Browsing by Subject "South Africa"

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  • Kollei, Jarrah (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    South Africa as a country has been portrayed as an exception when it comes to protecting LGBT rights in Africa. In previous research on South Africa, sexuality, gender and race have been found to be crucial components of oppressive structures. However, the discursive practices and sedimented orders governing queerness, a substructure of normative sexuality and gender, have not been thoroughly examined. In this thesis it was questioned, how queerness has been made governable in South Africa through time. An additional centre of interest was to examine, how an influential non-profit organisation Gender DynamiX has recently tried to these orders. The thesis contributes to the efforts of queering development. Informed by intersectional feminism, Africana womanism, queer theory, post-colonialism, as well as Critical Discourse Analysis and Qualitative Content Analysis, the orders of discourse governing South queerness, as well as Gender DynamiX’s dominant discursive practices to change these orders, were analysed. The material analysed in the thesis consisted mainly of academic literature, and publications that the organisation has produced independently or in co-operation with other actors It was found that the historically moulded orders of discourse governing the field of South African queerness, a discursive substructure addressing deviance from the hegemonic South African system of normative sexuality and gender, is being produced and reproduced in contemporary South African society. These discriminatory orders of discourse have been made to support the colonial enterprise, the white apartheid state, and more recently black and religious identity politics. Thus, various actors have discriminatorily used queerness in a utilitarian manner to demarcate a line between us and them, between natural and unnatural, godly and ungodly, and more contemporarily the ones who tolerate and ones to be tolerated. However, it was found that these orders of discourse have been under transformation since the end of apartheid and the birth of the democratic nation. The discursive practices of gay and lesbian activists were crucial in changing these orders of queerness, and there has been some success in institutionalising and popularising the rights of sexual minorities. However, the issue of trans and gender non-conforming rights remains largely neglected in these moderately changed orders of queerness. Additionally, in the case study it was found that Gender DynamiX has pursued to affect these orders of discourse with an attuned and innovative discursive practice. More concretely, it has pursued to present especially racialised queers as active knowing subjects in different ways. This innovative discursive practice has the potential in dismantling the racialised hierarchical system of orders of normative sexuality and gender and the utilitarian orders that govern queerness in South Africa. More research on the development of Gender Dynamix’s discursive practice and the orders of queerness in South Africa would be beneficial to conduct.
  • Ryti, Niilo; Eerola, Janne (2019)
  • Howard, Ian; Cameron, Peter; Wallis, Lee; Castrén, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica (2020)
    Introduction In South Africa (SA), prehospital emergency care is delivered by emergency medical services (EMS) across the country. Within these services, quality systems are in their infancy, and issues regarding transparency, reliability and contextual relevance have been cited as common concerns, exacerbated by poor communication, and ineffective leadership. As a result, we undertook a study to assess the current state of quality systems in EMS in SA, so as to determine priorities for initial focus regarding their development. Methods A multiple exploratory case study design was used that employed the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's 18-point Quality Program Assessment Tool as both a formative assessment and semistructured interview guide using four provincial government EMS and one national private service. Results Services generally scored higher for structure and planning. Measurement and improvement were found to be more dependent on utilisation and perceived mandate. There was a relatively strong focus on clinical quality assessment within the private service, whereas in the provincial systems, measures were exclusively restricted to call times with little focus on clinical care. Staff engagement and programme evaluation were generally among the lowest scores. A multitude of contextual factors were identified that affected the effectiveness of quality systems, centred around leadership, vision and mission, and quality system infrastructure and capacity, guided by the need for comprehensive yet pragmatic strategic policies and standards. Conclusion Understanding and accounting for these factors will be key to ensuring both successful implementation and ongoing utilisation of healthcare quality systems in emergency care. The result will not only provide a more efficient and effective service, but also positively impact patient safety and quality of care of the services delivered. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY-NC. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
  • Pichna, Jacob (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The African start-up scene has been rapidly developing in recent years and respected Silicon Valley VC firms and large tech companies are moving in on the market which could be regarded as a signal of opportunity. Yet a single investment is to be made by a Finnish VC firm into an African start-up. The democratizing effect of technology and internet accessibility has led to the growth of innovation and disruption on the continent with the three selected jurisdictions for the thesis South Africa, Nigeria and Kenya leading the charge. Focusing on the three countries enables more a pragmatic analysis and thus applicable solutions. Analysing three different ecosystems also showcases the heterogeneity of the continent’s opportunities for VC firms. The objective of the thesis is to establish the main blockers for Finnish VC firms when weighing the option of investing in Africa and then provide solutions to overcome the obstacles whilst taking a form of a roadmap to also show the process of investing in Africa and its peculiarities. Because of the specificity and novelty of the subject matter, there is very little research specific to the objective to build on. To paint a picture of the different ecosystems’ comparative legal analysis and market analysis was utilized. The obstacles were identified through thematically analysed qualitative interviews with Finnish VC firms. The solutions to these obstacles were built on qualitative interviews with individuals that have experience from the African start-up scene. Four obstacles rose above the rest in prevalence: mandates, being geographically far from founders, local expertise & networks and corporate governance & unknown risks. Based on the four obstacles a prescription of four actions that enable a Finnish VC firm to invest in Africa was developed: 1. Cannot be focused on early stage start-ups. 2. Needs to find a local co-investor. 3. Cannot have a mandate blocking Africa as an investment option. 4. Is a specialized fund. By adhering to these four “rules” a Finnish VC firm can venture to Africa with confidence.