Browsing by Subject "ULCERATIVE-COLITIS"

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  • Voutilainen, Markku; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Tossavainen, Päivi; Sipponen, Taina; Pitkänen, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Jokinen, Eero; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Viikari, Jorma S. A.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Juonala, Markus (2018)
    Background and aims: Several genetic and environmental risk factors have been linked to chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The incidence of IBD has significantly increased in developed countries during last decades. The aim of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for subsequent IBD diagnosis in a longitudinal cohort study of children and adolescents. Methods: A Finnish study population consisting of 3551 children and adolescents originally evaluated as part of the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study in 1980. At baseline, participant BMI, insulin, lipid, C-reactive protein and blood pressure levels, socioeconomic position, dietary habits, and physical activity, were evaluated. In addition, information was gathered on rural residency, severe infections, breast feeding, parental smoking and birth weight. Subsequent IBD diagnosis status was evaluated based on nationwide registries on hospitalisations and drug imbursement decisions. Results: Altogether, 49 participants (1.4%) had IBD diagnosed during the 34 years of register follow-up, of which 31 had ulcerative colitis, 12 Crohn's disease and 6 undetermined colitis. In univariate analyses, significant correlations were observed between childhood HDL-cholesterol (risk ratio (95% CI) for 1-SD change (0.58 (0.42-0.79)) and CRP concentrations (1.20 (1.01-1.43)) with IBD. The inverse association between HDL-cholesterol and IBD remained significant (0.57 (0.39-0.82)) in a multivariable model including data on age, sex and CRP. In addition, a weighted genetic z-score of 71 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with elevated HDL-cholesterol levels was significantly lower in IBD patients, p = 0.01). Conclusion: Low childhood HDL-cholesterol levels are associated with subsequent IBD diagnosis. In addition, a genetic risk score associated with low HDL-cholesterol levels predict later IBD suggesting that HDL-cholesterol metabolism might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. (C) 2018 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Hiippala, Kaisa; Kainulainen, Veera; Kalliomaki, Marko; Arkkila, Perttu; Satokari, Reetta (2016)
    Sutterella species have been frequently associated with human diseases, such as autism, Down syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the impact of these bacteria on health still remains unclear. Especially the interactions of Sutterella spp. with the host are largely unknown, despite of the species being highly prevalent. In this study, we addressed the interaction of three known species of Sutterella with the intestinal epithelium and examined their adhesion properties, the effect on intestinal barrier function and the pro-inflammatory capacity in vitro. We also studied the relative abundance and prevalence of the genus Sutterella and Sutterella wadsworthensis in intestinal biopsies of healthy individuals and patients with celiac disease (CeD) or IBD. Our results show that Sutterella spp. are abundant in the duodenum of healthy adults with a decreasing gradient toward the colon. No difference was detected in the prevalence of Sutterella between the pediatric IBD or CeD patients and the healthy controls. Sutterella parvirubra adhered better than the two other Sutterella spp. to differentiated Caco-2 cells and was capable of decreasing the adherence of S. wadsworthensis, which preferably bound to mucus and human extracellular matrix proteins. Furthermore, only S. wadsworthensis induced an interleukin-8 production in enterocytes, which could be due to different lipopolysaccharide structures between the species. However, its pro-inflammatory activity was modest as compared to non-pathogenic Escherichia coli. Sutterella spp. had no effect on the enterocyte monolayer integrity in vitro. Our findings indicate that the members of genus Sutterella are widely prevalent commensals with mild pro-inflammatory capacity in the human gastrointestinal tract and do not contribute significantly to the disrupted epithelial homeostasis associated with microbiota dysbiosis and increase of Proteobacteria. The ability of Sutterella spp. to adhere to intestinal epithelial cells indicate that they may have an immunomodulatory role.
  • Rintamäki, Hanne; Salo, Harri M.; Vaarala, Outi; Kolho, Kaija-Leena (2010)
  • Hiippala, Kaisa; Barreto, Gonçalo; Burrello, Claudia; Diaz-Basabe, Angelica; Suutarinen, Maiju; Kainulainen, Veera; Bowers, Jolene R.; Lemmer, Darrin; Engelthaler, David M.; Eklund, Kari K.; Facciotti, Federica; Satokari, Reetta (2020)
    Odoribacter splanchnicus, belonging to the order Bacteroidales, is a common, short-chain fatty acid producing member of the human intestinal microbiota. A decreased abundance of Odoribacter has been linked to different microbiota-associated diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cystic fibrosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The type strain of O. splanchnicus has been genome-sequenced, but otherwise very little is known about this anaerobic bacterium. The species surfaces in many microbiota studies and, consequently, comprehension on its interactions with the host is needed. In this study, we isolated a novel strain of O. splanchnicus from a healthy fecal donor, identified it by genome sequencing and addressed its adhesive, epithelium reinforcing and immunoregulatory properties. Our results show that O. splanchnicus strain 57 is non-adherent to enterocytes or mucus, does not reinforce nor compromise Caco-2 monolayer integrity and most likely harbors penta-acylated, less endotoxic lipid A as part of its lipopolysaccharide (LPS) structure based on the lack of gene lpxM and in vitro results on low-level NF-κB activity. The studies by transmission electron microscopy revealed that O. splanchnicus produces outer membrane vesicles (OMV). O. splanchnicus cells, culture supernatant i.e., spent medium or OMVs did not induce interleukin-8 (IL-8) response in HT-29 enterocyte cells suggesting a very low proinflammatory capacity. On the contrary, the treatment of HT-29 cells with O. splanchnicus cells, spent medium or OMVs prior to exposure to Escherichia coli LPS elicited a significant decrease in IL-8 production as compared to E. coli LPS treatment alone. Moreover, O. splanchnicus spent supernatant induced IL-10 production by immune cells, suggesting anti-inflammatory activity. Our in vitro findings indicate that O. splanchnicus and its effector molecules transported in OMVs could potentially exert anti-inflammatory action in the gut epithelium. Taken together, O. splanchnicus seems to be a commensal with a primarily beneficial interaction with the host.
  • Qu, Zhi; Wong, Kuan Yau; Moniruzzaman, Md.; Begun, Jakob; Santos, Hélder A.; Hasnain, Sumaira Z.; Kumeria, Tushar; McGuckin, Michael A.; Popat, Amirali (2021)
    Oral glucocorticoids are backbones for the acute management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the clinical effectiveness of conventional oral dosage forms of glucocorticoids is hindered by their low delivery efficiency and systemic side effects. To overcome this problem, a smart drug delivery system with high loading capacity and colonic release by coating functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) with a pH‐responsive polymer Eudragit S100 is proposed. In vitro dissolution tests show that Eudragit‐coated MSNs can limit the burst release of loaded prednisolone and budesonide in the gastric environment with more than 60% of the drugs released only at colonic pH (i.e., pH ≥ 7). In vivo therapeutic efficacy of budesonide‐loaded nanoparticles is tested in a murine model of dextran sodium sulfate‐induced colitis. An oral budesonide dose of 0.2 mg kg−1 nanoparticles with Eudragit coating improves the disease activity index compared to other groups. Interestingly, both coated and uncoated nanoparticles show pathological improvements demonstrated by similar levels of histological colitis score. However, coated nanoparticles significantly decrease mRNA expression of the cytokines (Il‐1β, Il‐17, and Il‐10) particularly in proximal colon, indicating colonic delivery. Overall, this study demonstrates the effectiveness of a simple method to fabricate targeted nanomedicine for the treatment of IBD.
  • Weismueller, Tobias J.; Trivedi, Palak J.; Bergquist, Annika; Imam, Mohamad; Lenzen, Henrike; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Holm, Kristian; Gotthardt, Daniel; Färkkilä, Martti; Marschall, Hanns-Ulrich; Thorburn, Douglas; Weersma, Rinse K.; Fevery, Johan; Mueller, Tobias; Chazouilleres, Olivier; Schulze, Kornelius; Lazaridis, Konstantinos N.; Almer, Sven; Pereira, Stephen P.; Levy, Cynthia; Mason, Andrew; Naess, Sigrid; Bowlus, Christopher L.; Floreani, Annarosa; Halilbasic, Emina; Yimam, Kidist K.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Beuers, Ulrich; Huynh, Dep K.; Pares, Albert; Manser, Christine N.; Dalekos, George N.; Eksteen, Bertus; Invernizzi, Pietro; Berg, Christoph P.; Kirchner, Gabi I.; Sarrazin, Christoph; Zimmer, Vincent; Fabris, Luca; Braun, Felix; Marzioni, Marco; Juran, Brian D.; Said, Karouk; Rupp, Christian; Jokelainen, Kalle; de Valle, Maria Benito; Saffioti, Francesca; Cheung, Angela; Trauner, Michael; Schramm, Christoph; Int PSC Study Grp (2017)
    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is an orphan hepatobiliary disorder associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to estimate the risk of disease progression based on distinct clinical phenotypes in a large international cohort of patients with PSC. METHODS: We performed a retrospective outcome analysis of patients diagnosed with PSC from 1980 through 2010 at 37 centers in Europe, North America, and Australia. For each patient, we collected data on sex, clinician-reported age at and date of PSC and IBD diagnoses, phenotypes of IBD and PSC, and date and indication of IBD-related surgeries. The primary and secondary endpoints were liver transplantation or death (LTD) and hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy, respectively. Cox proportional hazards models were applied to determine the effects of individual covariates on rates of clinical events, with time-to-event analysis ascertained through Kaplan-Meier estimates. RESULTS: Of the 7121 patients in the cohort, 2616 met the primary endpoint (median time to event of 14.5 years) and 721 developed hepatopancreatobiliary malignancy. The most common malignancy was cholangiocarcinoma (n = 594); patients of advanced age at diagnosis had an increased incidence compared with younger patients (incidence rate: 1.2 per 100 patient-years for patients younger than 20 years old, 6.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 21-30 years old, 9.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 31-40 years old, 14.0 per 100 patient-years for patients 4150 years old, 15.2 per 100 patient-years for patients 51-60 years old, and 21.0 per 100 patient-years for patients older than 60 years). Of all patients with PSC studied, 65.5% were men, 89.8% had classical or large-duct disease, and 70.0% developed IBD at some point. Assessing the development of IBD as a time-dependent covariate, Crohn's disease and no IBD (both vs ulcerative colitis) were associated with a lower risk of LTD (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 0.62; P
  • Ottman, Noora; Reunanen, Justus; Meijerink, Marjolein; Pietilä, Taija; Kainulainen, Veera; Klievink, Judith; Huuskonen, Laura; Aalvink, Steven; Skurnik, Mikael; Boeren, Sjef; Satokari, Reetta; Mercenier, Annick; Palva, Airi; Smidt, Hauke; de Vos, Willem M.; Belzer, Clara (2017)
    Gut barrier function is key in maintaining a balanced response between the host and its microbiome. The microbiota can modulate changes in gut barrier as well as metabolic and inflammatory responses. This highly complex system involves numerous microbiota-derived factors. The gut symbiont Akkermansia muciniphila is positively correlated with a lean phenotype, reduced body weight gain, amelioration of metabolic responses and restoration of gut barrier function by modulation of mucus layer thickness. However, the molecular mechanisms behind its metabolic and immunological regulatory properties are unexplored. Herein, we identify a highly abundant outer membrane pili-like protein of A. muciniphila MucT that is directly involved in immune regulation and enhancement of trans-epithelial resistance. The purified Amuc_1100 protein and enrichments containing all its associated proteins induced production of specific cytokines through activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4. This mainly leads to high levels of IL-10 similar to those induced by the other beneficial immune suppressive microorganisms such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii A2-165 and Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Together these results indicate that outer membrane protein composition and particularly the newly identified highly abundant pili-like protein Amuc_1100 of A. muciniphila are involved in host immunological homeostasis at the gut mucosa, and improvement of gut barrier function.
  • Puolanne, Anna-Maija; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Alfthan, Henrik; Ristimäki, Ari; Mustonen, Harri; Färkkilä, Martti (2017)
    Fecal calprotectin is a reliable surrogate marker for inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). For the noninvasive monitoring of the activity of colonic inflammation, we validated a symptom index suitable for ulcerative colitis and colonic Crohn's disease. By combining the symptom index with a rapid semi-quantitative calprotectin test, we constructed a new activity index based on the highest AUCs, using histological remission as a reference. We also evaluated the correlation of the patient-reported influence of the IBD in the daily life, measured by a VAS, with the inflammation activity. The disease activity of 72 patients with IBD of the colon was determined by endoscopic activity scores (SES-CD/UCEIS). The patients provided stool samples for determination of calprotectin and filled in a questionnaire about their symptoms during the last week. The results of the symptom index demonstrated a statistically significant correlation with the rapid calprotectin test, histological inflammation activity, and the VAS. No correlations were found between the VAS and calprotectin or the histological inflammation activity. The sensitivity of the combination index to detect active inflammation was slightly superior to fecal calprotectin alone. The new symptom index and the combination index are simple, noninvasive means for distinguishing remission from active inflammation in colonic IBD. With the VAS, we can pick up patients who need psychosocial support because of the disease burden, even if their IBD is in remission.
  • Rahmani, Farzad; Asgharzadeh, Fereshteh; Avan, Amir; Barneh, Farnaz; Parizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ferns, Gordon A.; Ryzhikov, Mikhail; Ahmadian, Mohammad Reza; Giovannetti, Elisa; Jafari, Mohieddin; Khazaei, Majid; Hassanian, Seyed Mahdi (2020)
    Aims: Rigosertib (RGS) is a PI3K inhibitor that exerts protective effects against tumor progression and cancer-related inflammation. This study was aimed to explore the regulatory effects of RGS on proliferative, pro-fibrotic and inflammatory factors in DSS- induced colitis mice model. Materials and methods: The present study integrates systems and molecular biology approaches to investigate the therapeutic potency of RGS in an experimental model of colitis specifically examining its effects on the PI3K/AKT and NF-kappa B signaling pathways. Key findings: Analysis of time-resolved proteome profiling showed that PI3K-AKT inhibitors regulate expression of many proteins in all stages of inflammation, fibrogenesis and extracellular matrix remodeling. Consistent with our in-silico findings, RGS improved colitis disease activity as assessed by changes in body weight, degree of stool consistency, rectal bleeding and prolapse. RGS also reduced oxidative stress markers and colon histopathological score by decreasing inflammatory responses in colon tissues. Moreover, expression of pro-fibrotic and pro-inflammatory factors including Acta 2, Col 1a1, Col 1a2, IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, INF-gamma, and MCP-1 were suppressed in the mice treated with RGS compared to the control group. The protective effects of RGS were mediated by inactivation of PI3K/AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways. Significance: This study clearly demonstrates the anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic effects of RGS in colitis that may have implications for the treatment of colitis and colitis-associated cancer.
  • Hanifeh, Mohsen; Sankari, Satu; Rajamäki, Minna M.; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Heilmann, Romy M.; Guadiano, Phillip; Lidbury, Jonathan; Steiner, Joerg M.; Spillmann, Thomas (2018)
    Background: Intestinal mucosal S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) are inflammatory biomarkers in humans with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, these biomarkers have not been studied in the intestinal mucosa of dogs with chronic enteropathies (CE), even though dogs with CE have increased S100A12 concentrations in feces and serum. This study investigated mucosal S100A12 concentrations and MPO activities in both dogs with CE and healthy Beagles. ELISA (S100A12 concentrations) and spectrophotometric methods (MPO activity) were used. The associations of both biomarkers with canine IBD activity index (CIBDAI), histopathologic findings, clinical outcome, and serum albumin concentrations were also investigated. We studied intestinal mucosal samples originating from different intestinal regions of 40 dogs with CE and 18 healthy Beagle dogs (duodenum, ileum, colon, and cecum). Results: Compared with healthy Beagles, mucosal S100A12 concentrations in dogs with CE were significantly higher in the duodenum (p <0.0001) and colon (p = 0.0011), but not in the ileum (p = 0.2725) and cecum (p = 0. 2194). Mucosal MPO activity of dogs with CE was significantly higher in the duodenum (p <0.0001), ileum (p = 0. 0083), colon (p <0.0001), and cecum (p = 0.0474). Mucosal S100A12 concentrations in the duodenum were significantly higher if the inflammatory infiltrate consisted mainly of neutrophils (p = 0.0439) or macrophages (p = 0.037). Mucosal S100A12 concentrations also showed a significant association with the severity of total histopathological injury and epithelial injury in the colon (p <0.05). Mucosal MPO activity showed a significant association (p <0.05) with the severity of total histopathological injury, epithelial injury, and eosinophil infiltration in the duodenum. There was no significant association of both biomarkers with CIBDAI or clinical outcome. Conclusions: This study showed that both mucosal S100A12 concentrations and MPO activities are significantly increased in the duodenum and colon of dogs with CE; mucosal MPO was also increased in the ileum and cecum. Future research should focus on assessing the clinical utility of S100A12 and MPO as diagnostic markers in dogs with CE.
  • Hanifeh, Mohsen; Heilmann, Romy M.; Sankari, Satu; Rajamäki, Minna M.; Mäkitalo, Laura; Syrjä, Pernilla; Kilpinen, Susanne; Suchodolski, Jan S.; Steiner, Jörg M.; Spillmann, Thomas (2015)
    Background: Relatively few laboratory markers have been evaluated for the detection or monitoring of intestinal inflammation in canine chronic enteropathies, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Previous research found that the intestinal mucosal levels of S100A12 and myeloperoxidase (MPO), as biomarkers of gut inflammation, were elevated in human patients with IBD. To date, the S100A12 and MPO levels in intestinal mucosal samples from either healthy dogs or from dogs suffering from IBD remain unreported. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the mucosal S100A12 and MPO levels in four different parts of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon) in 12 healthy laboratory Beagle dogs using the ELISA and spectrophotometric methods, respectively. Results: Based on histological examinations, the recorded findings for all the samples were considered normal. The mucosal concentration of S100A12 in the ileum was significantly higher than in all other segments of the intestine (p <0.05). MPO activity was significantly higher in the ileal, jejunal and duodenal than in colonic mucosal samples (p <0.05). Moreover, its concentration was higher in the jejunum than in the duodenum. Conclusions: This study showed that S100A12 and MPO are reliably detectable in canine intestinal mucosa. The assays used appeared to be sufficient to further evaluate the role of S100A12 and MPO in the pathogenesis of canine chronic enteropathies, including IBD. These biomarkers may play a role in the initial detection of gut inflammation suggesting the need for further investigations to confirm IBD or to differentiate between IBD subtypes. Understanding the role of S100A12 and MPO in the pathogenesis of chronic intestinal inflammation in future may result in an improved understanding of canine chronic intestinal inflammation.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A (2019)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on viable embryonated eggs of the whipworm Trichuris suis as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. The applicant proposes to use the NF as a food supplement in the format of a 15-mL bottle containing 250 viable embryonated eggs of T. suis. The target population for the NF is the general population. Considering the compositional data and proposed conditions of use, the consumption of the NF is considered of no nutritional relevance. Available data suggest that most larvae of T. suis after hatching in the intestinal tract of humans remain immature and live for several weeks in the gastrointestinal tract of the human host. Nevertheless, under certain circumstances, T. suis can be invasive in human, being able to mature into adult size and reproduce in humans. Human studies have also shown that administration of T. suis ova may increase the incidence of adverse gastrointestinal reactions. The Panel considers that there are no studies available that demonstrate the safety of this NF intended for the general population at a proposed intake of 250 viable embryonated eggs of T. suis ova per day. Based on the available information, the Panel cannot establish a safe dose at which no safety concerns would be expected. The Panel concludes that the safety of the NF has not been established. (C) 2019 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Boyd, Sonja; Mustonen, Harri; Tenca, Andrea; Jokelainen, Kalle; Arola, Johanna; Farkkila, Martti A. (2017)
    Objective: Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease leading to bile duct strictures and fibrosis, and predisposing to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Biliary dysplasia is a known precursor of CCA. In our unit, PSC patients undergo regular surveillance with ERC and brush cytology (BC), and liver transplantation is an option in case with biliary dysplasia. We evaluated the risk factors for biliary dysplasia and CCA based on ERC imaging, BC and liver function tests. Patients and methods: Seven hundred and eighty-eight ERCs were performed with BC for 447 PSC patients. ERC images were evaluated using the modified Amsterdam score, neutrophilic inflammation was assessed in BC, and liver function tests were collected. Ploidy analysis with DNA flow cytometry was performed in cases with advanced PSC or previous suspicious BC/aneuploidy. The endpoint was either a benign disease course (follow-up for >= 2.4 years after the latest ERC), benign histology, biliary dysplasia or CCA. Results: Benign disease course was seen in 424/447 (including 23 cases with biliary dysplasia), and CCA in 17 (3.8%) patients. Gallbladder carcinoma/carcinoma in situ was diagnosed in three patients. Advanced ERC findings, male gender, suspicious BC, aneuploidy in flow cytometry, inflammation, and elevation of ALP, bilirubin, ALT, AST, GGT, CEA and CA19-9 represented significant risk factors for CCA in univariate analysis. Conclusions: PSC patients with advanced bile duct disease and elevated liver enzymes, CEA or CA19-9, inflammation or suspicious BC are most likely to develop CCA. These patients may benefit from surveillance with BC if early liver transplantation is possible.
  • Eberl, Anja; Huoponen, Saara; Pahikkala, Tapio; Blom, Marja; Arkkila, Perttu; Sipponen, Taina (2017)
    Background: Clinical use of biosimilar infliximab (CT-P13) in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is based on extrapolation of indication from clinical studies performed in rheumatological diseases. Only few data exist of behaviour of infliximab trough levels (TLs) and anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) during switching.Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in TLs, ADA formation and disease activity after switching from originator infliximab to biosimilar one.Methods: All our IBD patients receiving maintenance infliximab therapy were switched to biosimilar infliximab. TLs and ADAs were measured before the last originator infusion and before the third biosimilar infusion. Laboratory values, disease activity indices (partial Mayo score and Harvey-Bradshaw index) and demographic data were collected from patient records.Results: A total of 62 patients were included in the final analysis (32 Crohn's disease, 30 ulcerative colitis (UC) or IBD-unclassified). No significant changes in median TLs before (5.5mg/l) and after switching (5.5mg/l, p=.05) occurred in the entire study group or in the Crohn's disease (CD) subgroup (5.75 and 6.5mg/l, p=.68). However, in the subgroup of ulcerative colitis, the change in median TL was significantly different (from 5.2 to 4.25mg/l, p=.019). Two patients developed ADAs after switching. No changes in disease activity were detected during switching and no safety concerns occurred.Conclusions: Switching from originator to biosimilar infliximab resulted in statistically significant differences in infliximab TLs in patients with UC but not in patients with Crohn's disease. The clinical significance for this difference is doubtful and in neither group changes in disease activity occurred.
  • Drobin, Kimi; Assadi, Ghazaleh; Hong, Mun-Gwan; Andersson, Eni; Fredolini, Claudia; Forsstrom, Bjorn; Reznichenko, Anna; Akhter, Tahmina; Ek, Weronica E.; Bonfiglio, Ferdinando; Hansen, Mark Berner; Sandberg, Kristian; Greco, Dario; Repsilber, Dirk; Schwenk, Jochen M.; D'Amato, Mauro; Halfvarson, Jonas (2019)
    Few studies have investigated the blood proteome of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We characterized the serum abundance of proteins encoded at 163 known IBD risk loci and tested these proteins for their biomarker discovery potential. Based on the Human Protein Atlas (HPA) antibody availability, 218 proteins from genes mapping at 163 IBD risk loci were selected. Targeted serum protein profiles from 49 Crohns disease (CD) patients, 51 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, and 50 sex- and age-matched healthy individuals were obtained using multiplexed antibody suspension bead array assays. Differences in relative serum abundance levels between disease groups and controls were examined. Replication was attempted for CD-UC comparisons (including disease subtypes) by including 64 additional patients (33 CD and 31 UC). Antibodies targeting a potentially novel risk protein were validated by paired antibodies, Western blot, immuno-capture mass spectrometry, and epitope mapping. By univariate analysis, 13 proteins mostly related to neutrophil, T-cell, and B-cell activation and function were differentially expressed in IBD patients vs healthy controls, 3 in CD patients vs healthy controls and 2 in UC patients vs healthy controls (q <0.01). Multivariate analyses further differentiated disease groups from healthy controls and CD subtypes from UC (P <0.05). Extended characterization of an antibody targeting a novel, discriminative serum marker, the laccase (multicopper oxidoreductase) domain containing 1 (LACC1) protein, provided evidence for antibody on-target specificity. Using affinity proteomics, we identified a set of IBD-associated serum proteins encoded at IBD risk loci. These candidate proteins hold the potential to be exploited as diagnostic biomarkers of IBD.
  • GBD 2017 Inflammatory Bowel Dis Co; Alatab, Sudabeh; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Meretoja, Tuomo J. (2020)
    Background The burden of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is rising globally, with substantial variation in levels and trends of disease in different countries and regions. Understanding these geographical differences is crucial for formulating effective strategies for preventing and treating IBD. We report the prevalence, mortality, and overall burden of IBD in 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, based on data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017. Methods We modelled mortality due to IBD using a standard Cause of Death Ensemble model including data mainly from vital registrations. To estimate the non-fatal burden, we used data presented in primary studies, hospital discharges, and claims data, and used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, to ensure consistency between measures. Mortality, prevalence, years of life lost (YLLs) due to premature death, years lived with disability (YLDs), and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were estimated. All of the estimates were reported as numbers and rates per 100 000 population, with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI). Findings In 2017, there were 6.8 million (95% UI 6.4-7.3) cases of IBD globally. The age-standardised prevalence rate increased from 79.5 (75.9-83.5) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 84.3 (79.2-89.9) per 100 000 population in 2017. The age-standardised death rate decreased from 0.61 (0.55-0.69) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 0.51 (0.42-0.54) per 100 000 population in 2017. At the GBD regional level, the highest age-standardised prevalence rate in 2017 occurred in high-income North America (422.0 [398.7-446.1] per 100 000) and the lowest age-standardised prevalence rates were observed in the Caribbean (6.7 [6.3-7.2] per 100 000 population). High Sociodemographic Index (SDI) locations had the highest age-standardised prevalence rate, while low SDI regions had the lowest age-standardised prevalence rate. At the national level, the USA had the highest age-standardised prevalence rate (464.5 [438.6-490.9] per 100 000 population), followed by the UK (449.6 [420.6-481.6] per 100 000). Vanuatu had the highest age-standardised death rate in 2017 (1.8 [0.8-3.2] per 100 000 population) and Singapore had the lowest (0.08 [0.06-0.14] per 100 000 population). The total YLDs attributed to IBD almost doubled over the study period, from 0.56 million (0.39-0.77) in 1990 to 1.02 million (0.71-1.38) in 2017. The age-standardised rate of DALYs decreased from 26.5 (21.0-33.0) per 100 000 population in 1990 to 23.2 (19.1-27.8) per 100 000 population in 2017. Interpretation The prevalence of IBD increased substantially in many regions from 1990 to 2017, which might pose a substantial social and economic burden on governments and health systems in the coming years. Our findings can be useful for policy makers developing strategies to tackle IBD, including the education of specialised personnel to address the burden of this complex disease. Copyright (C) 2019 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license.
  • Haapamaki, Johanna; Heikkinen, Erjastiina; Sipponen, Taina; Roine, Risto P.; Arkkila, Perttu (2018)
    Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has a substantial impact on patients health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In this study, we examined the impact of adaptation courses on HRQoL, psychological well-being, depression and number of sick-leave days of IBD patients.Methods: The study recruited 142 IBD patients attending an adaptation course of 5-12 days. The courses were specially designed for IBD patients and included multidisciplinary information about IBD, peer support, group activities and encouragement for adequate physical exercise. The participants completed the study questionnaire at the beginning and the end of the course and after six and 12 months of follow-up. HRQoL was assessed with the generic 15-dimensional (15D) tool and depression with Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI). Utilization of health care services and work absenteeism was also assessed. Visual analog scales were used for assessing psychological functioning.Results: 15D, BDI scores and scores describing psychological well-being were significantly better at the end of the course when compared to baseline (15D 0.82 vs. 0.84, p
  • Malham, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Christian; Paerregaard, Anders; Virta, Lauri J.; Kolho, Kaija-Leena; Wewer, Vibeke (2019)
    Background Recent studies report increased risks of both cancer and mortality in paediatric onset inflammatory bowel disease (pIBD) but the reproducibility of this is unknown. Aim To estimate the risk of cancer and mortality in the Danish and Finnish pIBD population in a 23-year period compared to the general population. Methods The pIBD population was defined as individuals registered in the national patient registries with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease (CD), ulcerative colitis (UC) or IBD-unclassified before their 18th birthday from 1992 to 2014. This cohort was cross referenced with the national cancer and mortality registries identifying all pIBD patients who subsequently developed cancer and/ or died and followed up to the end of 2014. Risk estimates are presented as standardised incidence ratios calculated based on incidence figures from the populations. Results Six thousand six hundred and eight-nine patients with pIBD were identified (median age at follow-up 22.3 years; median follow-up: 9.6 years [interquartile range: 4.8-16.0]). Seventy-two subsequently developed cancer and 65 died. The standardised incidence ratio of cancer in general was 2.6 (95% CI: 1.8-3.7) and 2.5 (95% CI: 1.8-3.4) in CD and UC, respectively. The standardised mortality ratios were 2.2 (95% CI: 1.4-3.4) and 3.7 (95% CI: 2.7-5.0) in CD and UC, respectively. The leading causes for mortality were cancer, suicide and infections. Conclusions We found an increased risk of cancer and mortality in pIBD. This underlines the importance of cancer surveillance programs and assessment of mental health in the standard of care in adolescent pIBD patients.
  • Hiippala, Kaisa; Jouhten, Hanne; Ronkainen, Aki; Hartikainen, Anna; Kainulainen, Veera; Jalanka, Jonna; Satokari, Reetta (2018)
    The intestinal microbiota, composed of pro- and anti-inflammatory microbes, has an essential role in maintaining gut homeostasis and functionality. An overly hygienic lifestyle, consumption of processed and fiber-poor foods, or antibiotics are major factors modulating the microbiota and possibly leading to longstanding dysbiosis. Dysbiotic microbiota is characterized to have altered composition, reduced diversity and stability, as well as increased levels of lipopolysaccharide-containing, proinflammatory bacteria. Specific commensal species as novel probiotics, so-called next-generation probiotics, could restore the intestinal health by means of attenuating inflammation and strengthening the epithelial barrier. In this review we summarize the latest findings considering the beneficial effects of the promising commensals across all major intestinal phyla. These include the already well-known bifidobacteria, which use extracellular structures or secreted substances to promote intestinal health. Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia intestinalis, and Eubacterium hallii metabolize dietary fibers as major short-chain fatty acid producers providing energy sources for enterocytes and achieving anti-inflammatory effects in the gut. Akkermansia muciniphila exerts beneficial action in metabolic diseases and fortifies the barrier function. The health-promoting effects of Bacteroides species are relatively recently discovered with the findings of excreted immunomodulatory molecules. These promising, unconventional probiotics could be a part of biotherapeutic strategies in the future.