Browsing by Subject "diet"

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  • Lahtinen, Maria; Salmi, Anna-Kaisa (2019)
    A stable isotope investigation of a large Medieval population buried in Iin Hamina, northern Finland, has been used to reconstruct palaeodiet. Iin Hamina is situated approximately 30 km away from the modern city Oulu, in close proximity to the Bothnian Bay coast and the river Ii. The material used in this study is human skeletal material from an Iin Hamina cemetery dated as 15 to 17th centuries AD and animal bones excavated in Northern Ostrobothnia from pre-industrial contexts. Stable isotope analysis of well-preserved collagen indicate that both freshwater and marine fish was the dominant protein source for the people buried at the Iin Hamina cemetery.
  • Meinilä, Jelena; Koivusalo, Saila B.; Valkama, Anita Johanna; Rönö, Kristiina; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Kautiainen, Hannu; Stach-Lempinen, Beata; Eriksson, Johan G. (2015)
    Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes (GDM) has been increasing along with the obesity pandemic. It is associated with pregnancy complications and a risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: To study nutrient intake among pregnant Finnish women at increased risk of GDM due to obesity or a history of GDM. Design: Food records from obese women or women with GDM history (n = 394) were examined at baseline ( Results: The pregnant women had a mean fat intake of 33 en% (SD 7), saturated fatty acids (SFA) 12 en% (SD 3), and carbohydrate 46 en% (SD 6). Sucrose intake among pregnant women with GDM history was 7 en% (SD 3), which was different from the intake of the other pregnant women, 10 en% (SD 4) (p <0.001). Median intakes of folate and vitamins A and D provided by food sources were below the Finnish national nutrition recommendation, but, excluding vitamin A, supplements raised the total intake to the recommended level. The frequency of use of dietary supplements among pregnant women was 77%. Conclusions: The observed excessive intake of SFA and low intake of carbohydrates among women at high risk of GDM may further increase their risk of GDM. A GDM history, however, seems to reduce sucrose intake in a future pregnancy. Pregnant women at high risk of GDM seem to have insufficient intakes of vitamin D and folate from food and thus need supplementation, which most of them already take.
  • ISCOLE Rese Grp; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Fogelholm, Mikael; Mikkilä, Vera; Hovi, Elli; Kivelä, Jemina; Räsänen, Sari; Roito, Sanna (2018)
    Background Whether outdoor time is linked to dietary patterns of children has yet to be empirically tested. The objective of this study was to examine the association between outdoor time and dietary patterns of children from 12 countries around the world. Methods This multinational, cross-sectional study included 6229 children 9-11 years of age. Children self-reported the time that they spent outside before school, after school and on weekends. A composite score was calculated to reflect overall daily outdoor time. Dietary patterns were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, and two components were used for analysis: healthy and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. Results On average, children spent 2.5 h outside per day. After adjusting for age, sex, parental education, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, screen time and body mass index z-score, greater time spent outdoors was associated with healthier dietary pattern scores. No association was found between outdoor time and unhealthy dietary pattern scores. Similar associations between outdoor time and dietary patterns were observed for boys and girls and across study sites. Conclusions Greater time spent outside was associated with a healthier dietary pattern in this international sample of children. Future research should aim to elucidate the mechanisms behind this association.
  • Kaunisto, Kari M.; Roslin, Tomas; Sääksjärvi, Ilari E.; Vesterinen, Eero J. (2017)
    Recent advances in molecular techniques allow us to resolve the diet of unstudied taxa. Odonates are potentially important top-down regulators of many insects. Yet, to date, our knowledge of odonate prey use is based mainly on limited observations of odonates catching or eating their prey. In this study, we examine the potential use of metabarcoding in establishing the diet of three adult odonate species (Lestes sponsa, Enallagma cyathigerum, and Sympetrum danae) at a site in southwestern Finland. To this purpose, we compared three different methods for extracting DNA from fecal samples: the Macherey-Nagel Nucleospin XS kit, a traditional salt extraction, and the Zymo Research Fecal Microprep kit. From these extracts, we amplified group-specific mitochondrial markers (COI and 16S rRNA) from altogether 72 odonate individuals, and compared them to comprehensive reference libraries. The three odonate species show major overlap in diet, with no significant differences between individuals of different size and/or gender, reflecting opportunistic foraging of adult odonates. Of a total of 41 different prey species detected, the most frequently consumed ones were Diptera, with additional records of six other orders. Based on our data, the best DNA extraction method is the traditional salt extraction, as it provides the most information on prey content while also being the most economical. To our knowledge, this is the first study to resolve the species-level diet of adult odonates. Armed with the appropriate methodological caveats, we are ready to examine the ecological role of odonates in both terrestrial and aquatic food webs, and in transferring subsidies between these two realms.
  • Elmberg, Johan; Arzel, Celine; Gunnarsson, Gunnar; Holopainen, Sari; Nummi, Petri; Poysa, Hannu; Sjoberg, Kjell (2020)
    Understanding drivers of variation and trends in biodiversity change is a general scientific challenge, but also crucial for conservation and management. Previous research shows that patterns of increase and decrease are not always consistent at different spatial scales, calling for approaches combining the latter. We here explore the idea that functional traits of species may help explaining divergent population trends. Complementing a previous community level study, we here analyse data about breeding waterbirds on 58 wetlands in boreal Fennoscandia, covering gradients in latitude as well as trophic status. We used linear mixed models to address how change in local abundance over 25 years in 25 waterbird species are associated with life history traits, diet, distribution, breeding phenology, and habitat affinity. Mean abundance increased in 10 species from 1990/1991 to 2016, whereas it decreased in 15 species. Local population increases were associated with species that are early breeders and have small clutches, an affinity for luxurious wetlands, an herbivorous diet, and a wide breeding range rather than a southern distribution. Local decreases, by contrast, were associated with species having large clutches and invertivorous diet, as well as being late breeders and less confined to luxurious wetlands. The three species occurring on the highest number of wetlands all decreased in mean abundance. The fact that early breeders have done better than late fits well with previous research about adaptability to climate change, that is, response to earlier springs. We found only limited support for the idea that life history traits are good predictors of wetland level population change. Instead, diet turned out to be a strong candidate for an important driver of population change, as supported by a general decrease of invertivores and a concomitant increase of large herbivores. In a wider perspective, future research needs to address whether population growth of large-bodied aquatic herbivores affects abundance of co-occurring invertivorous species, and if so, if this is due to habitat alteration, or to interference or exploitative competition.
  • Kahlert, Daniela; Unyi-Reicherz, Annelie; Stratton, Gareth; Larsen, Thomas Meinert; Fogelholm, Mikael; Raben, Anne; Schlicht, Wolfgang (2016)
    Background: Losing excess body weight and preventing weight regain by changing lifestyle is a challenging but promising task to prevent the incidence of type-2 diabetes. To be successful, it is necessary to use evidence-based and theory-driven interventions, which also contribute to the science of behavior modification by providing a deeper understanding of successful intervention components. Objective: To develop a physical activity and dietary behavior modification intervention toolbox (PREMIT) that fulfills current requirements of being theory-driven and evidence-based, comprehensively described and feasible to evaluate. PREMIT is part of an intervention trial, which aims to prevent the onset of type-2 diabetes in pre-diabetics in eight clinical centers across the world by guiding them in changing their physical activity and dietary behavior through a group counseling approach. Methods: The program development took five progressive steps, in line with the Public Health Action Cycle: (1) Summing-up the intervention goal(s), target group and the setting, (2) uncovering the generative psychological mechanisms, (3) identifying behavior change techniques and tools, (4) preparing for evaluation and (5) implementing the intervention and assuring quality. Results: PREMIT is based on a trans -theoretical approach referring to valid behavior modification theories, models and approaches. A major "product" of PREMIT is a matrix, constructed for use by onsite-instructors. The matrix includes objectives, tasks and activities ordered by periods. PREMIT is constructed to help instructors guide participants' behavior change. To ensure high fidelity and adherence of program -implementation across the eight intervention centers standardized operational procedures were defined and "train-the-trainer" workshops were held. In summary PREMIT is a theory-driven, evidence-based program carefully developed to change physical activity and dietary behaviors in pre diabetic people.
  • Tulenheimo, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    Raw meat-based diets have gained popularity in recent years amongst dog owners and there is a lot of debate about the effects of raw food on dogs' health. The purpose of this thesis was to study serum mineral concentrations in dogs eating raw meat-based diet or dry diet. The minerals analyzed were copper, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, and zinc. My hypothesis is that when dogs are fed industrial balanced raw or dry food there are no significant differences in the serum mineral concentrations between the two diet groups. In this study there were 41 adult Staffordshire bull terriers of which 25 ate raw food and 16 dry food. 26 of the dogs were atopic, 13 were control dogs and 2 dogs could not be placed to either of the groups. The dogs came to three visits. The first blood sample was taken on either the first or the baseline visit. During the next three to five months the dogs were either on dry food or raw food diet, based on allotment. Itching, skin symptoms, and diet were taken into consideration in the allotment. After the feeding study the dogs came to the end visit where the second blood sample was taken. Based on the results both diets had an effect on some mineral concentrations. Also the health status had an effect on some mineral concentrations and in the atopic dogs the diet had a more pronounced effect on the serum mineral concentrations than in the control dogs. On the basis of these results the hypothesis was incorrect because there were significant differences in the serum mineral concentrations between the two diets. As we do not know the optimal serum concentrations of these minerals in the canine species the clinical significance of these results is somewhat limited but this study lays the foundation for further studies.
  • Lehtonen, Heikki S.; Aakkula, Jyrki; Fronzek, Stefan; Helin, Janne; Hildén, Mikael; Huttunen, Suvi; Kaljonen, Minna; Niemi, Jyrki; Palosuo, Taru; Pirttioja, Nina; Rikkonen, Pasi; Varho, Vilja; Carter, Timothy R. (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Regional Environmental Change 21: 7
    Shared socioeconomic pathways (SSPs), developed at global scale, comprise narrative descriptions and quantifications of future world developments that are intended for climate change scenario analysis. However, their extension to national and regional scales can be challenging. Here, we present SSP narratives co-developed with stakeholders for the agriculture and food sector in Finland. These are derived from intensive discussions at a workshop attended by approximately 39 participants offering a range of sectoral perspectives. Using general background descriptions of the SSPs for Europe, facilitated discussions were held in parallel for each of four SSPs reflecting very different contexts for the development of the sector up to 2050 and beyond. Discussions focused on five themes from the perspectives of consumers, producers and policy-makers, included a joint final session and allowed for post-workshop feedback. Results reflect careful sector-based, national-level interpretations of the global SSPs from which we have constructed consensus narratives. Our results also show important critical remarks and minority viewpoints. Interesting features of the Finnish narratives compared to the global SSP narratives include greater emphasis on environmental quality; significant land abandonment in SSPs with reduced livestock production and increased plant-based diets; continued need for some farm subsidies across all SSPs and opportunities for diversifying domestic production under scenarios of restricted trade. Our results can contribute to the development of more detailed national long-term scenarios for food and agriculture that are both relevant for local stakeholders and researchers as well as being consistent with global scenarios being applied internationally.
  • Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet K.; Horstmann, Annette; Hummel, Thomas (2020)
    People with olfactory loss may choose foods rich in sugar, salt and fat to compensate their loss—foods that constitute a Western-style diet (WSD). However, olfactory dysfunction has not been consistently linked to any particular type of dietary change. Here we considered whether the aetiology of olfactory dysfunction may affect consumption of a WSD. Two-hundred and twenty-two people with olfactory dysfunction of varying cause, were tested for chemosensory performance and their frequency of consumption of a WSD. There was no evidence of a link between a WSD and olfactory dysfunction at the aggregate level, but an aetiology-based approach revealed various patterns, showing both positive and negative associations between olfactory performance and consumption of a WSD. We suggest a number of reasons why, in certain cases, greater olfactory dysfunction may be linked to lower intakes of a WSD, and the role that different aetiologies may have in affecting choices for foods that may appeal following olfactory impairment.
  • Uusi-Ranta, Noora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: Majority of studies on the association of diet and physical activity are conducted in high-income countries and to date, none have been conducted in Kenya although unhealthy lifestyle behaviours are on the rise and may pose more severe risk in low-to-middle-income than in high-income countries. Methods: Study consists of 9-14-year old pre-adolescents (N=104) living in a middle- or low-income area in Nairobi. Dietary data was collected using 7-day FFQ and physical activity data by accelerometer. Dietary patterns were formed through principal component analysis and Dietary Diversity Score created by counting the number of food groups that were used daily. Statistical analysis was conducted using linear regression analysis with wealth index, area, age, gender and BMI as confounding variables. Results: Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was weakly and negatively associated with the Snacks, fast food and meat dietary pattern alone and in combination with age and gender and significantly in combination with BMI (p=0.041), while time spent in sedentary behaviour showed no relation. Time spent in MVPA could not explain the variation in adherence to the Traditional Kenyan pattern while time spent in sedentary behaviour showed weak, negative association with adherence to this diet pattern, although it did not reach significance. Neither time spent in sedentary behaviour nor time spent in MVPA could explain variation in Dietary Diversity Score or adherence to the Dairy and plant protein pattern. Conclusions: Physical activity showed some association with diet, but the connections were mostly weak, and the socio-economic position and environment are possibly stronger determinants of lifestyle behaviour in urban Kenya.
  • Anturaniemi (o.s. Roine), Johanna; Zaldívar-López, Sara; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Elo, Kari; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna (2020)
    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) has a hereditary basis that is modified by interactions with the environment, including diet. Differentially expressed genes in non-lesional skin, determined by RNA sequencing before and after a dietary intervention, were compared between dogs with naturally occurring CAD (n = 4) and healthy dogs (n = 4). The dogs were fed either a common commercial heat-processed high carbohydrate food (kibble diet) (n = 4), or a non-processed high fat food (raw meat-based diet) (n = 4). At the end of the diet intervention, 149 differentially expressed transcripts were found between the atopic and healthy dogs. The main canonical pathways altered by the dysregulation of these genes were angiopoietin signaling, epidermal growth factor signaling, activation of angiogenesis, and alterations in keratinocyte proliferation and lipid metabolism. On the other hand, 33 differently expressed transcripts were found between the two diet groups, of which 8 encode genes that are annotated in the current version of the dog genome: immunoglobulin heavy constant mu (IGHM), immunoglobulin lambda-like polypeptide 5 (IGLL5), B-cell antigen receptor complex-associated protein beta chain (CD79B), polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (PIGR), cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS), argininosuccinate synthase 1 (ASS1), secretory leukocyte peptidase inhibitor (SLPI), and mitochondrial ribosome recycling factor (MRRF). All genes were upregulated in the raw diet group. In conclusion the findings of this study suggest alterations in lipid and keratinocyte metabolism as well as angiogenesis in the skin of atopic dogs. Additionally, a possible enhancement of innate immunity and decrease in oxidative stress was seen in raw food fed dogs, which could have an important role in preventing hypersensitivities and disturbed immunity at young age.
  • Aalto, Ida-Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The general structure of the vertebrate brain is highly conserved. However, a large amount of variation exists in brain size and shape, both regarding the whole brain and its subdivisions. This variation is caused by selection acting on species’ behavioural traits and shaping the evolution of the brain in the same process. It is known that one of the factors affecting vertebrate brain morphology is ecology, including habitat complexity, activity patterns and diet. The effects of diet on brain size have been studied in primates, bats and small mammals, where frugivory in primates and bats and insectivory in small mammals, are linked to larger brains. The effect of diet on brain morphology has not been studied in squamate reptiles (lizards and snakes) and the ecological factors behind size and shape variation are largely unknown in squamates compared to other vertebrates. Squamates show large diversity in diet preference as well as feeding behaviour in general, which makes them a suitable model organism to study brain evolution. Further, squamates have highly developed nasal chemical senses that are important for feeding behaviour. These factors in mind, it would be expected that diet has an effect on squamate brain morphology, and especially the brain regions important for feeding behaviour, such as the olfactory bulbs in the forebrain. To study the effects of diet on squamate brain size and shape, the brains of 51 squamate species were micro-CT scanned and 3D-brain surfaces were generated for each species. The species were categorized into four diet groups: carnivorous, herbivorous, omnivorous and insectivorous. To analyse shape and size change across species and diet groups, 73 landmarks were placed on each 3D-brain surface, covering all brain regions: olfactory bulbs, cerebral hemispheres, telencephalon, diencephalon, midbrain, cerebellum and hindbrain. The results from this study show that diet affects significantly the shape of the whole squamate brain, as well as the size of the telencephalon. Telencephalon size differed significantly between the herbivorous and carnivorous groups. Diet had no significant effect on the other brain subdivisions studied here, including the olfactory bulbs. Diet is a large part of a species’ ecology and it is very complex behaviour involving several senses and brain regions, which could explain the results obtained from this study. The results from this study are preliminary, but they indicate that diet could be one of the factors affecting brain morphology in squamates. In the future, including other factors of feeding behaviour than food choice and analysing the effects of diet on a deeper level, such as including brain regions within the brain and analysing cellular organization, could shed some new light on how diet affects squamate brain morphology.
  • Frisk, Camilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Feeding raw food has increased in popularity and many advocate the good effects of it. Only few studies on raw food has been done, mainly on negative effects such as the risk of infection when handling raw meat. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether different diets, especially raw food, has an impact on blood parameters. The hypothesis was that raw food will have an impact on the blood parameters. A total of 101 dogs were included in the analysis. Both hematologic and serum biochemical analyses were made. The owners were asked to fill in a questionnaire with information about their dog and the percent of each food they give to their dogs. Diets were defined as raw food, dry food, canned food and homemade food. Based on the questionnaire, the dogs were divided into different diet groups. Staffordshire bull terriers were also analysed individually since they consisted the majority of the population (n =80). The diet groups were as follows; 100 % raw food, 100% dry food and mixed diet. The population was also divided into 5 groups according to a set percent of either raw or dry food (1 = 0%, 2 = 1–30 %, 3 = 31–60 %, 4= 61–99 %, and 5 = 100 %). The mean values of the blood parameters in all groups were compared statistically (Kruskal-Wallis test). Differences were found between raw and dry and raw and mixed diets. The blood values that most often differed were erythrocytes, haemoglobin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), creatinine, cholesterol, sodium and protein. Erythrocytes, haemoglobin, protein and creatinine increased with increased amount of raw food. ALP and cholesterol showed the opposite. Sodium showed high values in groups with high amounts of raw food and low values in mixed diets. This study gave evidence that diet is affecting blood parameters. In which extent it can affect remains unclear since no exact information about the diets were collected. Further studies need to be done to evaluate the real effect of a raw diet on blood parameters and whether it should be incorporated in clinical work.