Browsing by Subject "VOLUME"

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  • Mingardi, Jessica; La Via, Luca; Tornese, Paolo; Carini, Giulia; Trontti, Kalevi; Seguini, Mara; Tardito, Daniela; Bono, Federica; Fiorentini, Chiara; Elia, Leonardo; Hovatta, Iiris; Popoli, Maurizio; Musazzi, Laura; Barbon, Alessandro (2021)
    Converging clinical and preclinical evidence demonstrates that depressive phenotypes are associated with synaptic dysfunction and dendritic simplification in cortico-limbic glutamatergic areas. On the other hand, the rapid antidepressant effect of acute ketamine is consistently reported to occur together with the rescue of dendritic atrophy and reduction of spine number induced by chronic stress in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of animal models of depression. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying these morphological alterations remain largely unknown. Here, we found that miR-9-5p levels were selectively reduced in the hippocampus of rats vulnerable to Chronic Mild Stress (CMS), while acute subanesthetic ketamine restored its levels to basal condition in just 24h; miR-9-5p expression inversely correlated with the anhedonic phenotype. A decrease of miR-9-5p was reproduced in an in vitro model of stress, based on primary hippocampal neurons incubated with the stress hormone corticosterone. In both CMS animals and primary neurons, decreased miR-9-5p levels were associated with dendritic simplification, while treatment with ketamine completely rescued the changes. In vitro modulation of miR-9-5p expression showed a direct role of miR-9-5p in regulating dendritic length and spine density in mature primary hippocampal neurons. Among the putative target genes tested, Rest and Sirt1 were validated as biological targets in primary neuronal cultures. Moreover, in line with miR-9-5p changes, REST protein expression levels were remarkably increased in both CMS vulnerable animals and corticosterone-treated neurons, while ketamine completely abolished this alteration. Finally, the shortening of dendritic length in corticosterone-treated neurons was shown to be partly rescued by miR-9-5p overexpression and dependent on REST protein expression. Overall, our data unveiled the functional role of miR-9-5p in the remodeling of dendritic arbor induced by stress/corticosterone in vulnerable animals and its rescue by acute antidepressant treatment with ketamine.
  • MRI-GENIE & GISCOME Investigators; Int Stroke Genetics Consortium; Bretzner, Martin; Bonkhoff, Anna K.; Schirmer, Markus D.; Strbian, Daniel; Tatlisumak, Turgut; Worrall, Bradford B. (2021)
    Objective: Neuroimaging measurements of brain structural integrity are thought to be surrogates for brain health, but precise assessments require dedicated advanced image acquisitions. By means of quantitatively describing conventional images, radiomic analyses hold potential for evaluating brain health. We sought to: (1) evaluate radiomics to assess brain structural integrity by predicting white matter hyperintensities burdens (WMH) and (2) uncover associations between predictive radiomic features and clinical phenotypes. Methods: We analyzed a multi-site cohort of 4,163 acute ischemic strokes (AIS) patients with T2-FLAIR MR images with total brain and WMH segmentations. Radiomic features were extracted from normal-appearing brain tissue (brain mask-WMH mask). Radiomics-based prediction of personalized WMH burden was done using ElasticNet linear regression. We built a radiomic signature of WMH with stable selected features predictive of WMH burden and then related this signature to clinical variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Results: Radiomic features were predictive of WMH burden (R-2 = 0.855 +/- 0.011). Seven pairs of canonical variates (CV) significantly correlated the radiomics signature of WMH and clinical traits with respective canonical correlations of 0.81, 0.65, 0.42, 0.24, 0.20, 0.15, and 0.15 (FDR-corrected p-values(CV1-6) < 0.001, p-value(CV7) = 0.012). The clinical CV1 was mainly influenced by age, CV2 by sex, CV3 by history of smoking and diabetes, CV4 by hypertension, CV5 by atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes, CV6 by coronary artery disease (CAD), and CV7 by CAD and diabetes. Conclusion: Radiomics extracted from T2-FLAIR images of AIS patients capture microstructural damage of the cerebral parenchyma and correlate with clinical phenotypes, suggesting different radiographical textural abnormalities per cardiovascular risk profile. Further research could evaluate radiomics to predict the progression of WMH and for the follow-up of stroke patients' brain health.
  • Wilson, Duncan; Seiffge, David J.; Traenka, Christopher; Basir, Ghazala; Purrucker, Jan C.; Rizos, Timolaos; Sobowale, Oluwaseun A.; Sallinen, Hanne; Yeh, Shin-Joe; Wu, Teddy Y.; Ferrigno, Marc; Houben, Rik; Schreuder, Floris H. B. M.; Perry, Luke A.; Tanaka, Jun; Boulanger, Marion; Salman, Rustam Al-Shahi; Jaeger, Hans R.; Ambler, Gareth; Shakeshaft, Clare; Yakushiji, Yusuke; Choi, Philip M. C.; Staals, Julie; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Veltkamp, Roland; Dowlatshahi, Dar; Engelter, Stefan T.; Parry-Jones, Adrian R.; Meretoja, Atte; Werring, David J.; CROMIS-2 Collaborators (2017)
    Objective: In an international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, we compared mortality, functional outcome, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) volume, and hematoma expansion (HE) between non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulation-related ICH (NOAC-ICH) and vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH (VKA-ICH). Methods: We compared all-cause mortality within 90 days for NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH using a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for age; sex; baseline Glasgow Coma Scale score, ICH location, and log volume; intraventricular hemorrhage volume; and intracranial surgery. We addressed heterogeneity using a shared frailty term. Good functional outcome was defined as discharge modified Rankin Scale score 33% or >6 mL from baseline within 72 hours. Results: We included 500 patients (97 NOAC-ICH and 403 VKA-ICH). Median baseline ICH volume was 14.4 mL (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6-38.4) for NOAC-ICH vs 10.6 mL (IQR 4.0-27.9) for VKA-ICH (p = 0.78). We did not find any difference between NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH for all-cause mortality within 90 days (33% for NOAC-ICH vs 31% for VKA-ICH [p = 0.64]; adjusted Cox hazard ratio (for NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH) 0.93 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-1.64] [p = 0.79]), the rate of HE (NOAC-ICH n = 29/48 [40%] vs VKA-ICH n = 93/140 [34%] [p = 0.45]), or functional outcome at hospital discharge (NOAC-ICH vs VKA-ICH odds ratio 0.47; 95% CI 0.18-1.19 [p = 0.11]). Conclusions: In our international collaborative multicenter pooled analysis, baseline ICH volume, hematoma expansion, 90-day mortality, and functional outcome were similar following NOAC-ICH and VKA-ICH.
  • Rimpelä, Anna-Kaisa; Kiiski, Iiro; Deng, Feng; Kidron, Heidi; Urtti, Arto (2019)
    Biologicals are important ocular drugs that are be delivered using monthly and bimonthly intravitreal injections to treat retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration. Long acting delivery systems are needed for prolongation of their dosing interval. Intravitreal biologicals are eliminated from the eye via the aqueous humor outflow. Thus, the anterior and posterior segments are exposed to the drug. We utilized a kinetic simulation model to estimate protein drug concentrations in the vitreous and aqueous humor after bolus injection and controlled release administration to the vitreous. The simulations predicted accurately the experimental levels of 5 biologicals in the vitreous and aqueous humor. The good match between the simulations and experimental data demonstrated almost complete anterior segment bioavailability, and major dose sparing with ocular controlled release systems. Overall, the model is a useful tool in the design of intraocular delivery of biologicals.
  • Ruotsalainen, Ilona; Gorbach, Tetiana; Perkola, Jaana; Renvall, Ville; Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Karvanen, Juha; Parviainen, Tiina (2020)
    Physical activity and exercise beneficially link to brain properties and cognitive functions in older adults, but the findings concerning adolescents remain tentative. During adolescence, the brain undergoes significant changes, which are especially pronounced in white matter. Studies provide contradictory evidence regarding the influence of physical activity or aerobic-exercise on executive functions in youth. Little is also known about the link between both fitness and physical activity with the brain’s white matter during puberty. We investigated the connection between aerobic fitness and physical activity with the white matter in 59 adolescents. We further determined whether white matter interacts with the connection of fitness or physical activity with core executive functions. Our results show that only the level of aerobic fitness, but not of physical activity relates to white matter. Furthermore, the white matter of the corpus callosum and the right superior corona radiata moderates the links of aerobic fitness and physical activity with working memory. Our results suggest that aerobic fitness and physical activity have an unequal contribution to the white matter properties in adolescents. We propose that the differences in white matter properties could underlie the variations in the relationship between either physical activity or aerobic fitness with working memory.
  • Tuominen, Susanna; Miao, Qing; Kurki, Timo; Tuisku, Seppo; Pöyhönen, Minna; Kalimo, Hannu; Viitanen, Matti; Sipila, Hannu T.; Bergman, Jörgen; Rinne, JO (2004)
    Background and Purpose - CADASIL causes repeated ischemic strokes leading to subcortical vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to assess whether cerebral blood flow (CBF) and regional cerebral metabolic rates of glucose (rCMR(gluc)) in CADASIL patients are affected in early adulthood. Methods - CBF and rCMR(gluc) were examined with positron emission tomography in correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 14 adult ( 19 to 41 years) CADASIL patients with the Notch3 R133C mutation. Seven patients had experienced transient ischemic attack and 3 had experienced greater than or equal to1 strokes. Results - The mean CBF in the CADASIL patients was significantly lower in both frontal (P = 0.019) and occipital (P = 0.009) white matter (WM) than those in the controls. CBF decreased significantly with increased severity of the disease. The patients had lower mean rCMR(gluc) values than the controls, although differences were not statistically significant. Sum scores of semiquantitative MRI rating scale (Scheltens) correlated significantly with WM CBF but not with rCMR(gluc). Conclusions - In CADASIL, there is an early and significant decrease in the CBF of WM associated with simultaneous MRI changes. These are obviously caused by the arteriopathy in long penetrating arteries and indicate early tissue damage, also expressed as impaired rCMR(gluc) in the WM.
  • Luostarinen, Teemu; Lindroos, Ann-Christine; Niiya, Tomohisa; Silvasti-Lundell, Marja; Schramko, Alexey; Hernesniemi, Juha; Randell, Tarja; Niemi, Tomi (2017)
    OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgery in general anesthesia exposes patients to hemodynamic alterations in both the prone and the sitting position. We aimed to evaluate the hemodynamic profile during stroke volume-directed fluid administration in patients undergoing neurosurgery either in the sitting or the prone position. METHODS: In 2 separate prospective trials, 30 patients in prone and 28 patients in sitting position were randomly assigned to receive either Ringer acetate (RAC) or hydroxyethyl starch (HES; 130 kDa/0.4) for optimization of stroke volume. After combining data from these 2 trials, 2-way analysis of variance was performed to compare patients' hemodynamic profile between the 2 positions and to evaluate differences between RAC and HES consumption. RESULTS: To achieve comparable hemodynamics during surgery, a higher mean cumulative dose of RAC than HES was needed (679 mL +/- 390 vs. 455 mL +/- 253; P <0.05). When fluid consumption was adjusted with weight, statistical difference was lost. Fluid administration did not differ between the prone and sitting position. Mean arterial pressure was lower and cardiac index and stroke volume index were higher over time in patients in the sitting position. CONCLUSIONS: The sitting position does not require excess fluid treatment compared with the prone position. HES is slightly more effective than RAC in achieving comparable hemodynamics, but the difference might be explained by patient weight. With goal-directed fluid administration and moderate use of vasoactive drugs, it is possible to achieve stable hemodynamics in both positions.
  • Kainu, Annette; Timonen, Kirsi L.; Vanninen, Esko; Sovijarvi, Anssi R. (2018)
    Inspiratory spirometry is used in evaluation of upper airway disorders e.g. fixed or variable obstruction. There are, however, very few published data on normal values for inspiratory spirometry. The main aim of this study was to produce reference values for inspiratory spirometry for healthy Finnish adults.Inspiratory spirometry was preplanned to a sample of the Finnish spirometry reference values sample. Data was successfully retrieved from 368 healthy nonsmoking adults (132 males) between 19 and 83years of age. Reference equations were produced for forced inspiratory vital capacity (FIVC), forced inspiratory volume in one second (FIV1), FIV1/FIVC, peak inspiratory flow (PIF) and the ratios of FIV1/forced expiratory volume in one second and PIF/peak expiratory flow. The present values were compared to PIF values from previously used Finnish study of Viljanen etal. (1982) reference values and Norwegian values for FIV1, FIVC and FIV1/FIVC presented by Gulsvik etal. (2001). The predicted values from the Gulsvik etal. (2001), provided a good fit for FIVC, but smaller values for FIV1 with mean 108.3 and 109.1% of predicted values for males and females, respectively. PIF values were 87.4 and 91.2% of Viljanen etal. (1982) predicted values in males and females, respectively. Differences in measurement methods and selection of results may contribute to the observed differences. Inspiratory spirometry is technically more demanding and needs repeatability criteria to improve validity. New reference values are suggested to clinical use in Finland when assessing inspiratory spirometry. Utility of inspiratory to expiratory values indices in assessment of airway collapse need further study.
  • IMAGEMEND Consortium; Karolinska Schizophrenia Project; Schwarz, Emanuel; Nhat Trung Doan,; Pergola, Giulio; Quarto, Tiziana (2019)
    Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder characterized by numerous subtle changes in brain structure and function. Machine learning allows exploring the utility of combining structural and functional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures for diagnostic application, but this approach has been hampered by sample size limitations and lack of differential diagnostic data. Here, we performed a multi-site machine learning analysis to explore brain structural patterns of T1 MRI data in 2668 individuals with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, and healthy controls. We found reproducible changes of structural parameters in schizophrenia that yielded a classification accuracy of up to 76% and provided discrimination from ADHD, through it lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. The observed changes largely indexed distributed grey matter alterations that could be represented through a combination of several global brain-structural parameters. This multi-site machine learning study identified a brain-structural signature that could reproducibly differentiate schizophrenia patients from controls, but lacked specificity against bipolar disorder. While this currently limits the clinical utility of the identified signature, the present study highlights that the underlying alterations index substantial global grey matter changes in psychotic disorders, reflecting the biological similarity of these conditions, and provide a roadmap for future exploration of brain structural alterations in psychiatric patients.
  • Ylitalo, Pekka; Lehmonen, Lauri; Lauerma, Kirsi; Holmström, Miia; Pitkänen-Argillander, Olli; Jokinen, Eero (2019)
    Postoperative patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) are often compromised by chronic pulmonary regurgitation and chronic right ventricular volume load. We sought to determine whether pulmonary regurgitation (PR) would affect right and left ventricle (RV and LV) strain.
  • Scaramuzzo, Gaetano; Broche, Ludovic; Pellegrini, Mariangela; Porra, Liisa; Derosa, Savino; Tannoia, Angela Principia; Marzullo, Andrea; Borges, Joao Batista; Bayat, Sam; Bravin, Alberto; Larsson, Anders; Perchiazzi, Gaetano (2019)
    Modern ventilatory strategies are based on the assumption that lung terminal airspaces act as isotropic balloons that progressively accommodate gas. Phase contrast synchrotron radiation computed tomography (PCSRCT) has recently challenged this concept, showing that in healthy lungs, deflation mechanisms are based on the sequential de-recruitment of airspaces. Using PCSRCT scans in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), this study examined whether the numerosity (ASnum) and dimension (ASdim) of lung airspaces change during a deflation maneuver at decreasing levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) at 12, 9, 6, 3, and 0 cmH(2)O. Deflation was associated with significant reduction of ASdim both in the whole lung section (passing from from 13.1 +/- 2.0 at PEEP 12 to 7.6 +/- 4.2 voxels at PEEP 0) and in single concentric regions of interest (ROIs). However, the regression between applied PEEP and ASnum was significant in the whole slice (ranging from 188 +/- 52 at PEEP 12 to 146.4 +/- 96.7 at PEEP 0) but not in the single ROIs. This mechanism of deflation in which reduction of ASdim is predominant, differs from the one observed in healthy conditions, suggesting that the peculiar alveolar micromechanics of ARDS might play a role in the deflation process.
  • Saarinen, Ninni; Vastaranta, Mikko; Kankare, Ville; Tanhuanpaa, Topi; Holopainen, Markus; Hyyppa, Juha; Hyyppa, Hannu (2014)
  • Kujala, Teija; Sihvonen, Aleksi; Thiede, Anja; Palo-oja, Peter; Virtala, Paula Maarit; Numminen, Jussi; Laasonen, Marja (2021)
    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is the most prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder with a substantial negative influence on the individual's academic achievement and career. Research on its neuroanatomical origins has continued for half a century, yielding, however, inconsistent results, lowered total brain volume being the most consistent finding. We set out to evaluate the grey matter (GM) volume and cortical abnormalities in adult dyslexic individuals, employing a combination of whole-brain voxel- and surface-based morphometry following current recommendations on analysis approaches, coupled with rigorous neuropsychological testing. Whilst controlling for age, sex, total intracranial volume, and performance IQ, we found both decreased GM volume and cortical thickness in the left insula in participants with DD. Moreover, they had decreased GM volume in left superior temporal gyrus, putamen, globus pallidus, and parahippocampal gyrus. Higher GM volumes and cortical thickness in these areas correlated with better reading and phonological skills, deficits of which are pivotal to DD. Crucially, total brain volume did not influence our results, since it did not differ between the groups. Our findings demonstrating abnormalities in brain areas in individuals with DD, which previously were associated with phonological processing, are compatible with the leading hypotheses on the neurocognitive origins of DD.