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  • Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnove; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota (2015)
    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject's attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain.
  • Hernandez-Pavon, Julio C.; Sarvas, Jukka; Ilmoniemi, Risto J. (American Institute of Physics, 2014)
    AIP Conference Proceedings
    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) combined with electroencephalography (EEG) is a powerful technique for non-invasively studying cortical excitability and connectivity. The combination of TMS and EEG has widely been used to perform basic research and recently has gained importance in different clinical applications. In this paper, we will describe the physical and biological principles of TMS-EEG and different applications in basic research and clinical applications. We will present methods based on independent component analysis (ICA) for studying the TMS-evoked EEG responses. These methods have the capability to remove and suppress large artifacts, making it feasible, for instance, to study language areas with TMS-EEG. We will discuss the different applications and limitations of TMS and TMS-EEG in clinical applications. Potential applications of TMS are presented, for instance in neurosurgical planning, depression and other neurological disorders. Advantages and disadvantages of TMS-EEG and its variants such as repetitive TMS (rTMS) are discussed in comparison to other brain stimulation and neuroimaging techniques. Finally, challenges that researchers face when using this technique will be summarized.