the Rosette objects. Conclusions. The Carina globulettes observed are compact and denser than objects of similar mass in the Rosette nebula. The distribution and velocities of these globulettes suggest that they have originated from eroding shells and elephant trunks. Some globulettes in the Trumpler 14 region are quite isolated and located far from any shell structures. These objects move at a similar speed as the globulettes along the shell, suggesting that they once formed from cloud fragments related to the same foreground shell.
  • Eden, D. J.; Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, M.; Liu, S. -Y.; Tatematsu, K.; Di Francesco, J.; Wang, K.; Wu, Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Fuller, G. A.; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Hirano, N.; Johnstone, D.; Lin, Y.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, S. -L.; Zhang, Q.; Goldsmith, P. F.; Evans, N. J.; Yuan, J.; Zhang, C. -P.; White, G. J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, S.; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, M.; Soam, A.; Peretto, N.; Samal, M. R.; Fich, M.; Parsons, H.; Malinen, J.; Bendo, G. J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, H. -L.; Wouterloot, J.; Li, P. S.; Qian, L.; Rawlings, J.; Rawlings, M. G.; Feng, S.; Wang, B.; Li, Dalei; Liu, M.; Luo, G.; Marston, A. P.; Pattle, K. M.; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Rigby, A. J.; Zahorecz, S.; Zhang, G.; Bogner, R.; Aikawa, Y.; Akhter, S.; Alina, D.; Bell, G.; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, A.; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, S.; Chen, H. -R.; Chen, M.; Chen, W. -P.; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Chu, Y. -H.; Chung, E. J.; Cornu, D.; Cosentino, G.; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, E.; Doi, Y.; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, E.; Feher, O.; Fraser, H.; Friberg, P.; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, J.; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, L.; Hasegawa, T.; He, Y.; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, T. -G.; Jimenez-Serra, I.; Kang, M.; Kawabata, K. S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, S.; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Y. -J.; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, S. -P.; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, H.; Lo, N.; Lopez, J. A. P.; Lu, X.; Lyo, A. -R.; Mardones, D.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, J.; Moore, T. J. T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, G. H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, S.; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pech, G.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Z. -Y.; Richer, J.; Sakai, T.; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, H.; Stamatellos, D.; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, A.; Vastel, C.; Viti, S.; Walsh, A.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, A.; Wilson, C. D.; Xu, Y.; Yang, J.; Yuan, Y. -L.; Yuan, L.; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, J.; Zhu, L.; Zuo, P. (2019)
    We present the first release of the data and compact-source catalogue for the JCMT Large Program SCUBA-2 Continuum Observations of Pre-protostellar Evolution (SCOPE). SCOPE consists of 850 mu m continuum observations of 1235 Planck Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCCs) made with the Submillimetre Common-User Bolometer Array 2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. These data are at an angular resolution of 14.4 arcsec, significantly improving upon the 353 GHz resolution of Planck at 5 arcmin, and allowing for a catalogue of 3528 compact sources in 558 PGCCs. We find that the detected PGCCs have significant sub-structure, with 61 per cent of detected PGCCs having three or more compact sources, with filamentary structure also prevalent within the sample. A detection rate of 45 per cent is found across the survey, which is 95 per cent complete to Planck column densities of N-H2 > 5 x10(21) cm(-2). By positionally associating the SCOPE compact sources with young stellar objects, the star formation efficiency, as measured by the ratio of luminosity to mass, in nearby clouds is found to be similar to that in the more distant Galactic Plane, with the column density distributions also indistinguishable from each other.
  • Alina, D.; Ristorcelli, I.; Montier, L.; Abdikamalov, E.; Juvela, M.; Ferriere, K.; Bernard, J. -Ph.; Micelotta, E. R. (2019)
    We present a statistical study of the relative orientation in the plane of the sky between interstellar magnetic fields and filaments hosting cold clumps. For the first time, we consider both the density of the environment and the density contrast between the filaments and their environment. Moreover, we geometrically distinguish between the clumps and the remaining portions of the filaments. We infer the magnetic field orientations in the filaments and in their environment from the Stokes parameters, 1 assuming optically thin conditions. Thus, we analyse the relative orientations between filaments, embedded clumps, internal and background magnetic fields, depending on their environment and evolutionary stages. We recover the previously observed trend for filaments in low column density environments to be aligned parallel to the background magnetic field; however, we find that this trend is significant only for low-contrast filaments, whereas high-contrast filaments tend to be randomly orientated with respect to the background magnetic field. Filaments in high column density environments do not globally show any preferential orientation, although low-contrast filaments alone tend to have perpendicular relative orientation with respect to the background magnetic field. For a subsample of nearby filaments, for which volume densities can be derived, we find a clear transition in the relative orientation with increasing density, at n(H) similar to 10(3) cm(-3), changing from mostly parallel to mostly perpendicular in the off-clump portions of filaments and from even to bimodal in clumps. Our results confirm a strong interplay between interstellar magnetic fields and filaments during their formation and evolution.
  • Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Coogan, R. T.; Le Brun, A. M. C.; Bournaud, F.; Melin, J. -B.; Riechers, D. A.; Sargent, M.; Valentino, F.; Hwang, H. S.; Finoguenov, A.; Strazzullo, V. (2019)
    We present Atacama Large Millimetre Array and Atacama Compact Array observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the z = 2 galaxy cluster Cl J1449+0856, an X-ray-detected progenitor of typical massive clusters in the present day Universe. While in a cleaned but otherwise untouched 92 GHz map of this cluster little to no negative signal is visible, careful subtraction of known sub-millimetre emitters in the uv plane reveals a decrement at 5 sigma significance. The total signal is -190 +/- 36 mu Jy, with a peak offset by 5 ''-9 '' (similar to 50 kpc) from both the X-ray centroid and the still-forming brightest cluster galaxy. A comparison of the recovered uv-amplitude profile of the decrement with different pressure models allows us to derive total mass constraints consistent with the similar to 6 x 10(13) M-circle dot estimated from X-ray data. Moreover, we find no strong evidence for a deviation of the pressure profile with respect to local galaxy clusters, although a slight tension at small-to-intermediate spatial scales suggests a flattened central profile, opposite to that seen in a cool core and possibly an AGN-related effect. This analysis of the lowest mass single SZ detection so far illustrates the importance of interferometers when observing the SZ effect in high-redshift clusters, the cores of which cannot be considered quiescent, such that careful subtraction of galaxy emission is necessary.
  • Cautun, Marius; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.; McAlpine, Stuart (2019)
    The Milky Way (MW) offers a uniquely detailed view of galactic structure and is often regarded as a prototypical spiral galaxy. But recent observations indicate that the MW is atypical: it has an undersized supermassive black hole at its centre; it is surrounded by a very low mass, excessively metal-poor stellar halo; and it has an unusually large nearby satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here, we show that the LMC is on a collision course with the MW with which it will merge in 2.4(-0.8)(+1.2) Gyr (68 per cent confidence level). This catastrophic and long-overdue event will restore the MW to normality. Using the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation, we show that, as a result of the merger, the central supermassive black hole will increase in mass by up to a factor of 8. The Galactic stellar halo will undergo an equally impressive transformation, becoming 5 times more massive. The additional stars will come predominantly from the disrupted LMC, but a sizeable number will be ejected on to the halo from the stellar disc. The post-merger stellar halo will have the median metallicity of the LMC, [Fe/H] = -0.5 dex, which is typical of other galaxies of similar mass to the MW. At the end of this exceptional event, the MW will become a true benchmark for spiral galaxies, at least temporarily.
  • Allevato, V.; Civano, F.; Finoguenov, A.; Marchesi, S.; Shankar, F.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Miyaji, T.; Gilli, R.; Cappelluti, N.; Brusa, M.; Suh, H.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Griffiths, R.; Vignali, C.; Schawinski, K.; Karim, A. (2016)
    We present the measurement of the projected and redshift-space two-point correlation function (2pcf) of the new catalog of Chandra COSMOS-Legacy active galactic nucleus (AGN) at 2.9 similar to 10(46) erg s(-1)) using the generalized clustering estimator based on phot-z probability distribution functions in addition to any available spec-z. We model the projected 2pcf, estimated using pi(max) = 200 h(-1) Mpc with the two-halo term and we derive a bias at z similar to 3.4 equal to b. =. 6.6(+0.60) -(0.55), which corresponds to a typical mass of the hosting halos of log M-h. =. 12.83(+0.12) -(0.11) h(-1)M circle dot. A similar bias is derived using the redshift-space 2pcf, modeled including the typical phot-z error sigma(z). =. 0.052 of our sample at z >= 2.9. Once we integrate the projected 2pcf up to pi(max). =. 200 h(-1) Mpc, the bias of XMM and Chandra COSMOS at z =. 2.8 used in Allevato et al. is consistent with our results at higher redshifts. The results suggest only a slight increase of the bias factor of COSMOS AGNs at z greater than or similar to 3 with the typical hosting halo mass of moderate-luminosity AGNs almost constant with redshift and equal to log M-h = 12.92(+0.-13) (0.18) at z - 2.8 and log M-h - 12.83(+0.11) (-0.12) at z similar to 3.4, respectively. The observed redshift evolution of the bias of COSMOS AGNs implies that moderate-luminosity AGNs. still inhabit group-sized halos at z greater than or similar to 3, but slightly less massive than observed in different independent studies using X-ray AGNs. at z less than or similar to 2.
  • Krieger, Nico; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Walter, Fabian; Leroy, Adam K.; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Meier, David S.; Ott, Jurgen; Weiss, Axel; Mills, Elisabeth A. C.; Levy, Rebecca C.; Veilleux, Sylvain; Gorski, Mark (2019)
    We present 0.'' 15 (similar to 2.5 pc) resolution ALMA CO(3-2) observations of the starbursting center in NGC 253. Together with archival ALMA CO(1-0) and CO(2-1) data, we decompose the emission into disk and nondisk components. We find similar to 7%-16% of the CO luminosity to be associated with the nondisk component (1.2-4.2 x 10(7) K km s(-1) pc(2)). The total molecular gas mass in the center of NGC 253 is similar to 3.6 x 10(8) M-circle dot with similar to 0.5 x 10(8) M-circle dot (similar to 15%) in the nondisk component. These measurements are consistent across independent mass estimates through three CO transitions. The high-resolution CO(3-2) observations allow us to identify the molecular outflow within the nondisk gas. Using a starburst conversion factor, we estimate the deprojected molecular mass outflow rate, kinetic energy, and momentum in the starburst of NGC 253. The deprojected molecular mass outflow rate is in the range of similar to 14-39 M-circle dot yr(-1) with an uncertainty of 0.4 dex. The large spread arises due to different interpretations of the kinematics of the observed gas while the errors are due to unknown geometry. The majority of this outflow rate is contributed by distinct outflows perpendicular to the disk, with a significant contribution by diffuse molecular gas. This results in a mass-loading factor eta = (M) over dot(out)/(M) over dot(SFR) in the range eta similar to 8-20 for gas ejected out to similar to 300 pc. We find the kinetic energy of the outflow to be similar to 2.5-4.5 x 10(54) erg and a typical error of similar to 0.8 dex, which is similar to 0.1% of the total or similar to 8% of the kinetic energy supplied by the starburst. The outflow momentum is 4.8-8.7 x 10(8) M-circle dot km s(-1) (similar to 0.5 dex error) or similar to 2.5%-4% of the kinetic momentum released into the ISM by the feedback. The unknown outflow geometry and launching sites are the primary sources of uncertainty in this study.
  • Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Sawala, Till; Oman, Kyle; Fattahi, Azadeh; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom (2017)
    We examine the baryon content of low-mass A cold dark matter (ACDM) haloes (10(8) <M-200/M-circle dot <5 x 10(9)) using the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. Most of these systems are free of stars and have a gaseous content set by the combined effects of cosmic reionization, which imposes a mass-dependent upper limit, and of ram-pressure stripping, which reduces it further in high-density regions. Haloes mainly affected by reionization (RELHICS; REionization-Limited H I Clouds) inhabit preferentially low-density regions and make up a population where the gas is in hydrostatic equilibrium with the dark matter potential and in thermal equilibrium with the ionizing UV background. Their thermodynamic properties are well specified, and their gas density and temperature profiles may be predicted in detail. Gas in RELHICs is nearly fully ionized but with neutral cores that span a large range of HI masses and column densities and have negligible non-thermal broadening. We present predictions for their characteristic sizes and central column densities; the massive tail of the distribution should be within reach of future blind HI surveys. Local Group RELHICs (LGRs) have some properties consistent with observed Ultra Compact High Velocity Clouds (UCHVCs) but the sheer number of the latter suggests that most UCHVCs are not RELHICS. Our results suggest that LGRs (i) should typically be beyond 500 kpc from the Milky Way or M31; (ii) have positive Galactocentric radial velocities; (iii) H I sizes not exceeding 1 kpc, and (iv) should be nearly round. The detection and characterization of RELHICS would offer a unique probe of the small-scale clustering of CDM.
  • Miettinen, O. (2018)
    Context. Filamentary molecular clouds, such as many of the infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), can undergo hierarchical fragmentation into substructures (clumps and cores) that can eventually collapse to form stars. Aims. We aim to determine the occurrence of fragmentation into cores in the clumps of the filamentary IRDC G304.74 + 01.32 (hereafter, G304.74). We also aim to determine the basic physical characteristics (e.g. mass, density, and young stellar object (YSO) content) of the clumps and cores in G304.74. Methods. We mapped the G304.74 filament at 350 mu m using the Submillimetre APEX Bolometer Camera (SABOCA) bolometer. The new SABOCA data have a factor of 2.2 times higher resolution than our previous Large APEX BOlometer CAmera (LABOCA) 870 mu m map of the cloud (9 '' vs. 19 ''.86). We also employed the Herschel far-infrared (IR) and submillimetre, andWide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) IR imaging data available for G304.74. The WISE data allowed us to trace the IR emission of the YSOs associated with the cloud. Results. The SABOCA 350 mu m data show that G304.74 is composed of a dense filamentary structure with a mean width of only 0.18 +/- 0.05 pc. The percentage of LABOCA clumps that are found to be fragmented into SABOCA cores is 36% +/- 16%, but the irregular morphology of some of the cores suggests that this multiplicity fraction could be higher. The WISE data suggest that 65% +/- 18% of the SABOCA cores host YSOs. The mean dust temperature of the clumps, derived by comparing the Herschel 250, 350, and 500 mu m flux densities, was found to be 15.0 +/- 0.8 K. The mean mass, beam-averaged H-2 column density, and H2 number density of the LABOCA clumps are estimated to be 55 +/- 10 M-circle dot, (2.0 +/- 0.2) x 10(22) cm(-2), and (3.1 +/- 0.2) x 10(4) cm(-3). The corresponding values for the SABOCA cores are 29 +/- 3 M-circle dot, (2.9 +/- 0.3) x 10(22) cm(-2), and (7.9 +/- 1.2) x 10(4) cm(-3). The G304.74 filament is estimated to be thermally supercritical by a factor of greater than or similar to 3.5 on the scale probed by LABOCA, and by a factor of greater than or similar to 1.5 for the SABOCA filament. Conclusions. Our data strongly suggest that the IRDC G304.74 has undergone hierarchical fragmentation. On the scale where the clumps have fragmented into cores, the process can be explained in terms of gravitational Jeans instability. Besides the filament being fragmented, the finding of embedded YSOs in G304.74 indicates its thermally supercritical state, although the potential non-thermal (turbulent) motions can render the cloud a virial equilibrium system on scale traced by LABOCA. The IRDC G304.74 has a seahorse-like morphology in the Herschel images, and the filament appears to be attached by elongated, perpendicular striations. This is potentially evidence that G304.74 is still accreting mass from the surrounding medium, and the accretion process can contribute to the dynamical evolution of the main filament. One of the clumps in G304.74, IRAS 13039-6108, is already known to be associated with high-mass star formation, but the remaining clumps and cores in this filament might preferentially form low and intermediate-mass stars owing to their mass reservoirs and sizes. Besides the presence of perpendicularly oriented, dusty striations and potential embedded intermediate-mass YSOs, G304.74 is a relatively nearby (d similar to 2.5 kpc) IRDC, which makes it a useful target for future star formation studies. Owing to its observed morphology, we propose that G304.74 could be nicknamed the Seahorse Nebula.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Juvela, Mika; Wang, Ke; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Di Francesco, James; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Wu, Yuefang; Thompson, Mark; Fuller, Gary; Eden, David; Li, Di; Ristorcelli, I.; Kang, Sung-ju; Lin, Yuxin; Johnstone, D.; He, J. H.; Koch, P. M.; Sanhueza, Patricio; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Q.; Hirano, N.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Evans, Neal J.; White, Glenn J.; Choi, Minho; Lee, Chang Won; Toth, L. V.; Mairs, Steve; Yi, H. -W.; Tang, Mengyao; Soam, Archana; Peretto, N.; Samal, Manash R.; Fich, Michel; Parsons, Harriet; Yuan, Jinghua; Zhang, Chuan-Peng; Malinen, Johanna; Bendo, George J.; Rivera-Ingraham, A.; Liu, Hong-Li; Wouterloot, Jan; Li, Pak Shing; Qian, Lei; Rawlings, Jonathan; Rawlings, Mark G.; Feng, Siyi; Aikawa, Yuri; Akhter, S.; Alina, Dana; Bell, Graham; Bernard, J. -P.; Blain, Andrew; Bogner, Rebeka; Bronfman, L.; Byun, D. -Y.; Chapman, Scott; Chen, Huei-Ru; Chen, M.; Chen, Wen-Ping; Chen, X.; Chen, Xuepeng; Chrysostomou, A.; Cosentino, Giuliana; Cunningham, M. R.; Demyk, K.; Drabek-Maunder, Emily; Doi, Yasuo; Eswaraiah, C.; Falgarone, Edith; Feher, O.; Fraser, Helen; Friberg, Per; Garay, G.; Ge, J. X.; Gear, W. K.; Greaves, Jane; Guan, X.; Harvey-Smith, Lisa; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hatchell, J.; He, Yuxin; Henkel, C.; Hirota, T.; Holland, W.; Hughes, A.; Jarken, E.; Ji, Tae-Geun; Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun; Kang, Miju; Kawabata, Koji S.; Kim, Gwanjeong; Kim, Jungha; Kim, Jongsoo; Kim, Shinyoung; Koo, B. -C.; Kwon, Woojin; Kuan, Yi-Jehng; Lacaille, K. M.; Lai, Shih-Ping; Lee, C. F.; Lee, J. -E.; Lee, Y. -U.; Li, Dalei; Li, Hua-Bai; Lo, N.; Lopez, John A. P.; Lu, Xing; Lyo, A-Ran; Mardones, D.; Marston, A.; McGehee, P.; Meng, F.; Montier, L.; Montillaud, Julien; Moore, T.; Morata, O.; Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald H.; Ohashi, S.; Pak, Soojong; Park, Geumsook; Paladini, R.; Pattle, Kate M.; Pech, Gerardo; Pelkonen, V. -M.; Qiu, K.; Ren, Zhi-Yuan; Richer, John; Saito, M.; Sakai, Takeshi; Shang, H.; Shinnaga, Hiroko; Stamatellos, Dimitris; Tang, Y. -W.; Traficante, Alessio; Vastel, Charlotte; Viti, S.; Walsh, Andrew; Wang, Bingru; Wang, Hongchi; Wang, Junzhi; Ward-Thompson, D.; Whitworth, Anthony; Xu, Ye; Yang, J.; Yang, Yao-Lun; Yuan, Lixia; Zavagno, A.; Zhang, Guoyin; Zhang, H. -W.; Zhou, Chenlin; Zhou, Jianjun; Zhu, Lei; Zuo, Pei; Zhang, Chao (2018)
    The low dust temperatures (<14 K) of Planck Galactic cold clumps (PGCCs) make them ideal targets to probe the initial conditions and very early phase of star formation. "TOP-SCOPE" is a joint survey program targeting similar to 2000 PGCCs in J = 1-0 transitions of CO isotopologues and similar to 1000 PGCCs in 850 mu m continuum emission. The objective of the "TOP-SCOPE" survey and the joint surveys (SMT 10 m, KVN 21 m, and NRO 45 m) is to statistically study the initial conditions occurring during star formation and the evolution of molecular clouds, across a wide range of environments. The observations, data analysis, and example science cases for these surveys are introduced with an exemplar source, PGCC G26.53+0.17 (G26), which is a filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC). The total mass, length, and mean line mass (M/L) of the G26 filament are similar to 6200 M-circle dot, similar to 12 pc, and similar to 500 M-circle dot pc(-1), respectively. Ten massive clumps, including eight starless ones, are found along the filament. The most massive clump as a whole may still be in global collapse, while its denser part seems to be undergoing expansion owing to outflow feedback. The fragmentation in the G26 filament from cloud scale to clump scale is in agreement with gravitational fragmentation of an isothermal, nonmagnetized, and turbulent supported cylinder. A bimodal behavior in dust emissivity spectral index (beta) distribution is found in G26, suggesting grain growth along the filament. The G26 filament may be formed owing to large-scale compression flows evidenced by the temperature and velocity gradients across its natal cloud.
  • Gobat, R.; Daddi, E.; Magdis, G.; Bournaud, F.; Sargent, M.; Martig, M.; Jin, S.; Finoguenov, A.; Bethermin, M.; Hwang, H. S.; Renzini, A.; Wilson, G. W.; Aretxaga, I.; Yun, M.; Strazzullo, V.; Valentino, F. (2018)
    Early-type galaxies (ETGs) contain most of the stars present in the local Universe and, above a stellar mass content of similar to 5 x 10(10) solar masses, vastly outnumber spiral galaxies such as the Milky Way. These massive spheroidal galaxies have, in the present day, very little gas or dust in proportion to their mass(1), and their stellar populations have been evolving passively for over 10 billion years. The physical mechanisms that led to the termination of star formation in these galaxies and depletion of their interstellar medium remain largely conjectural. In particular, there are currently no direct measurements of the amount of residual gas that might still be present in newly quiescent spheroidals at high redshift(2). Here we show that quiescent ETGs at redshift z similar to 1.8, close to their epoch of quenching, contained at least two orders of magnitude more dust at a fixed stellar mass compared with local ETGs. This implies the presence of substantial amounts of gas (5-10%), which has been consumed less efficiently than in more active galaxies, probably due to their spheroidal morphology, consistent with our simulations. This lower star formation efficiency, combined with an extended hot gas halo possibly maintained by persistent feedback from an active galactic nucleus, keep ETGs mostly passive throughout cosmic time.
  • Miniati, Francesco; Finoguenov, Alexis; Silverman, John D.; Carollo, Marcella; Cibinel, Anna; Lilly, Simon J.; Schawinski, Kevin (2016)
    We present the results of a pilot XMM-Newton and Chandra program aimed at studying the diffuse intragroup medium (IGM) of optically selected nearby groups from the Zurich ENvironmental Study (ZENS) catalog. The groups are in a narrow mass range about 10(13) M-circle dot, a mass scale at which the interplay between the IGM and the group member galaxies is still largely unprobed. X-ray emission from the IGM is detected in the energy band 0.5-2 keV with flux