Browsing by Subject "TRENDS"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 21-40 of 164
  • Pöysä, Hannu; Holopainen, Sari; Elmberg, Johan; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Nummi, Petri; Sjöberg, Kjell (2019)
    Global measures of biodiversity indicate consistent decline, but trends reported for local communities are more varied. Therefore, we need better understanding of mechanisms that drive changes in diversity of local communities and of differences in temporal trends between components of local diversity, such as species richness and species turnover rate. Freshwater ecosystems are vulnerable to multiple stressors, and severe impacts on their biodiversity have been documented. We studied species richness and composition of local boreal waterbird communities in 1990/1991 and 2016 at 58 lakes distributed over six regions in Finland and Sweden. The study lakes represented not only local trophic gradients but also a latitudinal gradient in the boreal biome. While species richness tended to be lower in 2016 than in 1990/1991, species turnover was relatively high. Within foraging guilds, local species richness of diving ducks and surface feeding waterbirds decreased, whereas that of large herbivores increased. The number of species gained in local communities was higher in lakes with rich vegetation than in lakes with sparse vegetation. Conservation of boreal freshwater ecosystems would benefit from recognizing that large-scale environmental changes can affect local diversity via processes operating at finer scales.
  • Knaappila, Noora; Marttunen, Mauri; Fröjd, Sari; Kaltiala, Riittakerttu (2021)
    Background: Mental health problems are common in adolescence and seeking help for them is becoming more common. Referrals to adolescent mental healthcare have recently increased in Finland. Objective: To examine time trends in internalizing and externalizing mental health symptoms among Finnish adolescents. Method: A time-trend school survey was conducted among 9th graders (15-year-olds) in Tampere, Finland, in three time periods: 2002-03, 2012-13 and 2018-19 (N = 4,162). Results: Compared to the period 2002-03, prevalence of externalizing symptoms decreased in the period 2012-13 and further in 2018-19. The prevalence of internalizing symptoms did not change significantly between 2002-03 and 2012-13; however, in 2018-19, depression, social anxiety, general anxiety, poor subjective health, stress symptoms among boys, and poor selfesteem increased compared to earlier time periods. The increases were more marked among girls. However, suicidal ideation did not increase in 2018-19 compared to earlier time periods. Conclusion: Whereas the prevalence of externalizing symptoms decreased among Finnish adolescents between 2002-03 and 2018-19, the prevalence of internalizing symptoms increased between 2012-13 and 2018-19. To help to understand the causes of these increases and to prevent internalizing problems, further research on the underlying causes is needed.
  • Teng, Andrea; Blakely, Tony; Atkinson, June; Kalėdienė, Ramunė; Leinsalu, Mall; Martikainen, Pekka T.; Rychtaříková, Jitka; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2020)
    Background In many countries smoking rates have declined and obesity rates have increased, and social inequalities in each have varied over time. At the same time, mortality has declined in most high-income countries, but gaps by educational qualification persist—at least partially due to differential smoking and obesity distributions. This study uses a compass typology to simultaneously examine the magnitude and trends in educational inequalities across multiple countries in: a) smoking and obesity; b) smoking-related mortality and c) cause-specific mortality. Methods Smoking prevalence, obesity prevalence and cause-specific mortality rates (35–79 year olds by sex) in nine European countries and New Zealand were sourced from between 1980 and 2010. We calculated relative and absolute inequalities in prevalence and mortality (relative and slope indices of inequality, respectively RII, SII) by highest educational qualification. Countries were then plotted on a compass typology which simultaneously examines trends in the population average rates or odds on the x-axis, RII on the Y-axis, and contour lines depicting SII. Findings Smoking and obesity. Smoking prevalence in men decreased over time but relative inequalities increased. For women there were fewer declines in smoking prevalence and relative inequalities tended to increase. Obesity prevalence in men and women increased over time with a mixed picture of increasing absolute and sometimes relative inequalities. Absolute inequalities in obesity increased for men and women in Czech Republic, France, New Zealand, Norway, for women in Austria and Lithuania, and for men in Finland. Cause-specific mortality. Average rates of smoking-related mortality were generally stable or increasing for women, accompanied by increasing relative inequalities. For men, average rates were stable or decreasing, but relative inequalities increased over time. Cardiovascular disease, cancer, and external injury rates generally decreased over time, and relative inequalities increased. In Eastern European countries mortality started declining later compared to other countries, however it remained at higher levels; and absolute inequalities in mortality increased whereas they were more stable elsewhere. Conclusions Tobacco control remains vital for addressing social inequalities in health by education, and focus on the least educated is required to address increasing relative inequalities. Increasing obesity in all countries and increasing absolute obesity inequalities in several countries is concerning for future potential health impacts. Obesity prevention may be increasingly important for addressing health inequalities in some settings. The compass typology was useful to compare trends in inequalities because it simultaneously tracks changes in rates/odds, and absolute and relative inequality measures.
  • Pussinen, Pirkko; Paju, Susanna; Viikari, Jorma; Salminen, Aino; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Burgner, David; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, T.; Hutri-Kähönen, Niina; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2020)
    Chronic oral infection/inflammation is cross-sectionally associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adults, but there are few longitudinal studies and studies on childhood oral infections and adult MetS risk. We investigated whether childhood clinical parameters indicative of oral infection/inflammation were associated with adulthood MetS and its components. A total of 755 children aged 6, 9, and 12 y underwent a clinical oral examination in 1980 as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study. Oral health measures included bleeding on probing (BOP), periodontal probing pocket depth, caries, fillings, and visible plaque. Metabolic parameters were determined at baseline and during follow-up. MetS was diagnosed (n = 588, 77.9%) in the adulthood at 21 y (in 2001), 27 y (in 2007), and 31 y (in 2011) after the oral assessment, when the participants were 27 to 43 y old. Regression analyses were adjusted for childhood age, sex, body mass index, and family income, as well as adulthood smoking and education level. In adulthood, MetS was diagnosed in 11.9% (2001), 18.7% (2007), and 20.7% (2011) of participants at the 3 follow-ups. Childhood caries and fillings were associated with increased risk of adult MetS (risk ratio [95% CI], 1.25 [0.90 to 2.45] and 1.27 [1.02 to 1.99]) and with increased systolic blood pressure (1.78 [1.01 to 4.26] and 2.48 [1.11 to 4.12]) and waist circumference (2.25 [1.02 to 4.99] and 1.56 [1.01 to 3.25]), whereas BOP and visible plaque were associated with plasma glucose (1.97 [1.08 to 3.60] and 1.88 [1.00 to 3.53]). Severity of BOP (P = 0.015) and caries (P = 0.005) and teeth with plaque (P = 0.027) were associated with number of MetS components. No such trends were seen with probing pocket depth. Childhood oral infection/inflammation was associated with adverse metabolic parameters and MetS in adulthood.
  • Badeau, Robert M.; Honka, Miikka-Juhani; Bucci, Marco; Iozzo, Patricia; Eriksson, Johan G.; Nuutila, Pirjo (2017)
    Background: Obesity among pregnant women is common, and their offspring are predisposed to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. The circulating metabolites that are related to insulin resistance and are associated with this decreased tissue-specific uptake are unknown. Here, we assessed metabolite profiles in elderly women who were either female offspring from obese mothers (OOM) or offspring of lean mothers (OLM). Metabolic changes were tested for associations with metrics for insulin resistance. Methods: Thirty-seven elderly women were separated into elderly offspring from obese mothers (OOM; n = 17) and elderly offspring from lean/normal weight mothers (OLM; n = 20) groups. We measured plasma metabolites using proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and insulin-dependent tissue-specific glucose uptake in skeletal muscle was assessed. Associations were made between metabolites and glucose uptake. Results: Compared to the OLM group, we found that the docosahexaenoic acid percentage of the total long-chain n-3 fatty acids (DHA/FA) was significantly lower in OOM (p = 0.015). DHA/FA associated significantly with skeletal muscle glucose uptake (GU) (p = 0.031) and the metabolizable glucose value derived from hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique (M-value) in the OLM group only (p = 0.050). Conclusions: DHA/FA is associated with insulin-dependent skeletal muscle glucose uptake and this association is significantly weakened in the offspring of obese mothers.
  • Bolotov, Ivan N.; Makhrov, Alexander A.; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu.; Aksenova, Olga V.; Aspholm, Paul E.; Bespalaya, Yulia V.; Kabakov, Mikhail B.; Kolosova, Yulia S.; Kondakov, Alexander V.; Ofenbock, Thomas; Ostrovsky, Andrew N.; Popov, Igor Yu.; von Proschwitz, Ted; Rudzite, Mudite; Rudzitis, Maris; Sokolova, Svetlana E.; Valovirta, Ilmari; Vikhrev, Ilya V.; Vinarski, Maxim V.; Zotin, Alexey A. (2018)
    The effects of climate change on oligotrophic rivers and their communities are almost unknown, albeit these ecosystems are the primary habitat of the critically endangered freshwater pearl mussel and its host fishes, salmonids. The distribution and abundance of pearl mussels have drastically decreased throughout Europe over the last century, particularly within the southern part of the range, but causes of this wide-scale extinction process are unclear. Here we estimate the effects of climate change on pearl mussels based on historical and recent samples from 50 rivers and 6 countries across Europe. We found that the shell convexity may be considered an indicator of the thermal effects on pearl mussel populations under warming climate because it reflects shifts in summer temperatures and is significantly different in viable and declining populations. Spatial and temporal modeling of the relationship between shell convexity and population status show that global climate change could have accelerated the population decline of pearl mussels over the last 100 years through rapidly decreasing suitable distribution areas. Simulation predicts future warming-induced range reduction, particularly in southern regions. These results highlight the importance of large-scale studies of keystone species, which can underscore the hidden effects of climate warming on freshwater ecosystems.
  • Mustonen, Neea; Siljander, Heli; Peet, Aleksandr; Tillmann, Vallo; Härkönen, Taina; Niemelä, Onni; Uibo, Raivo; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael (2020)
  • Söderström, Henna K.; Rasanen, Jari; Saarnio, Juha; Toikkanen, Vesa; Tyrväinen, Tuula; Rantanen, Tuomo; Valtola, Antti; Ohtonen, Pasi; Pääaho, Minna; Kokkola, Arto; Kallio, Raija; Karttunen, Tuomo J.; Pohjanen, Vesa-Matti; Ristimäki, Ari; Laine, Simo; Sihvo, Eero; Kauppila, Joonas H. (2020)
    Purpose The Finnish National Esophago-Gastric Cancer Cohort (FINEGO) was established to combine the available registry data with detailed patient information to form a comprehensive, retrospective, population-based research platform of surgically treated oesophageal and gastric cancer in Finland. This cohort profile describes the 2045 surgically treated patients with oesophageal cancer included in the FINEGO cohort. Participants Registry data were collected from the National Cancer, Patient, Education and Death Registries from 1 January 1987 to 31 December 2016. All patients over 18 years of age, who had either curative surgery, palliative surgery or salvage surgery for primary cancer in the oesophagus are included in this study. Findings to date 2045 patients had surgery for oesophageal cancer in the selected time period. 67.2% were man, and the majority had only minor comorbidities. The proportions of adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas were 43.1% and 44.4%, respectively, and 12.5% had other or missing histology. Only about 23% of patients received neoadjuvant therapy. Oesophagectomy was the treatment of choice and most patients were treated at low-volume centres, but median annual hospital volume increased over time. Median overall survival was 23 months, 5-year survival for all patients in the cohort was 32.9% and cancer-specific survival was 36.5%. Future plans Even though Finland only has a population of 5.5 million, surgery for oesophageal carcinoma has not been centralised and therefore previously reported results have mostly been small, single-centre cohorts. Because of FINEGO, we now have a population-based, unselected cohort of surgically treated patients, enabling research on national trends over time regarding oesophageal cancer, including patient characteristics, tumour histology, stage and neoadjuvant treatment, surgical techniques, hospital volumes and patient mortality. Data collection is ongoing, and the cohort will be expanded to include more detailed data from patient records and national biobanks.
  • Lehikoinen, Markku; Arffman, Martti; Manderbacka, Kristiina; Elovainio, Marko; Keskimaki, Ilmo (2016)
    Background: Large cities are often claimed to display more distinct geographical and socioeconomic health inequalities than other areas due to increasing residential differentiation. Our aim was to assess whether geographical inequalities in mortality within the capital (City of Helsinki) both exceeded that in other types of geographical areas in Finland, and whether those differences were dependent on socioeconomic inequalities. Methods: We analysed the inequality of distribution separately for overall, ischemic heart disease and alcohol-related mortality, and mortality amenable (AM) to health care interventions in 1992-2008 in three types of geographical areas in Finland: City of Helsinki, other large cities, and small towns and rural areas. Mortality data were acquired as secondary data from the Causes of Death statistics from Statistics Finland. The assessment of changing geographical differences over time, that is geographical inequalities, was performed using Gini coefficients. As some of these differences might arise from socioeconomic factors, we assessed socioeconomic differences with concentration indices in parallel to an analysis of geographical differences. To conclude the analysis, we compared the changes over time of these inequalities between the three geographical areas. Results: While mortality rates mainly decreased, alcohol-related mortality in the lowest income quintile increased. Statistically significant differences over time were found in all mortality groups, varying between geographical areas. Socioeconomic differences existed in all mortality groups and geographical areas. In the study period, geographical differences in mortality remained relatively stable but income differences increased substantially. For instance, the values of concentration indices for AM changed by 54 % in men (p <0.027) and by 62 % in women (p <0.016). Only slight differences existed in the time trends of Gini or in the concentration indices between the geographical areas. Conclusions: No geographical or income-related differences in the distribution of mortality existed between Helsinki and other urban or rural areas of Finland. This suggests that the effect of increasing residential differentiation in the capital may have been mitigated by the policies of positive discrimination and social mixing. One of the main reasons for the increase in health inequalities was growth of alcohol-related mortality, especially among those with the lowest incomes.
  • Lahti-Pulkkinen, Marius; Bhattacharya, Sohinee; Wild, Sarah H.; Lindsay, Robert S.; Räikkönen, Katri; Norman, Jane E.; Bhattacharya, Siladitya; Reynolds, Rebecca M. (2019)
    Aims/hypothesis Maternal obesity in pregnancy is associated with cardiovascular disease and mortality rate in the offspring. We aimed to determine whether maternal obesity is also associated with increased incidence of type 2 and type 1 diabetes in the offspring, independently of maternal diabetes as a candidate mechanistic pathway. Methods Birth records of 118,201 children from 1950 to 2011 in the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank were linked to Scottish Care Information-Diabetes, the national register for diagnosed diabetes in Scotland, to identify incident and prevalent type 1 and type 2 diabetes up to 1 January 2012. Maternal BMI was calculated from height and weight measured at the first antenatal visit. The effect of maternal obesity on offspring outcomes was tested using time-to-event analysis with Cox proportional hazards regression to compare outcomes in offspring of mothers in underweight, overweight or obese categories of BMI, compared with offspring of women with normal BMI. Results Offspring of obese (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) and overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m(2)) mothers had an increased hazard of type 2 diabetes compared with mothers with normal BMI, after adjustment for gestation when weight was measured, maternal history of diabetes before pregnancy, maternal history of hypertension, age at delivery, parity, socioeconomic status, and sex of the offspring: HR 3.48 (95% CI 2.33, 5.06) and HR 1.39 (1.06, 1.83), respectively. Conclusions/interpretation Maternal obesity is associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes in the offspring. Evidence-based strategies that reduce obesity among women of reproductive age and that might reduce the incidence of diabetes in their offspring are urgently required.
  • Framke, Elisabeth; Sorensen, Jeppe Karl; Andersen, Per Kragh; Svane-Petersen, Annemette Coop; Alexanderson, Kristina; Bonde, Jens Peter; Farrants, Kristin; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Hanson, Linda L. Magnusson; Nyberg, Solja T.; Villadsen, Ebbe; Kivimäki, Mika; Rugulies, Reiner; Madsen, Ida E. H. (2020)
    Aims We examined the extent to which associations between education and cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality are attributable to income and work stress. Methods and results We included all employed Danish residents aged 30-59 years in 2000. Cardiovascular disease morbidity analyses included 1 638 270 individuals, free of cardiometabolic disease (CVD or diabetes). Mortality analyses included 41 944 individuals with cardiometabolic disease. We assessed education and income annually from population registers and work stress, defined as job strain, with a job-exposure matrix. Outcomes were ascertained until 2014 from health registers and risk was estimated using Cox regression. During 10 957 399 (men) and 10 776 516 person-years (women), we identified 51 585 and 24 075 incident CVD cases, respectively. For men with low education, risk of CVD was 1.62 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.58-1.66] before and 1.46 (95% CI 1.42-1.50) after adjustment for income and job strain (25% reduction). In women, estimates were 1.66 (95% CI 1.61-1.72) and 1.53 (95% CI 1.47-1.58) (21% reduction). Of individuals with cardiometabolic disease, 1736 men (362 234 personyears) and 341 women (179 402 person-years) died from CVD. Education predicted CVD mortality in both sexes. Estimates were reduced with 54% (men) and 33% (women) after adjustment for income and job strain. Conclusion Low education predicted incident CVD in initially healthy individuals and CVD mortality in individuals with prevalent cardiometabolic disease. In men with cardiometabolic disease, income and job strain explained half of the higher CVD mortality in the tow education group. In healthy men and in women regardless of cardiometabolic disease, these factors explained 21-33% of the higher CVD morbidity and mortality.
  • Kurki, Mitja I.; Saarentaus, Elmo Christian; Pietiläinen, Olli; Gormley, Padraigh; Lal, Dennis; Kerminen, Sini; Torniainen-Holm, Minna; Hämäläinen, Eija; Rahikkala, Elisa; Keski-Filppula, Riikka; Rauhala, Merja; Korpi-Heikkila, Satu; Komulainen-Ebrahim, Jonna; Helander, Heli; Vieira, Päivi; Männikkö, Minna; Peltonen, Markku; Havulinna, Aki; Salomaa, Veikko; Pirinen, Matti; Suvisaari, Jaana; Moilanen, Jukka S.; Körkkö, Jarmo; Kuismin, Outi; Daly, Mark; Palotie, Aarno (2019)
    The contribution of de novo variants in severe intellectual disability (ID) has been extensively studied whereas the genetics of mild ID has been less characterized. To elucidate the genetics of milder ID we studied 442 ID patients enriched for mild ID (>50%) from a population isolate of Finland. Using exome sequencing, we show that rare damaging variants in known ID genes are observed significantly more often in severe (27%) than in mild ID (13%) patients. We further observe a significant enrichment of functional variants in genes not yet associated with ID (OR: 2.1). We show that a common variant polygenic risk significantly contributes to ID. The heritability explained by polygenic risk score is the highest for educational attainment (EDU) in mild ID (2.2%) but lower for more severe ID (0.6%). Finally, we identify a Finland enriched homozygote variant in the CRADD ID associated gene.
  • Peltonen, Riina; Ho, Jessica Y.; Elo, Irma T.; Martikainen, Pekka (2017)
    BACKGROUND Smoking is known to vary by marital status, but little is known about its contribution to marital status differences in longevity. We examined the changing contribution of smoking to mortality differences between married and never married, divorced or widowed Finnish men and women aged 50 years and above in 1971-2010. DATA AND METHODS The data sets cover all persons permanently living in Finland in the census years 1970, 1975 through 2000 and 2005 with a five-year mortality follow-up. Smoking-attributable mortality was estimated using an indirect method that uses lung cancer mortality as an indicator for the impact of smoking on mortality from all other causes. RESULTS Life expectancy differences between the married and the other marital status groups increased rapidly over the 40-year study period because of the particularly rapid decline in mortality among married individuals. In 1971-1975 37-48% of life expectancy differences between married and divorced or widowed men were attributable to smoking, and this contribution declined to 11-18% by 2006-2010. Among women, in 1971-1975 up to 16% of life expectancy differences by marital status were due to smoking, and the contribution of smoking increased over time to 10-29% in 2006-2010. CONCLUSIONS In recent decades smoking has left large but decreasing imprints on marital status differences in longevity between married and previously married men, and small but increasing imprints on these differences among women. Over time the contribution of other factors, such as increasing material disadvantage or alcohol use, may have increased.
  • Tarvasmäki, Tuukka; Lassus, Johan; Varpula, Marjut; Sionis, Alessandro; Sund, Reijo; Kober, Lars; Spinar, Jindrich; Parissis, John; Banaszewski, Marek; Cardoso, Jose Silva; Carubelli, Valentina; Di Somma, Salvatore; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Harjola, Veli-Pekka; CardShock Study Investigators (2016)
    Background: Vasopressors and inotropes remain a cornerstone in stabilization of the severely impaired hemodynamics and cardiac output in cardiogenic shock (CS). The aim of this study was to analyze current real-life use of these medications, and their impact on outcome and on changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time in CS. Methods: The multinational CardShock study prospectively enrolled 219 patients with CS. The use of vasopressors and inotropes was analyzed in relation to the primary outcome, i.e., 90-day mortality, with propensity score methods in 216 patients with follow-up data available. Changes in cardiac and renal biomarkers over time until 96 hours from baseline were analyzed with linear mixed modeling. Results: Patients were 67 (SD 12) years old, 26 % were women, and 28 % had been resuscitated from cardiac arrest prior to inclusion. On average, systolic blood pressure was 78 (14) and mean arterial pressure 57 (11) mmHg at detection of shock. 90-day mortality was 41 %. Vasopressors and/or inotropes were administered to 94 % of patients and initiated principally within the first 24 hours. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were given to 75 % and 21 % of patients, and 30 % received several vasopressors. In multivariable logistic regression, only adrenaline (21 %) was independently associated with increased 90-day mortality (OR 5.2, 95 % CI 1.88, 14.7, p = 0.002). The result was independent of prior cardiac arrest (39 % of patients treated with adrenaline), and the association remained in propensity-score-adjusted analysis among vasopressor-treated patients (OR 3.0, 95 % CI 1.3, 7.2, p = 0.013); this was further confirmed by propensity-score-matched analysis. Adrenaline was also associated, independent of prior cardiac arrest, with marked worsening of cardiac and renal biomarkers during the first days. Dobutamine and levosimendan were the most commonly used inotropes (49 % and 24 %). There were no differences in mortality, whether noradrenaline was combined with dobutamine or levosimendan. Conclusion: Among vasopressors and inotropes, adrenaline was independently associated with 90-day mortality in CS. Moreover, adrenaline use was associated with marked worsening in cardiac and renal biomarkers. The combined use of noradrenaline with either dobutamine or levosimendan appeared prognostically similar.
  • Nuotio, Joel; Vahamurto, Lauri; Pahkala, Katja; Magnussen, Costan G.; Hutri-Kahonen, Nina; Kahonen, Mika; Laitinen, Tomi; Taittonen, Leena; Tossavainen, Paivi; Lehtimaki, Terho; Jokinen, Eero; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli; Juonala, Markus (2019)
    Aims: Disparity in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and risk factor levels between urban and rural regions has been confirmed worldwide. The aim of this study was to examine how living in different community types (urban-rural) in childhood and adulthood are related to cardiovascular risk factors and surrogate markers of CVD such as carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and left ventricular mass (LVM). Methods: The study population comprised 2903 participants (54.1% female, mean age 10.5 years in 1980) of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study who had been clinically examined in 1980 (age 3-18 years) and had participated in at least one adult follow-up (2001-2011). Results: In adulthood, urban residents had lower systolic blood pressure (-1 mmHg), LDL-cholesterol (-0.05 mmol/l), lower body mass index (-1.0 kg/m(2)) and glycosylated haemoglobin levels (-0.05 mmol/mol), and lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome (19.9 v. 23.7%) than their rural counterparts. In addition, participants continuously living in urban areas had significantly lower IMT (-0.01 mm), LVM (1.59 g/m(2.7)) and pulse wave velocity (-0.22 m/s) and higher carotid artery compliance (0.07%/10 mmHg) compared to persistently rural residents. The differences in surrogate markers of CVD were only partially attenuated when adjusted for cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Participants living in urban communities had a more favourable cardiovascular risk factor profile than rural residents. Furthermore, participants continuously living in urban areas had less subclinical markers related to CVD compared with participants living in rural areas. Urban-rural differences in cardiovascular health might provide important opportunities for optimizing prevention by targeting areas of highest need.
  • Dugan, Hilary A.; Summers, Jamie C.; Skaff, Nicholas K.; Krivak-Tetley, Flora E.; Doubek, Jonathan P.; Burke, Samantha M.; Bartlett, Sarah L.; Arvola, Lauri; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Korponai, Jnos; Kleeberg, Andreas; Monet, Ghislaine; Monteith, Don; Moore, Karen; Rogora, Michela; Hanson, Paul C.; Weathers, Kathleen C. (2017)
    Anthropogenic sources of chloride in a lake catchment, including road salt, fertilizer, and wastewater, can elevate the chloride concentration in freshwater lakes above background levels. Rising chloride concentrations can impact lake ecology and ecosystem services such as fisheries and the use of lakes as drinking water sources. To analyze the spatial extent and magnitude of increasing chloride concentrations in freshwater lakes, we amassed a database of 529 lakes in Europe and North America that had greater than or equal to ten years of chloride data. For each lake, we calculated climate statistics of mean annual total precipitation and mean monthly air temperatures from gridded global datasets. We also quantified land cover metrics, including road density and impervious surface, in buffer zones of 100 to 1,500m surrounding the perimeter of each lake. This database represents the largest global collection of lake chloride data. We hope that long-term water quality measurements in areas outside Europe and North America can be added to the database as they become available in the future.
  • Lithovius, Raija; Toppila, Iiro; Harjutsalo, Valma; Forsblom, Carol; Groop, Per-Henrik; Makinen, Ville-Petteri; FinnDiane Study Grp (2017)
    Aims/hypothesis Previously, we proposed that data-driven metabolic subtypes predict mortality in type 1 diabetes. Here, we analysed new clinical endpoints and revisited the subtypes after 7 years of additional follow-up. Methods Finnish individuals with type 1 diabetes (2059 men and 1924 women, insulin treatment before 35 years of age) were recruited by the national multicentre FinnDiane Study Group. The participants were assigned one of six metabolic subtypes according to a previously published self-organising map from 2008. Subtype-specific all-cause and cardiovascular mortality rates in the FinnDiane cohort were compared with registry data from the entire Finnish population. The rates of incident diabetic kidney disease and cardiovascular endpoints were estimated based on hospital records. Results The advanced kidney disease subtype was associated with the highest incidence of kidney disease progression (67.5% per decade, p <0.001), ischaemic heart disease (26.4% per decade, p <0.001) and all-cause mortality (41.5% per decade, p <0.001). Across all subtypes, mortality rates were lower in women compared with men, but standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were higher in women. SMRs were indistinguishable between the original study period (19942007) and the new period (2008-2014). The metabolic syndrome subtype predicted cardiovascular deaths (SMR 11.0 for men, SMR 23.4 for women, p <0.001), and women with the high HDL-cholesterol subtype were also at high cardiovascular risk (SMR 16.3, p <0.001). Men with the low-cholesterol or good glycaemic control subtype showed no excess mortality. Conclusions/interpretation Data-driven multivariable metabolic subtypes predicted the divergence of complication burden across multiple clinical endpoints simultaneously. In particular, men with the metabolic syndrome and women with high HDL-cholesterol should be recognised as important subgroups in interventional studies and public health guidelines on type 1 diabetes.
  • Fraixedas, Sara; Linden, Andreas; Husby, Magne; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2020)
    The Common Crane (Grus grus) population has experienced an unprecedented increase across Europe during the last decades. Although cranes feed mostly on invertebrates, amphibians and berries during the breeding season, they can also eat eggs and young of other birds. Therefore, conservationists have raised concerns about the potential predatory effect of cranes on wetland avifauna, but the effects of crane predation on bird numbers have so far not been investigated. We here test the relationship between the crane and peatland bird population' abundances in Finland for five common wader and passerine species, and a set of seven less common waders, using line-transect data spanning from 1987 to 2014. We found that the population densities of two small passerines (Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis and Western Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava) and one wader species (Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola) were positively associated with crane numbers, probably related to a protective effect against nest predators. For the two other common species and the set of less common waders, we did not find any significant relationships with crane abundance. None of the species was influenced by the (lagged) effect of crane presence (i.e. years since crane was first observed). Peatland drainage was responsible for most species' negative densities, indicating the need to protect and restore peatlands to mitigate the loss of peatland bird diversity in Finland. In addition, openness, wetness and area size were important peatland characteristics positively influencing most of the studied bird populations. The development in crane and other mire bird numbers in Europe should be monitored regularly to reveal any possible future predatory effects contributing to the shaping of the peatland bird community.
  • Tu, Zhen; Cao, Hancheng; Lagerspetz, Eemil; Fan, Yali; Flores, Huber; Tarkoma, Sasu; Nurmi, Petteri; Li, Yong (2021)
    In the past decade, mobile app usage has played an important role in our daily life. Existing studies have shown that app usage is intrinsically linked with, among others, demographics, social and economic factors. However, due to data limitations, most of these studies have a short time span and treat users in a static manner. To date, no study has shown whether changes in socioeconomic status or other demographics are reflected in long-term app usage behavior. In this paper, we contribute by presenting the first ever long-term study of individual mobile app usage dynamics and how app usage behavior of individuals is influenced by changes in socioeconomic demographic factors over time. Through a novel app dataset we collected, from which we extracted records of 1608 long-term users with more than 3-year app usage and their detailed socioeconomic attributes, we verify the stable correlation between user app usage and user socioeconomic attributes over time and identify a number of representative app usage patterns in connection with specific user attributes. On the basis, we analyze the long-term app usage dynamics and reveal that there is significant evolution in long-term app usage that 60–70% of users change their app usage patterns during the duration of more than 3 years. We further discover a variety of app pattern change modes and demonstrate that the long-term app usage behavior change reflects corresponding transition in socioeconomic attributes, such as change of civil status, family size, transition in job or economic status.
  • Hu, Yannan; van Lenthe, Frank J.; Judge, Ken; Lahelma, Eero; Costa, Giuseppe; de Gelder, Rianne; Mackenbach, Johan P. (2016)
    Background: Between 1997 and 2010, the English government pursued an ambitious programme to reduce health inequalities, the explicit and sustained commitment of which was historically and internationally unique. Previous evaluations have produced mixed results. None of these evaluations have, however, compared the trends in health inequalities within England with those in other European countries. We carried out an innovative analysis to assess whether changes in trends in health inequalities observed in England after the implementation of its programme, have been more favourable than those in other countries without such a programme. Methods: Data were obtained from nationally representative surveys carried out in England, Finland, the Netherlands and Italy for years around 1990, 2000 and 2010. A modified difference-in-difference approach was used to assess whether trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 were more favourable as compared to the period 1990-2000 in England, and the changes in trends in inequalities after 2000 in England were then compared to those in the three comparison countries. Health outcomes were self-assessed health, long-standing health problems, smoking status and obesity. Education was used as indicator of socioeconomic position. Results: After the implementation of the English strategy, more favourable trends in some health indicators were observed among low-educated people, but trends in health inequalities in 2000-2010 in England were not more favourable than those observed in the period 1990-2000. For most health indicators, changes in trends of health inequalities after 2000 in England were also not significantly different from those seen in the other countries. Conclusions: In this rigorous analysis comparing trends in health inequalities in England both over time and between countries, we could not detect a favourable effect of the English strategy. Our analysis illustrates the usefulness of a modified difference-in-difference approach for assessing the impact of policies on population-level health inequalities.