Browsing by Subject "adaptation"

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  • Kivisaari, Visa (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Earlier research has shown that it is important in climate change adaptation to take into account the indirect impacts of climate change. These are impacts resulting from climate change that have their initial direct effects outside Finland but reflect to Finland through for example international markets. For example, climate change could affect Finland indirectly through changing prices in global food markets. In this thesis I study the impacts of increasing hydropower potential in the Nordic electricity markets because of climate change. Nordic aspect is important as most of the hydropower in the Nordic power markets is produced outside Finland. Climate science has shown that climate change can affect the precipitation and hydropower potential in the Nordic countries. Majority of studies give reason to believe that the hydropower potential will increase and change so that the potential increases more in winter and spring months. However, a lot of uncertainty is related to the results, which is crucial to bear in mind. According to a Nordic research report it is nevertheless very plausible that climate change will affect the hydrology and hydropower potential in Nordic countries from place to place. Hydropower is an important technology in the Nordic electricity markets as depending on the year about half of the power is produced by it. As hydropower’s producing costs are low the annual precipitation affects the electricity price levels so that in a wet year the prices decrease and vice versa. Hydropower has also its role in balancing the production and consumption of power as its production is comparably easy to adjust. I use a simulation model of the Nordic electricity markets by Maria Kopsakangas-Savolainen and Rauli Svento in this thesis. In my analysis I increase the hydropower production (+10%) and study how it affects i.a. the price level and capacities of different power production technologies. This sensitivity analysis is made in various scenarios resulting from different climate and energy policies. In the thesis’ simplified setting increasing the amount of hydropower decreased significantly the price of electricity and thus profits of electricity producers and decreased the amount of thermal power production. Thermal and nuclear production are important technologies for Finland and thus the results are interesting from the Finnish point of view. The results are in-line with a previous Norwegian study. Another potentially significant impact of climate change might the decreasing electricity consumption due to warmer winters but is out of the scope of this thesis.
  • Ihanus, Juhani (Gaudeamus, 2020)
  • Sinnemäki, Kaius Tatu-Kustaa; Garbo, Francesca Di (2018)
    In this article we evaluate claims that language structure adapts to sociolinguistic environment. We present the results of two typological case studies examining the effects of the number of native (=L1) speakers and the proportion of adult second language (=L2) learners on language structure. Data from more than 300 languages suggest that testing the effect of population size and proportion of adult L2 learners on features of verbal and nominal complexity produces conflicting results on different grammatical features. The results show that verbal inflectional synthesis adapts to the sociolinguistic environment but the number of genders does not. The results also suggest that modeling population size together with proportion of L2 improves model fit compared to modeling them independently of one another. We thus argue that surveying population size alone may be insufficient to detect possible adaptation of linguistic structure to the sociolinguistic environment. Rather, other features, such as proportion of L2 speakers, prestige and social network density, should be studied, and if demographic numeric data are used, they should not be used in isolation but rather in competition with other sociolinguistic features. We also suggest that not all types of language structures within a given grammatical domain are equally sensitive to the effect of sociolinguistic variables, and that more exploratory studies are needed before we can arrive at a reliable set of grammatical features that may be potentially most (and least) adaptive to social structures.
  • Wolfram, Marc; van der Heijden, Jeroen; Juhola, Sirkku Kaarina; Patterson, James (2019)
    Over the past decade, diverse urban governance innovations and experiments have emerged with the declared aim to foster climate change mitigation and adaptation, involving actors at multiple levels and scales. This urban turn in environmental governance has been accompanied by normative claims and high expectations regarding a leading role of cities in coping with climate change. However, while time pressures for effective action are growing, little is known about the social learning processes involved in such urban climate governance innovations, and what they actually contribute to achieve the required transformations in urban systems. Therefore, this special issue presents eight selected papers that explore learning in urban climate governance practices in a variety of local, national and international contexts. Their findings point to a more ambiguous role of these practices as they tend to support incremental adjustments rather than deeper social learning for radical systemic change. Against this backdrop we propose a heuristic distinguishing basic modes and sources in governance learning that aims to facilitate future empirical research and comparison, thus filling a critical theory gap. Using this framework for interpretation illustrates that urban climate governance learning urgently requires more openness, parallel processes, exogenous sources, as well as novel meta-learning practices.
  • Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Manninen, Mikael A.; Roe, Emery Martin; Hukkinen, Janne; Eronen, Jussi T. (2021)
    Historical records are incomplete templates for preparing for an uncertain future. The global utility of past ecological knowledge for present/future purposes is questioned as we move from Holocene to Anthropocene. To increase the adaptive capacity of today’s societies, generalizable strategies must be identified for coping with uncertainty over a wide range of conditions and contingencies. We identify two key principles that increase adaptive capacities: diversification and precautionary heuristics. These sharply contrast with the present global state represented by the global production ecosystem characterized by: (1) homogenization and simplification of cultural practices and resource bases; (2) increased global connectivity and forced dissolution of cultural borders; and (3) centralization and intensification of modes of resource production and extraction. We highlight that responses of smaller-scale societies to risks and uncertainties are in many cases emulated by professionals in the high reliability management in today’s critical infrastructures. This provides a modern template for managing unpredictability in the Anthropocene.
  • Bainbridge, Hannah E.; Brien, Melanie N.; Morochz, Carlos; Salazar, Patricio A.; Rastas, Pasi; Nadeau, Nicola J. (2020)
    Mimetic systems allow us to address the question of whether the same genes control similar phenotypes in different species. Although widespread parallels have been found for major effect loci, much less is known about genes that control quantitative trait variation. In this study, we identify and compare the loci that control subtle changes in the size and shape of forewing pattern elements in twoHeliconiusbutterfly co-mimics. We use quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with a multivariate phenotyping approach to map the variation in red pattern elements across the whole forewing surface ofHeliconius eratoandHeliconius melpomene. These results are compared with a QTL analysis of univariate trait changes, and show that our resolution for identifying small effect loci is somewhat improved with the multivariate approach, but also that different loci are detected with these different approaches. QTL likely corresponding to the known patterning geneoptixwere found in both species but otherwise, a remarkably low level of genetic parallelism was found. This lack of similarity indicates that the genetic basis of convergent traits may not be as predictable as assumed from studies that focus solely on Mendelian traits.
  • Kellomäki, Seppo; Hänninen, Heikki; Kolström, Taneli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1988)
  • Coll Costa, Carla Jr (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) is a model organism for studies of parallel evolution in the wild; marine stickleback populations have repeatedly colonized and successfully adapted to different brackish and freshwater habitats. During Pleistocene glaciations, three-spined stickleback populations inhabiting high-latitude areas of Europe were eradicated, whereas populations residing in (or moving to) the south persisted in refugia. After the retreat of the ice sheets covering northern Europe, the high-latitude areas became recolonized by migration from south, and hence, today’s northern European populations are relatively young. Population genetic studies of European three-spined sticklebacks have usually been conducted at high-latitude areas where freshwater populations are typically less than 10.000 years old. Few studies have focused on southern populations, where more of the ancestral diversity is likely to reside. These studies have utilized a limited number of microsatellite markers and mtDNA sequence fragments, whereas studies of southern populations focusing on genome-wide diversity, in particular from the edge of the southern distribution limit in the Iberian Peninsula, are still missing. Here, I wanted to cover this gap in knowledge by carrying out an empirical and statistical study with RAD-seq data from southern and northern European populations of three-spined stickleback. The main aims of this study were two-fold. First, to investigate whether the southern European freshwater populations of the three-spined stickleback – which currently lack or have limited connection to ancestral marine populations carrying most of the standing genetic variation (SGV) – have lost genetic diversity due to population bottlenecks and inbreeding as compared to their northern European counterparts. Second, to compare the degree of genetic parallelism in southern vs. northern European populations in genomic regions which have been shown to be consistently associated with freshwater colonization in earlier studies. Under the assumption that the lack of continued access to SGV in the ancestral marine population reduces the likelihood of parallel evolution, I hypothesized that the degree of genetic parallelism in genomic regions subject to positive selection in freshwater environments is lower in the southern than in northern European populations. However, if a reduction in genetic diversity and/or cessation of gene flow between southern European freshwater and marine populations occurred following freshwater adaptation, the opposite pattern could be expected. I paid particular attention to chromosomal inversions associated with marine-freshwater adaptations identified in previous studies. The results confirmed my expectation of reduced genetic diversity in southern as compared to northern European stickleback populations. On the other hand, and contrary to what I expected, analysis of clusters of global parallelism involved in freshwater adaptation revealed that southern European populations exhibit a higher degree of genetic parallelism in response to freshwater colonisation than those from northern Europe. This suggests that the loss of genetic diversity in southern populations has occurred after they had adapted to freshwater environments, explaining the high degree of genetic parallelism in spite of the current low levels of genetic diversity. In addition, it could be that selection pressures in south are more homogenous than in north, which would also explain the higher degree of genetic parallelism observed in southern Europe. The findings presented here, challenge the current paradigm that parallel evolution is unlikely in populations with low genetic diversity and that have experienced recent bottlenecks.
  • Fang, Bohao; Kemppainen, Petri; Momigliano, Paolo; Merila, Juha (2021)
    Population genetic theory predicts that small effective population sizes (N-e) and restricted gene flow limit the potential for local adaptation. In particular, the probability of evolving similar phenotypes based on shared genetic mechanisms (i.e., parallel evolution), is expected to be reduced. We tested these predictions in a comparative genomic study of two ecologically similar and geographically codistributed stickleback species (viz. Gasterosteus aculeatus and Pungitius pungitius). We found that P. pungitius harbors less genetic diversity and exhibits higher levels of genetic differentiation and isolation-by-distance than G. aculeatus. Conversely, G. aculeatus exhibits a stronger degree of genetic parallelism across freshwater populations than P. pungitius: 2,996 versus 379 single nucleotide polymorphisms located within 26 versus 9 genomic regions show evidence of selection in multiple freshwater populations of G. aculeatus and P. pungitius, respectively. Most regions involved in parallel evolution in G. aculeatus showed increased levels of divergence, suggestive of selection on ancient haplotypes. In contrast, haplotypes involved in freshwater adaptation in P. pungitius were younger. In accordance with theory, the results suggest that connectivity and genetic drift play crucial roles in determining the levels and geographic distribution of standing genetic variation, providing evidence that population subdivision limits local adaptation and therefore also the likelihood of parallel evolution.
  • Brunberg, Essi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Som många studier bevisar är jämställd representation viktig på grund av att sociala grupper kan stereotyperas negativt via kulturella representationer. Det är därför väsentligt att se mångfaldiga och realistiska queera karaktärer i litteratur och massmedia, och i synnerhet är det viktigt att tänka på hur dessa karaktärer förnyar eller raserar queera stereotyper och queerfobiska ideologier som ännu råder i vårt samhälle. I denna pro gradu-avhandling granskar jag hur queera identiteter och maskuliniteter representeras i Cassandra Clares bokserie The Mortal Instruments och dess TV-adaptation Shadowhunters. Jag fokuserar på karaktärernas utveckling, personliga intriger och deras inter-queera interaktioner, och hävdar att TV-adaptationen med dess mångfaldigare och subversivare skildring av queerhet skapar och reproducerar mer positiv representation än bokserien, som skildrar skadliga och problematiska stereotyper. Mitt material består av alla sex The Mortal Instruments-böcker och 41 avsnitt ur de tre första säsongerna av Shadowhunters. I min analys utnyttjar jag genusvetenskaplig maskulinitetsforskning, feministisk litteraturvetenskap, feministisk media- och kommunikationsvetenskap samt adaptionsstudier. Avhandlingen utgår från att mediarepresentationer har en politisk dimension i och med att de utövar inflytande på det sätt som vi i verkligheten ser olika sociala grupper. Detta gäller speciellt för de grupper som historiskt sett har marginaliserats, för de ses ofta som homogena grupper där redan en medlem avgör hur hela gruppen betraktas. Negativa stereotyper har således konsekvenser för de grupper som representeras, och måste därför granskas kritiskt beträffande deras möjligheter för kulturellt inflytande. I analysen framgår det att böckerna förnyar hegemoniska normer av genus och sexualitet på olika sätt. Deras stereotypiska skildring av queera intriger och deras brist på queer fokalisering privilegierar både heterosexuella och vita narrativer och leder till att queera karaktärer definieras av sina sexualiteter. I motsats till detta skildrar TV-serien queerhet och queera maskuliniteter på subversivare sätt. Den bryter ner problematiska stereotyper i stället för att förnya dem, vilket kan ses till exempel i det att den samtidiga förekomsten av karaktärernas maskulinitet och queerhet aldrig ifrågasätts. Dessutom raserar den toxisk maskulinitet genom att skildra queera män som är ömsinta sinsemellan utan att vara stereotypiskt emotionella.
  • Kambire, Hermann; Djenontin, Ida Nadia; Kabore, Augustin; Djoudi, Houria; Balinga, Michael; Zida, Mathurin; Assembe-Mvondo, Samuel; Brockhaus, Maria (Center for International Forestry Research, 2016)
    Occasional paper
  • Fitak, Robert R.; Mohandesan, Elmira; Corander, Jukka; Burger, Pamela A. (2016)
    The single-humped dromedary (Camelus dromedarius) is the most numerous and widespread of domestic camel species and is a significant source of meat, milk, wool, transportation and sport for millions of people. Dromedaries are particularly well adapted to hot, desert conditions and harbour a variety of biological and physiological characteristics with evolutionary, economic and medical importance. To understand the genetic basis of these traits, an extensive resource of genomic variation is required. In this study, we assembled at 653 coverage, a 2.06 Gb draft genome of a female dromedary whose ancestry can be traced to an isolated population from the Canary Islands. We annotated 21 167 protein-coding genes and estimated similar to 33.7% of the genome to be repetitive. A comparison with the recently published draft genome of an Arabian dromedary resulted in 1.91 Gb of aligned sequence with a divergence of 0.095%. An evaluation of our genome with the reference revealed that our assembly contains more error-free bases (91.2%) and fewer scaffolding errors. We identified similar to 1.4 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms with a mean density of 0.71 x 10(-3) per base. An analysis of demographic history indicated that changes in effective population size corresponded with recent glacial epochs. Our de novo assembly provides a useful resource of genomic variation for future studies of the camel's adaptations to arid environments and economically important traits. Furthermore, these results suggest that draft genome assemblies constructed with only two differently sized sequencing libraries can be comparable to those sequenced using additional library sizes, highlighting that additional resources might be better placed in technologies alternative to short-read sequencing to physically anchor scaffolds to genome maps.
  • Mannerla, Miia (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    The Baltic Sea suffers from eutrophication caused by the increased use of nitrogen- and phosphorus based fertilizers in agriculture. When these nutrients end up in the water ecosystem, they increase the growth of filamentous algae causing turbidity at many locations. The three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) breeds at the shallow coastal waters of the Baltic Sea, which are often eutrophied. In these locations turbidity of the water may interfere with the mating cues used by the three-spined stickleback, which in turn may lead to decreased fitness of the population. I attempted to find out how turbidity alters the use of visual and olfactory cues in the mate choice of the three-spined stickleback, as well as to see if these changes decrease the viability of the following generation. Female three-spined sticklebacks choose their mates based on visual and olfactory cues. During the reproductive season stickleback males turn bright red and attract females to their nests by a conspicuous courtship dance. Females use males' red colouration, size and courtship intensity as visual cues when choosing an appropriate mating partner. They also pay much attention to olfactory cues. Female sticklebacks are able to smell MHC-encoded peptides which are secreted to the males' skin. The allelic combination of MHC determines which pathogens the individual has resistance for, and this resistance may be inherited by the offspring. I empirically tested the use of olfactory and visual cues in the mate choice of the three-spined stickleback using turbid and clear water as treatments. In mate choice tests a female was made to choose from two males in circumstances where she was allowed to use only one of the cues (visual or olfactory) or both cues simultaneously. The redness and size of the males was measured. Artificial inseminations were performed to produce offspring, whose growth rate was measured to evaluate fitness. Based on the results of these experiments, turbidity alters the use of mating cues of the three-spined stickleback. Visual cues seem to be important in clear water, whereas in turbid water olfactory cues increase in importance in relation to visual cues. The sample size was limited to reliably test offspring fitness effects, but it seems that the alteration in the use of mate choice cues may influence population viability in the long term. However, additional research is needed to determine this.
  • Mikkonen, Kai (Routledge, 2017)
    Routledge Advances in Comics Studies
    By placing comics in a lively dialogue with contemporary narrative theory, The Narratology of Comic Art builds a systematic theory of narrative comics, going beyond the typical focus on the Anglophone tradition. This involves not just the exploration of those properties in comics that can be meaningfully investigated with existing narrative theory, but an interpretive study of the potential in narratological concepts and analytical procedures that has hitherto been overlooked. This research monograph is, then, not an application of narratology in the medium and art of comics, but a revision of narratological concepts and approaches through the study of narrative comics. Thus, while narratology is brought to bear on comics, equally comics are brought to bear on narratology.
  • Sjöblom, Robin (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    In winter plants are exposed to harsh winter conditions with low temperatures being one of the major challenging factors. Traditionally winter has been considered a period unfavourable for plant growth and activity, but newer findings reveal higher levels of activity than previously assumed possible. Adaptations to different winter conditions are observed between species but also within species between populations which can be expressed in differing phenology between populations. Dormancy is a widespread phenomenon in the plant kingdom with major importance in plant evolution. Dormancy is considered to be present in seeds and buds of a wide spectre of plant groups, but asexual reproductive units like bulbils have been thought to lack the ability to undergo the phenomenon of dormancy. Findings suggest that a dormancy-like phenomenon can also be present in bulbils. Allium oleraceum is a bulb forming geophyte with a widespread distribution in Europe that grows on many differing habitats. The predominate form of reproduction in the species is the vegetative formation of bulbils. The wide distribution has led to adaptation to different environmental conditions, furthermore the species displays six levels of polyploidi partially differing in traits like ecology. The differences between cytotypes are regional and there are large intracytotytpic variations. In Finland tetra- and pentaploid populations have been reported, differing in their distribution patterns. The Finnish cytotypes exhibit differences in morphology but there is also evidence for ecological differences between the cytotypes. In addition, there is an atypical tetraploid population which differ significantly morphologically from other tetraploid populations. The objective of this master’s project was to examine the growth of bulbils from three different origins of Allium oleraceum. Another objective of the experiment was to give information on differences between the cytotypes in Finland, tetra- and pentaploids, but also the atypical tetraploid cytotype. Furthermore, I investigated whether the bulbils exhibit a dormancy-like phenomenon, with a special focal point on dormancy according to Vegis’ theory (1964). Earlier findings have shown considerable capability of growth during winter in Allium oleraceum, which is also examined in this project. The experiment included collected bulbils from two localities. Tetra- and pentaploid bulbils were collected from a mixed population of both cytotypes in Tvärminne, Hangö, and tetraploid bulbils were also collected from the atypical tetraploid population on Sveaborg, Helsingfors. Growth experiments were done outside and in growth chambers with controlled temperature and light conditions. The bulbils were planted outside in early autumn. Of each origin one group was kept outside during the entire winter, one group was put in growth chambers in December and one group was put in growth chambers in February to examine the effect of differing winter length on growth. During the experiment, the timing of growth onset in bulbs and leaf growth was followed up. The origins included in this project exhibited considerable differences. The pentaploid cytotype from Tvärminne had bulbils of greater size than the tetraploid cytotypes, between which there was only an indication of a difference. For the bulbils from the atypical tetraploid population growth onset took place early in the autumn and the vast majority of the bulbils started growing in a short period of time. For the two origins from Tvärminne the growth onset took place later and a considerable number of bulbils started growing in the spring. The tetraploid cytotype from Tvärminne exhibited earlier growth onset and a higher share of bulbils started growing in the autumn than the pentaploid cytotype from Tvärminne. In the growth chambers the differences between the three origins were not as obvious but the two cytotypes from Tvärminne were affected by the timing of the experiment more than the atypical tetraploid cytotype from Sveaborg. The observed differences between the origins in the experiment are thought reflect the different distribution patterns of the cytotypes and could hence be adaptations to different conditions. The atypical tetraploid population could be of Central European origin which would mean that it could have adaptations to mild winters which would explain the big difference between this origin and the two other origins. Between the two experiments in the growth chambers significant differences were observed. The growth was considerably greater in February than in December for all origins, especially in the midmost temperatures. The observed differences between the two experiments signifies that bulbils of Allium oleraceum exhibits a dormancy-like phenomenon and according to Vegis’ theory. In contrary to earlier findings, only little growth was observed during winter. The lack of considerable growth could be explained by the thick snow cover which made the amount of light that reached the plants very low which then led to little growth. The results from this project suggest that there are differences between the three different origins of bulbils included. Further studies are needed to find out if the observer differences are adaptations to local conditions or if there are differences on a higher level between the Finnish cytotypes.
  • Luomajoki, Alpo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
    A study of 16 tree species showed that, including yearly and latitudinal variation, the tetrad phase was reached from late March to early June in conifers and Populus tremula (correlated with heat sums) and in late July to mid-Aug. in Betulaceae (correlated with daylength). These differences were thought to be associated with seasonal adaptive strategies rather than taxonomic relationships.
  • Tolvanen, Kristiina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Ecophysiology and ecology in plants are strongly affected by the conditions surrounding them. Adaptation aids plants to survive and to succeed in the prevailing conditions. Winter is a challenge to plants, particularly in northern latitudes and higher altitudes, because it exposes plants to cold and drought, for example. Plants survive from winter on species level with the help of genetic adaptations and as individuals also with the help of acclimation. Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) has been observed to grow separate winter leaves. This allows it to continue photosynthesis in mild conditions during winter, thus improving its energy balance, and to start growing earlier than other species in the spring, which is beneficial in interspecific competition. Fragaria vesca is a species that has wide distribution in the northern hemisphere, and its genotypes are found from very different locations and conditions. However, adaptive traits such as producing a new set of leaves for winter can turn out to be a disadvantage if environmental conditions change rapidly. Climate change brings about changes that are difficult to predict, and these changes are advancing at a fast pace when compared to the developmental history of plants. The aim of this thesis was to study the effect of temperature on summer and winter leaf development, stolon formation and summer and winter leaf chlorophyll, flavonol and anthocyanin content in different Fragaria vesca genotypes. Leaf chlorophyll and secondary compound content give information about leaf development and stress reactions in plants. Plants are known to produce anthocyanins in order to protect the photosynthetic apparatus during chlorophyll recovery in leaf senescence. Anthocyanins are also produced as a response to low temperatures. Research increases knowledge of the ecophysiological and winter ecology-related processes in Fragaria vesca and in the commercially valuable Rosacea-family as well as provides information about the possible responses of these organisms to climate change. Material for the study consisted of twelve European Fragaria vesca genotypes, which had originally been collected from five countries: Norway, Finland, Germany, Italy and Spain. The genotypes had been collected from different latitudes, and they also expressed altitudinal differences. In this study, these genotypes were kept in two temperature treatments, warm (+16°C) and cold (+11°C/six weeks, after which +6°C/four weeks) at a greenhouse. Leaf development was studied by measuring summer and winter leaf middle leaflet width and length, and petiole length. Stolons from each plant individual were counted on a weekly basis and observations about stolon production in relation to the timing of summer leaf senescence and winter leaf development were made at the same time. Leaf chlorophyll and secondary compound content was measured with a Dualex-meter, which provided values for chlorophyll, flavonol and anthocyanin content. The underlying assumption was that cold temperature would induce winter leaf development and summer leaf senescence. The results show that there were differences in summer leaf size between genotypes. Winter leaves had differences between genotypes, but also within genotypes at different temperature treatments. Stolon count was lower and stolon production ceased slightly earlier in the cold treatment. Moreover, summer leaf chlorophyll content decreased in both treatments, but the summer leaves senesced earlier in the warm room. Summer leaf flavonol and anthocyanin values were generally higher in the cooler temperature treatment. Anthocyanins were also produced by winter leaves in the cooler temperature treatment. Based on the results, Fragaria vesca genotypes had differences related to their origin, but temperature also had an effect on winter leaf development, stolon production and the production of secondary compounds. The effect of cold temperature on the size of developing winter leaves was clear. In the cooler temperature treatment, the winter leaves were smaller than in the warmer treatment. The anthocyanin content of summer leaves was higher than in the winter leaves, and the summer leaf anthocyanin content was higher in the colder temperature treatment, where the stress related to the photosynthetic apparatus and low temperatures was combined. Nevertheless, lower temperature did not explain all the responses observed in the genotypes of the study, and thus it is likely that acclimation and winter leaf development in Fragaria vesca are affected by some other factor in addition to temperature, e.g. light regime. A possible continuation for this work would be to study the effect of light conditions or milder winters on winter leaf development in Fragaria vesca genotypes and on the physiology of the species.
  • Sierra Garcia, Tània (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Syftet med denna avhandling är att ta reda på hur språk- och kulturbundna element översätts i skönlitteratur. Mer specifikt tar jag reda på hur idiom, kulturella fenomen och egennamn översätts mellan grannspråken svenska och finska i jämförelse med hur de översätts mellan svenska och katalanska. Jag utreder också hur översättningsresultatet påverkas av de språkliga och kulturella skillnaderna mellan käll- och målspråken. Materialet består av Tove Janssons roman Pappan och havet och dess översättningar till finska och katalanska. Ur materialet excerperas översättningsbelägg av kulturella fenomen, idiom och egennamn. Analysen är i första hand kvalitativ, men kvantitativa beräkningar anges också. Undersökningen bygger på följande forskningsfrågor: Vilka metoder har använts för att översätta idiom, kulturella fenomen och egennamn i den finska och den katalanska översättningen av Pappan och havet? Finns det skillnader i användningen av översättningsmetoder mellan språkparen svenska-finska och svenska-katalanska och hur kan de eventuella skillnaderna förklaras? Materialet analyseras ur en skoposteoretisk synvinkel och utifrån Rune Ingos (1990) samt Lena Segler-Heikkiläs (2009) anpassningsmetoder. Analysen visar att det finns stora skillnader i användning av översättningsmetod mellan den finska och den katalanska översättningen samt att översättningens skopos möjligen påverkar valet av metod. Av analysen framgår att alla kulturella fenomen förutom ett översätts i den finska översättningen med metoden -AD+mot, vilket kan anses vanligt i intrakulturell översättning. Metoden innebär att bibehålla fenomenet eftersom målspråkets läsare kan förstå det. Däremot används en blandning av anpassnings- och icke-anpassningsmetoder i den katalanska översättningen. Vad beträffar översättning av idiom används översättningsmetoderna på ett balanserat sätt i den finska översättningen. I den katalanska översättningen är den mest använda metoden däremot att ett normalt uttryck översätts med ett idiom. Gällande översättning av egennamn visar analysen att de översätts på liknande sätt i båda översättningarna. Analysen tyder i allmänhet på att det förekommer mindre adaptation i intrakulturell översättning än i interkulturell översättning, även om käll- och målspråket i intrakulturell översättning tillhör avlägsna språkfamiljer.