Browsing by Subject "ekosysteemit (ekologia)"

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  • Pessi, Igor S.; Viitamäki, Sirja; Virkkala, Anna-Maria; Eronen-Rasimus, Eeva; Delmont, Tom O.; Marushchak, Maija E.; Luoto, Miska; Hultman, Jenni (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    Environmental Microbiome
    Background In contrast to earlier assumptions, there is now mounting evidence for the role of tundra soils as important sources of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). However, the microorganisms involved in the cycling of N2O in this system remain largely uncharacterized. Since tundra soils are variable sources and sinks of N2O, we aimed at investigating differences in community structure across different soil ecosystems in the tundra. Results We analysed 1.4 Tb of metagenomic data from soils in northern Finland covering a range of ecosystems from dry upland soils to water-logged fens and obtained 796 manually binned and curated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). We then searched for MAGs harbouring genes involved in denitrification, an important process driving N2O emissions. Communities of potential denitrifiers were dominated by microorganisms with truncated denitrification pathways (i.e., lacking one or more denitrification genes) and differed across soil ecosystems. Upland soils showed a strong N2O sink potential and were dominated by members of the Alphaproteobacteria such as Bradyrhizobium and Reyranella. Fens, which had in general net-zero N2O fluxes, had a high abundance of poorly characterized taxa affiliated with the Chloroflexota lineage Ellin6529 and the Acidobacteriota subdivision Gp23. Conclusions By coupling an in-depth characterization of microbial communities with in situ measurements of N2O fluxes, our results suggest that the observed spatial patterns of N2O fluxes in the tundra are related to differences in the composition of denitrifier communities.
  • Primmer, Eeva; Paavola, Jouni (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological economics 184: 107001
    The notion of insurance value of ecosystems has both conceptual and practical appeal. However, the operationalisation of the concept does not yet match the typical assumptions about the governance of ecosystems and ecosystem service provision. The articles in this special section provide the first comprehensive effort to address this challenge by offering conceptualizations and examples of metaphorical, analytical and operational applications of the concept of insurance value. Together with this introduction, the articles exemplify the varied uses of the concept of insurance value and the ways in which it is positioned in relation to governance. This introduction highlights that when designing governance solutions for the provision of insurance value from ecosystems, the state of the ecosystem and the activities through which its insurance value generation will be targeted should be clear. The introduction also highlights the importance of considering the assumptions and framings regarding how insurance value is generated in the ecosystems, through preservation, sustainable use or restoration, or through a combination of these strategies. Because of the distinct analytical and governance implications of these strategies, future research should specifically address the institutional conditions for applying any one of them.
  • Tokodi, Nada; Backovic, Damjana Drobac; Luji, Jelena; Šcekic, Ilija; Simic, Snežana; Đorđevic, Nevena; Dulic, Tamara; Miljanovic, Branko; Kitanovic, Nevena; Marinovic, Zoran; Savela, Henna; Meriluoto, Jussi; Svircev, Zorica (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 1 (2020)
    For 50 years persistent cyanobacterial blooms have been observed in Lake Ludoš (Serbia), a wetland area of international significance listed as a Ramsar site. Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins can affect many organisms, including valuable flora and fauna, such as rare and endangered bird species living or visiting the lake. The aim was to carry out monitoring, estimate the current status of the lake, and discuss potential resolutions. Results obtained showed: (a) the poor chemical state of the lake; (b) the presence of potentially toxic (genera Dolichospermum, Microcystis, Planktothrix, Chroococcus, Oscillatoria, Woronichinia and dominant species Limnothrix redekei and Pseudanabaena limnetica) and invasive cyanobacterial species Raphidiopsis raciborskii; (c) the detection of microcystin (MC) and saxitoxin (STX) coding genes in biomass samples; (d) the detection of several microcystin variants (MC-LR, MC-dmLR, MC-RR, MC-dmRR, MC-LF) in water samples; (e) histopathological alterations in fish liver, kidney and gills. The potential health risk to all organisms in the ecosystem and the ecosystem itself is thus still real and present. Although there is still no resolution in sight, urgent remediation measures are needed to alleviate the incessant cyanobacterial problem in Lake Ludoš to break this ecosystem out of the perpetual state of limbo in which it has been trapped for quite some time.
  • Elovaara, Samu; Degerlund, Maria; Franklin, Daniel J.; Kaartokallio, Hermanni; Tamelander, Tobias (Springer Link, 2020)
    Hydrobiologia 847 11 (2020)
    Cell death drives the magnitude and community composition of phytoplankton and can result in the conversion of particulate organic carbon to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), thereby affecting carbon cycling in the aquatic food web. We used a membrane integrity probe (Sytox Green) to study the seasonal variation in the percentage of viable cells in the phytoplankton population in an estuary in the northern Baltic Sea for 21 months. The associated dissolved and particulate organic matter concentrations were also studied. The viable fraction of phytoplankton cells varied from < 20% to almost 100%, with an average of 62%. Viability was highest when a single phytoplankton group (diatoms or dinoflagellates) dominated the community. Viability of sinking phytoplankton cells, including some motile species, was in general as high as in surface water. Changes in viability were not closely related to nutrient concentrations, virus-like particle abundance, seawater temperature or salinity. There was a weak but significant negative correlation between viability and DOC, although at this location, the DOC pool was mainly influenced by the inflow of riverine water. This study demonstrates that cell viability, and its relationship with carbon export, is highly variable in the complex microbial populations common within estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems.
  • Benito, Xavier; Vilmi, Annika; Luethje, Melina; Carrevedo, Maria Laura; Lindholm, Marja; Fritz, Sherilyn C. (Frontiers Media S.A., 2020)
    Frontiers Ecology Evolution 8 (2020)
    High-elevation tropical lakes are excellent sentinels of global change impacts, such as climate warming, land-use change, and atmospheric deposition. These effects are often correlated with temporal and spatial beta diversity patterns, with some local communities contributing more than others, a phenomenon known as local contribution to beta diversity (LCBD) or ecological uniqueness. Microorganisms, such as diatoms, are considered whole-ecosystem indicators, but little is known about their sensitivity and specificity in beta diversity studies mostly because of the lack of large spatial and temporal datasets. To fill this gap, we used a tropical South American diatom database comprising modern (144 lakes) and paleolimnological (6 sediment cores) observations to quantify drivers of spatial and temporal beta diversity and evaluated implications for environmental change and regional biodiversity. We used methods of beta diversity partitioning (replacement and richness components) by determining contributions of local sites to these components (LCBDrepl and LCBDrich), and studied how they are related to environmental, geological, and historical human variables using Generalized Additive Models (GAM). Beta replacement time series were also analyzed with GAM to test whether there is widespread biotic homogenization across the tropical Andes. Modern lake ecological uniqueness was jointly explained by limnological (pH), climatic (mean annual precipitation), and historical human density. Local lake (conductivity) and regional geodiversity variables (terrain ruggedness, soil variability) were inversely correlated to replacement and richness components of LCBD, suggesting that not all lakes contributing to broad-scale diversity are targets for conservation actions. Over millennial time scales, decomposing temporal trends of beta diversity components showed different trajectories of lake diatom diversity as response of environmental change: i) increased hydroclimatic variability (as inferred by decreased temperature seasonality) mediating higher contribution of richness to local beta diversity patterns ca. 1000 years ago in Ecuador Andean lakes and ii) lake-specific temporal beta diversity trends for the last ca. 200 years, indicating that biotic homogenization is not widespread across the tropical Andes. Our approach for unifying diatom ecology, metacommunity, and paleolimnology can facilitate the understanding of future responses of tropical Andean lakes to global change impacts.
  • Roa-Fuentes, Camilo A.; Heino, Jani; Cianciaruso, Marcus V.; Ferraz, Silvio; Zeni, Jaquelini O.; Casatti, Lilian (2019)
    Freshwater Biology (2019) 64 (3): 447-460
    A multi‐faceted assessment of diversity is needed to improve our understanding of the mechanisms underlying biodiversity patterns and to reveal the impacts of land use alterations on β‐diversity. In this study, we analysed stream fish β‐diversity based on taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic facets in an intensively cultivated tropical region. We sampled 43 stream reaches in the northwest of São Paulo State, south‐eastern Brazil. Each sampling site was characterised according to catchment‐scale features, landscape dynamic indicators, local‐scale features, and distance between stream reaches as network distance (a proxy for dispersal processes). As response variables, we considered taxonomic, functional, and phylogenetic β‐diversities coupled with a null‐model approach. For each β‐diversity metric, we calculated the mean overall value and tested whether the mean value was different from that expected by chance. To examine variation in β‐diversity for the three facets and determine the relative contributions of predictor variables, we used a distance‐based approach. Taxonomic and functional β‐diversities were higher from the expected value under a null model, suggesting that community assembly of these facets was dominated by deterministic processes. In contrast, phylogenetic β‐diversity was not different from that expected by chance, suggesting that the lineage composition of these assemblages was random. Furthermore, for all three facets, there was a positive environment‐β‐diversity relationship that was determined primarily by local‐scale features, whereas catchment features and landscape dynamic indicators were not important. In addition, none of the β‐diversity facets was correlated with stream network distance, indicating that dispersal processes were not strongly structuring fish assemblages. Our study suggested that although multiple facets of stream fish β‐diversity are ruled mainly by deterministic processes (e.g. species sorting), stochasticity is also important in community assembly. An interesting finding was the mismatch between phylogenetic versus taxonomic and functional β‐diversity. It is likely that the lack of non‐random structure in phylogenetic β‐diversity is due to the variation of phylogenetic signal in some functional traits. Given that landscape dynamic indicators were not correlated with measures of β‐diversity, we suggest that the recent sugarcane expansion in our study area probably has not critically affected stream fish β‐diversity. Also, it is possible that catchment variables presented little variability and did not overwhelm the effect of local environmental variables on β‐diversity. In conclusion, our study suggests that even highly disturbed tropical agroecosystems with a pool of species that is probably decimated, can still display a relatively high β‐diversity determined mainly by species sorting. These findings suggest key environmental features that must be considered in restoration or conservation of β‐diversity in agroecosystems. Specifically, since variation in β‐diversity was explained mainly by local‐scale environmental gradients, conservation schemes would ideally protect enough sites to capture this entire gradient. Overall, the knowledge of multiple facets can foment more effective conservation and restoration actions by providing a more comprehensive view of the structuring factors of assemblages.
  • Blanka, Gál; Szivák, ldikó; Heino, Jani; Schmera, Dénes (2019)
    Ecological Indicators 104: 357-364
    Understanding the effects of urbanization on the diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates is an important topic of biodiversity research and has direct conservation relevance. The absence of evidence-based systematic overviews on this topic motivated us to perform meta-analyses and to synthetize the present state of knowledge. We observed significant heterogeneity among individual case studies, reporting negative, neutral and positive effects. As expected, urbanization had an overall negative effect on the diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates. These results are based mainly on the study of lotic (stream and river) ecosystems because there are insufficient data available for lentic (pond and lake) ecosystems. Compared to individual case studies, the present review reports an evidence-based synthesis for the first time. We identified knowledge gaps regarding case studies reporting the effects of urbanization on pond and lake ecosystems, case studies examining the phylogenetic and functional facets of biodiversity, as well case studies investigating the effect of urbanization on the beta diversity component of macroinvertebrate communities. The identification of these knowledge gaps allowed us to make recommendations for future research: (1) report results on specific taxonomic groups and not only the entire macroinvertebrate community, (2) study the impacts of urbanization on macroinvertebrate diversity in different habitat types and understudied continents, (3) focus on the functional and phylogenetic facets of diversity and (4) examine community differentiation (e.g. beta diversity) in urban freshwater ecosystems. Our results also suggested that the analysis of diversity- environment relationships is crucial for developing macroinvertebrate indicators especially in the increasingly urbanized world.
  • Jiang, Xiaoming; Pan, Baozhu; Jiang, Wanxiang; Hou, Yiming; Yang, Haiqiang; Zhu, Penghui; Heino, Jani (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 124 (2021), 107407
    There is a growing recognition that examining patterns of ecological communities and their underlying determinants is not only feasible based on taxonomic data, but also functional and phylogenetic approaches. This is because these additional facets can enhance the understanding of the relative contribution of multiple processes in shaping biodiversity. However, few studies have focused on multifaceted beta diversities in lotic macroinvertebrates, especially when considering driving factors operating at multiple spatial scales. Here, we examined the spatial patterns of multi-faceted (i.e., taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic) beta diversity and their components (i.e., turnover and nestedness) of macroinvertebrates in 50 sites in 10 streams situated in the north and south slope of the Qinling Mountains, the geographical dividing line of Northern and Southern China. We found that the streams draining the north slope showed significantly lower values of beta diversity based on all three facets than the streams draining the south slope. Such north-to-south increases of beta diversity were caused by the distinct climatic and local environmental conditions between the sides of the mountain range. Moreover, spatial variables generally played the most important role in structuring all facets and components of beta diversity, followed by local environmental and climatic variables, whereas catchment variables were less important. Despite the similar results of relative contribution of explanatory variables on each beta diversity facet, the details of community-environment relationships (e.g., important explanatory variables and explanatory power) were distinct among different diversity facets and their components. In conclusion, measuring functional and phylogenetic beta diversity provides complementary information to traditional taxonomic approach. Therefore, an integrative approach embracing multiple facets of diversity can better reveal the mechanisms shaping biodiversity, which is essential in assessing and valuing aquatic ecosystems for biodiversity management and conservation.
  • Van Looy, Kris; Tonkin, Jonathan D.; Floury, Mathieu; Leigh, Catherine; Soininen, Janne; Larsen, Stefano; Heino, Jani; Poff, N. LeRoy; Delong, Michael; Jaehnig, Sonja C.; Datry, Thibault; Bonada, Nuria; Rosebery, Juliette; Jamoneau, Aurélien; Ormerod, Steve J.; Collier, Kevin J.; Wolter, Christian (2019)
    River Research and Applications 35 (2): 107-120
    Resilience in river ecosystems requires that organisms must persist in the face of highly dynamic hydrological and geomorphological variations. Disturbance events such as floods and droughts are postulated to shape life history traits that support resilience, but river management and conservation would benefit from greater understanding of the emergent effects in communities of river organisms. We unify current knowledge of taxonomic-, phylogenetic-, and trait-based aspects of river communities that might aid the identification and quantification of resilience mechanisms. Temporal variations in river productivity, physical connectivity, and environmental heterogeneity resulting from floods and droughts are highlighted as key characteristics that promote resilience in these dynamic ecosystems. Three community-wide mechanisms that underlie resilience are (a) partitioning (competition/facilitation) of dynamically varying resources, (b) dispersal, recolonization, and recruitment promoted by connectivity, and (c) functional redundancy in communities promoted by resource heterogeneity and refugia. Along with taxonomic and phylogenetic identity, biological traits related to feeding specialization, dispersal ability, and habitat specialization mediate organism responses to disturbance. Measures of these factors might also enable assessment of the relative contributions of different mechanisms to community resilience. Interactions between abiotic drivers and biotic aspects of resource use, dispersal, and persistence have clear implications for river conservation and management. To support these management needs, we propose a set of taxonomic, phylogenetic, and life-history trait metrics that might be used to measure resilience mechanisms. By identifying such indicators, our proposed framework can enable targeted management strategies to adapt river ecosystems to global change.
  • Kivimaa, Paula; Kangas, Hanna-Liisa; Lazarevic, David; Lukkarinen, Jani; Åkerman, Maria; Halonen, Minna; Nieminen, Mika (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    SYKE Publications 5
    Due to climate change, there is a need to phase out fossil-fuel based energy use for heating, cooling and lighting buildings. Thus, a transition to nearly zero energy buildings is necessary. This requires socio-technical change in both building and energy systems - implying significant changes not only in technology but also in policies, institutions, markets, practices and culture surrounding the technology. Buildings offer many opportunities for decarbonisation, while the optimal energy performance improvement and the potential for reduction differs case and region specifically. This publication summarises research in an Academy of Finland funded project, Change in Business Ecosystems for Local Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency - Better Energy Services for Consumers (USE), conducted during 2015-2018. It addresses the challenge of further improving the energy efficiency of the Finnish building stock by focusing specifically on energy service companies offering integrated services for buildings, on the emerging business ecosystems and regional innovation ecosystems for energy services, and on the building energy efficiency policy mix from the perspective of transition. The report shows that, in Finland, the transition towards nearly zero energy buildings has started, but the building sector is still far from being nearly zero energy. Energy service companies have the potential to reconfigure the existing energy and building systems and drive the transition. Energy and building sectors are supply-centric, so changing the mind-sets of energy and construction industry actors towards service provision and consumption is vital. At societal level, disinterest in energy efficiency is slowing down transition. Ecosystems of actors providing integrated building energy services are emerging around specific business models and in various regions. At the regional level, a city can orchestrate a process to create an innovation ecosystem by gathering the relevant actors and creating a common vision towards a nearly zero energy building system. Many supportive policies are in place, and policy development has been largely consistent and coherent in the intermediate term. However, more attention needs to be paid to the comprehensiveness of the policy mix to reach the goal of nearly zero energy, and especially to implementation to make sure it is coherent with the policy goals.
  • Bäck, Jaana; Forsius, Martin; Heiskanen, Jouni; Inkeroinen, Jouko; Juurola, Eija; Karjalainen, Juha; Kaukolehto, Marjut; Kolström, Taneli; Latola, Kirsi; Lohila, Annalea; Mäkipää, Raisa; Paavola, Riku; Parland-von Essen, Jessica; Pumpanen, Jukka; Pursula, Antti; Rasilo, Terhi; Suominen, Otso; Tuittila, Eevastiina (Finnish Environment Institute, 2019)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 41/2019
    This White Paper presents a vision of globally leading, scientifically important and socially relevant environmental research infrastructures (RIs) in Finland, and identifies what we consider as the key issues to be developed to improve the impact and to support the Finnish national infrastructures in their international visibility. The focus is on: 1. The scientific questions driving the terrestrial ecosystem and environmental research globally and in Finland; 2. Specific requirements by different user groups in Finland for ecological and environmental RIs; and 3. Roadmap for the sustainable ecological and environmental RI in Finland. We also present the strategies of organizations regarding their RI development, and the existing infrastructures and networks which form the basis for future development. The final goal of this document is to encourage the development of a coherent vision at national level, and to increase the scientific significance, national synergies and benefits towards a stronger research community. The need for developing a national RI strategy for environmental field arises from the global challenges, which threaten the ecosystems’ functioning. Human activities are imposing many identified, but also previously unknown pressures to ecosystem properties and functions, which are also feeding back to the societies via the quality and quantity of ecosystem services. However, the ecosystem responses to changes in environment are in many cases poorly quantified and the studies only cover short time scales. In order to succeed in providing answers to the grand challenges (ICSU 2010), integrated research infrastructures and efficient analysis tools are crucially needed. The request to improve our knowledge of the state of the environment and the complex biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions, and to detect and analyze the impact of global change on these systems has been recognized as a general priority in developing environmental research infrastructures in EU and globally. Currently, Finland is one of the world leaders in atmospheric and environmental sciences, both in terms of research and in coordinating the European and global observation station networks and infrastructures. With this existing experience from close-by research fields and the high research outputs from ecology and ecophysiology in our research organizations, Finland has also the potential to actively promote the ecosystem RI concept, and to act as an example of integrated RIs for other countries. The vision is to develop the capacity of the Finnish ecosystem research community to integrate, upscale and synthesize the observations with relevant holistic process understanding as well as open and reliable data management practices. This can be implemented by creating functional and cost-efficient in-situ platforms and by providing quality-checked data in findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable (FAIR) manner for high-level environmental research. This White paper was made in connection with the INAR Ecosystems initiative funded by Academy of Finland and updated with proceeding of European processes, and it provides a starting point for national cooperation in environmental research infrastructures.