Browsing by Subject "evaluation"

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  • Kahlert, Maria; Bailet, Bonnie; Chonova, Teofana; Karjalainen, Satu Maaria; Schneider, Susanne C.; Tapolczai, Kálmán (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 130 (2021), 108088
    We developed and compared the performance of freshwater benthic diatom indices calculated from (i) traditional morphological species identification, (ii) Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs) obtained via DNA metabarcoding, and (iii) morphological traits to indicate eutrophication in rivers and lakes in Fennoscandia. Based on the results, we provided recommendations for the future routine use of diatom bioassessment tools in environmental monitoring and assessment. Our results show that ASVs are the most promising candidates to be used in environmental assessment. Indices based on ASVs correlated better with TotP concentrations than morphological taxa data, whereas the trait indices correlated least. We could see by studying the taxonomic assignments of the ASVs that traditional morphotaxa were divided up into several ASVs with different ecological profiles, which explained part of the better index performance and also encourages further studies on diatom diversity and ecological preferences. In general, ASV- and morphotaxon-specific optima differed slightly between streams and lakes, but were significantly correlated with each other. This means that it should be possible to develop a common index that is applicable in both streams and lakes, but boundary values with respect to TotP might need to be set separately for them. More knowledge on diatom traits is required to enable their use for environmental assessment.
  • Tikkanen, Ilpo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Dick, Jan; Turkelboom, Francis; Woods, Helen; Iniesta-Arandia, Irene; Primmer, Eeva; Saarela, Sanna-Riikka; Bezak, Peter; Mederly, Peter; Leone, Michael; Verheyden, Wim; Kelemen, Eszter; Hauck, Jennifer; Andrews, Chris; Antunes, Paula; Aszalos, Reka; Baro, Francesc; Barton, David Nicholas; Berry, Pam; Bugter, Rob; Carvalho, Laurence; Czucz, Balint; Dunford, Rob; Garcia Blanco, Gemma; Geamana, Nicoleta; Giuca, Relu; Grizetti, Bruna; Izakovicova, Zita; Kertesz, Miklos; Kopperoinen, Leena; Langemeyer, Johannes; Montenegro Lapola, David; Liquete, Camino; Luque, Sandra; Martinez Pastur, Guillermo; Martín-López, Berta; Mukhopadhyay, Raktima; Niemelä, Jari Kalevi; Odee, David; Luis Peri, Pablo; Pinho, Patricia; Buerger Patricio-Roberto, Gleiciani; Preda, Elena; Priess, Joerg; Röckmann, Christine; Santos, Rui; Silaghi, Diana; Smith, Ron; Vadineanu, Angheluta; Tjalling van der Wal, Jan; Arany, Ildiko; Badea, Ovidiu; Bela, Györgyi; Boros, Emil; Bucur, Magdalena; Blumentrath, Stefan; Calvache, Marta; Carmen, Esther; Clemente, Pedro; Fernandes, Joao; Ferraz, Diego; Fongar, Claudia; Garcia-Llorante, Marina; Gomez-Baggethun, Erik; Gundersen, Vegard; Haavardsholm, Oscar; Kaloczkai, Agnes; Khalalwe, Thalma; Kiss, Gabriela; Köhler, Berit; Lazanyi, Orsolya; Lellei-Kovacs, Eszter; Lichungu, Rael; Lindhjem, Henrik; Magare, Charles; Mustajoki, Jyri; Ndege, Charles; Nowell, Megan; Nuss Girona, Sergi; Ochieng, John; Anders, Often; Palomo, Ignacio; Pataki, György; Reinvang, Rasmus; Rusch, Graciela M.; Saarikoski, Heli; Smith, Alison; Soy Massoni, Emma; Stange, Erik; Vågnes Traaholt, Nora; Vari, Agnes; Verweij, Peter; Vikström, Suvi; Yli-Pelkonen, Vesa Johannes; Zulian, Grazia (2018)
    The ecosystem service (ES) concept is becoming mainstream in policy and planning, but operational influence on practice is seldom reported. Here, we report the practitioners' perspectives on the practical implementation of the ES concept in 27 case studies. A standardised anonymous survey (n = 246), was used, focusing on the science-practice interaction process, perceived impact and expected use of the case study assessments. Operationalisation of the concept was shown to achieve a gradual change in practices: 13% of the case studies reported a change in action (e.g. management or policy change), and a further 40% anticipated that a change would result from the work. To a large extent the impact was attributed to a well conducted science-practice interaction process (>70%). The main reported advantages of the concept included: increased concept awareness and communication; enhanced participation and collaboration; production of comprehensive science-based knowledge; and production of spatially referenced knowledge for input to planning (91% indicated they had acquired new knowledge). The limitations were mostly case-specific and centred on methodology, data, and challenges with result implementation. The survey highlighted the crucial role of communication, participation and collaboration across different stakeholders, to implement the ES concept and enhance the democratisation of nature and landscape planning. (C) 2017 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Pörsti, Anna Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Empowerment became a major purpose for development interventions in the 1990s. Many interventions also include capacity building that can boost partners’ empowerment and aid effectiveness. Yet, what is an empowered organisation and how or if empowerment occurs, lacks evidence and agreement. There is also limited evidence on capacity building of civil society organisations (CSOs), and when studied, actors have faced methodological and practical challenges. Public support to development cooperation has been weak. There is demand for well grounded, context sensitive studies of development interventions. This thesis participates in discussion related to these themes by applying the non-mainstream realistic evaluation in studying CSOs’ empowerment and its facilitation with capacity building. Three research questions focus on CSOs’ mechanisms and mechanism changes and their influence on CSOs' development and empowerment during capacity building. The study also intends to analyse the influence of the intervention and other context on related developments in CSOs. The fourth question touches a tool that was to be developed to facilitate studying these issues with the approach of realistic evaluation and thus to increase understanding on the application of the approach to the evaluation of capacity building and empowerment of CSOs in development interventions. The data was collected with ethnographic and participatory methods as part of an evaluation of the studied capacity building intervention in Kenya and Finland. The data analysis involved narrative analysis and analytical induction. The thesis shows that mechanisms are closely linked to each other and the context that together strongly influence CSOs’ development and empowerment. They bring more potential to develop in all capacity dimensions and empower sustainably the more a CSO has mechanisms beneficial for all organisational development. The most important is the mechanism of holistic development. According to the results, interventions can contribute to the existence and establishment of such mechanisms. However, changing mechanisms hindering CSOs’ overall development may stay beyond interventions’ reach. Intervention efforts and beneficial mechanisms do not guarantee CSO empowerment which depends on various internal and external conditions. Nevertheless, considering mechanisms could help both interventions and CSOs reach their goals and generate empowerment. The findings confirm that realistic evaluation seems a promising alternative for evaluating social change in interventions. The developed tool could be suitable for studying also other kind of interventions, situations and actors. The research recommends its application and further development or the development of other tools of realistic evaluation for the use of intervention and evaluation practitioners.
  • Kukkonen, Jaakko; López-Aparicio, Susana; Segersson, David; Geels, Camilla; Kangas, Leena; Kauhaniemi, Mari; Maragkidou, Androniki; Jensen, Anne; Assmuth, Timo; Karppinen, Ari; Sofiev, Mikhail; Hellén, Heidi; Riikonen, Kari; Nikmo, Juha; Kousa, Anu; Niemi, Jarkko V.; Karvosenoja, Niko; Santos, Gabriela Sousa; Sundvor, Ingrid; Im, Ulas; Christensen, Jesper H.; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Plejdrup, Marlene S.; Nøjgaard, Jacob Klenø; Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Camilla; Forsberg, Bertil; Brandt, Jørgen (European Geosciences Union, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 7 (2020)
    Residential wood combustion (RWC) is an important contributor to air quality in numerous regions worldwide. This study is the first extensive evaluation of the influence of RWC on ambient air quality in several Nordic cities. We have analysed the emissions and concentrations of PM2.5 in cities within four Nordic countries: in the metropolitan areas of Copenhagen, Oslo, and Helsinki and in the city of Umeå. We have evaluated the emissions for the relevant urban source categories and modelled atmospheric dispersion on regional and urban scales. The emission inventories for RWC were based on local surveys, the amount of wood combusted, combustion technologies and other relevant factors. The accuracy of the predicted concentrations was evaluated based on urban concentration measurements. The predicted annual average concentrations ranged spatially from 4 to 7 µg m−3 (2011), from 6 to 10 µg m−3 (2013), from 4 to more than 13 µg m−3 (2013) and from 9 to more than 13 µg m−3 (2014), in Umeå, Helsinki, Oslo and Copenhagen, respectively. The higher concentrations in Copenhagen were mainly caused by the relatively high regionally and continentally transported background contributions. The annual average fractions of PM2.5 concentrations attributed to RWC within the considered urban regions ranged spatially from 0 % to 15 %, from 0 % to 20 %, from 8 % to 22 % and from 0 % to 60 % in Helsinki, Copenhagen, Umeå and Oslo, respectively. In particular, the contributions of RWC in central Oslo were larger than 40 % as annual averages. In Oslo, wood combustion was used mainly for the heating of larger blocks of flats. In contrast, in Helsinki, RWC was solely used in smaller detached houses. In Copenhagen and Helsinki, the highest fractions occurred outside the city centre in the suburban areas. In Umeå, the highest fractions occurred both in the city centre and its surroundings.
  • Kotamäki, M; Mattila, J; Tervola, J (Kela, 2017)
    Working papers 124
    This paper investigates the effects of a Finnish unemployment insurance reform that took place in 2017. The potential duration of earnings-related unemployment benefit was cut by 100 days. We use the microsimulation method to calculate both static and dynamic ex-ante effects on employment, public sector finances and income distribution. According to the static scenario, income inequality increases slightly. However, accounting for the behavioral response mitigates the effect on inequality. Respectively, the positive effect on public finances is amplified.
  • Vanhanen, Aija; Niemi-Murola, Leila; Poyhia, Reino (2021)
    Background and Objective: The European Association for Palliative Care (EAPC) published recommendations for postgraduate education in palliative medicine in 2009. However, it is currently unknown how the EAPC remommendations are implemented in national programs, as audits of them are lacking. In Finland, the national society of palliative medicine has been organizing postgraduate palliative medicine training for experienced physicians since 2008, but the program has not been audited. The aim of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of the program. Design: In 2018-2019, a questionnaire on the Finnish Training Program for Palliative Medicine Competence was sent to past participants and delivered in person to current trainees. Learning outcomes were assessed with validated instruments for received skills and attitudes. All available educational archives were examined as well. Results: Forty-five (32 %) out of 155 specialists and 13 (38 %) out of 34 trainees responded. According to their assessments, the training provided them well with most skills required to work as palliative care specialists, but poorly with research capabilities. However, the Finnish program covers the EAPC guidelines well. Problem-based education, group work, and clinical excursions have been added to the latest curriculum. Maturation through work is needed for administrative and consultant competences. Conclusion: The EAPC guidelines can be included in a national course. The course had an important positive influence on the attitudes and learning of physicians in palliative medicine. The development of the education would benefit from pedagogical consultation. Uniform standards for auditing national programs should be developed.
  • Lahti, Tapani (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1995)
    The relationship between site characteristics and understorey vegetation composition was analysed with quantitative methods, especially from the viewpoint of site quality estimation. Theoretical models were applied to an empirical data set collected from the upland forests of southern Finland comprising 104 sites dominated by Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), and 165 sites dominated by Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karsten). Site index H100 was used as an independent measure of site quality. A new model for the estimation of site quality at sites with a known understorey vegetation composition was introduced. It is based on the application of Bayes' theorem to the density function of site quality within the study area combined with the species-specific presence-absence response curves. The resulting posterior probability density function may be used for calculating an estimate for the site variable. Using this method, a jackknife estimate of site index H100 was calculated separately for pine- and spruce-dominated sites. The results indicated that the cross-validation root mean squared error (RMSEcv) of the estimates improved from 2.98 m down to 2.34 m relative to the "null" model (standard deviation of the sample distribution) in pine-dominated forests. In spruce-dominated forests RMSEcv decreased from 3.94 m down to 3.16 m. In order to assess these results, four other estimation methods based on understorey vegetation composition were applied to the same data set. The results showed that none of the methods was clearly superior to the others. In pine-dominated forests, RMSEcv varied between 2.34 and 2.47 m, and the corresponding range for spruce-dominated forests was from 3.13 to 3.57 m.
  • Ylä-Anttila, Matti Tuomas; Vesa, Juho Antti; Eranti, Veikko; Kukkonen, Anna Kristiina; Lehtimäki, Tomi Henrik; Lonkila, Markku; Luhtakallio, Eeva (2018)
    Building on theories of valuation and evaluation, we develop an analytical framework that outlines six elements of the process of consolidation of an idea in the public sphere. We then use the framework to analyse the process of consolidation of the idea of climate change mitigation between 1997 and 2013, focusing on the interplay between ecological and economic evaluations. Our content analysis of 1274 articles in leading newspapers in five countries around the globe shows that (1) ecological arguments increase over time, (2) economic arguments decrease over time, (3) the visibility of environmental nongovernmental organizations as carriers of ecological ideas increases over time, (4) the visibility of business actors correspondingly decreases, (5) ecological ideas are increasingly adopted by political and business elites and (6) a compromise emerges between ecological and economic evaluations, in the form of the argument that climate change mitigation boosts, rather than hinders economic growth.
  • Tyllinen, M.; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, T. (IOS PRESS, 2019)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    In this paper, we report measured usability of two leading EHR systems during procurement. A total of 18 users participated in paired-usability testing of three scenarios: ordering and managing medications by an outpatient physician, medicine administration by an inpatient nurse and scheduling of appointments by nursing staff. Data for audio, screen capture, satisfaction rating, task success and errors made was collected during testing. We found a clear difference between the systems for percentage of successfully completed tasks, two different satisfaction measures and perceived learnability when looking at the results over all scenarios. We conclude that usability should be evaluated during procurement and the difference in usability between systems could be revealed even with fewer measures than were used in our study. © 2019 American Psychological Association Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Vesterinen, Olli (Helsingfors universitet, 2004)
    Tutkimuksen päätarkoitus oli hahmottaa verkko-opetuksen arvoja ja arviointia luokanopettajan näkökulmasta. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä oli mediakasvatus ja didaktiikan käsitys opetus opiskelu oppimisprosessista. Didaktisena perustana käytettiin Kansasen ym. (2000) opettajan pedagogista ajattelua, Lahdeksen (1997) didaktiikan kehämallia sekä Uljensin (1997) opetus opiskelu oppimisprosessia. Lähtökohtana oli luokanopettajan arvioinnin kautta pohtia opetuksen, opiskelun ja oppimisen sekä tieto- ja viestintätekniikan yhtymistä koulukontekstissa. Tutkimuksen pääongelmat olivat: 1) Minkälainen oli luokanopettajan käsitys verkko-opetuksen toteuttamisesta? 2) Miten luokanopettaja arvioi verkko-opetusta? Myös ensimmäistä pääongelmaa lähestyttiin arvojen ja arvioinnin näkökulmasta. Menetelmänä käytettiin teemahaastattelua. Teemahaastattelun teemoja jäsennettiin Gallinin (2001) sosiokulttuurisen verkko-opetuksen arviointimallin sekä Tellan ja Mononen-Aaltosen (2001) mediakasvatuksen monitasomallin avulla. Aineistonkeruussa kahdeksan helsinkiläistä luokanopettajaa vastasivat lyhyeen kyselyyn, jonka jälkeen heitä haastateltiin välittömästi. Laadullisen aineiston analyysissä teemoiteltiin aineisto, ja tämän rinnalla rakennettiin aineistolähtöistä analyysiä. Näiden vuorovaikutuksesta syntyivät tutkimuksen johtopäätökset. Keskeisinä tuloksina tutkimuksessa nähtiin luokanopettajan verkko-opetukseen liittyvien arvojen kaksi eri näkökulmaa: (A) opetus opiskelu oppimismenetelmien ja -tulosten arvonäkökulma sekä (B) ns. kasvatuksellinen ja koulukulttuurin arvonäkökulma. Arvonäkökulmien pohjalta hahmotettiin johtopäätöksissä erilaisia tasoja luokanopettajan opetuksen, opiskelun ja oppimisen arvioinnista, kun tieto- ja viestintätekniikka on mukana prosessissa. Kaksi tasoa tarkennettiin verkko-opetuksen arvioinnin fokuksiksi, jotka olivat (1) teknologinen ja (2) tavoitteinen fokus. Teknologisessa arvioinnin fokuksessa (1) arviointia hallitsee huoli oppilaasta ihmisenä. Arviointi liittyy joko siihen, että oppilaan on opittava perustaidot tieto- ja viestintätekniikassa ja ymmärrettävä Internetin mahdollisuudet, tai siihen, että opettaja pyrkii suojelemaan lapsia Internetin uhkilta ja liialliselta altistumiselta esimerkiksi digitaalisille peleille. Verkko-opetuksen tavoitteinen arvioinnin fokus (2) nojaa siihen, minkälaisia tavoitteita luokanopettaja yleisesti asettaa opetukselleen, vaikka tieto- ja viestintätekniikka ei liittyisikään prosessiin. Fokuksen taustalla on myös mediakasvatuksen näkökulma tieto- ja viestintätekniikan opetuskäyttöön, jolloin keskeistä on, että opetuksen suunnittelu ja arviointi ei lähde teknologiasta käsin vaan didaktiikasta ja pedagogisista arvoista. Verkko-opetuksen arvioinnin fokusten voidaan nähdä täydentävän toisiaan. Fokusten varioinnissa voidaan puhua luokanopettajan kohdalla todellisesta mediataidosta, joka ulottuu yli ammatillisen pätevyyden aina opettajan henkilökohtaiseen kehittymisen kaareen.
  • Koski, Marja-Ilona; Kurhila, Jaakko; Pasanen, Tomi A. (2008)
    To help students understand subjects such as theoretical aspects of computation, algorithmic reasoning and intelligence of machines, a number of publications report experiments to teach these topics with the help of Lego Mindstorms robots. In the publications, the researchers report how they have created various ways to approach the issues either in Computer Science or in Artificial Intelligence. The reported results of the experiments are based on the learning outcomes, the feedback from the students, and the perceived informal observations (i.e. “feelings”) of the instructors. But can anyone else benefit from the reportedly positive outcomes of the experiments? To give an answer to that question, this paper analyses the reported results through two support theories. The two theories chosen for this, andragogy and minimalism, are concerned with adult learning and how teaching adults should be approached. When reflecting the results of the four teaching experiments to the suggestions drawn from the theories, a more comprehensive answer to why the experiments have been successful can be given. The four teaching experiments analysed here were in many ways similar to each other. A connection to the chosen support theories was straightforward to make. Besides describing the artefacts of teaching with the robots, a deeper discussion on this teaching approach is provided. For an instructor, all these observations offer more concrete evidence about beneficial factors of teaching with robots.
  • Breckle, Margit; Båsk, Märta; Rodenbeck, Rolf (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2007)
    Research Reports
    An der Schwedischen Wirtschaftsuniversität in Finnland wurde in einem mehrjährigen Projekt das gesamte deutsche Sprachcurriculum einer grundlegenden Revision unterzogen mit dem Ziel, unter Berücksichtigung der neuesten Forschungsergebnisse der angewandten Sprachwissenschaft ein zeitgemäßes und konsistentes Deutschcurriculum für Studierende der Wirtschaftswissenschaften zu schaffen. Durch das Projekt wurde für die deutsche Sprachausbildung ein deutliches Profil geschaffen, dessen Fokus auf fachkommunikativer Kompetenz und interkultureller Geschäftskommunikation liegt. Die von der Deutschabteilung entwickelten Lehr- und Lernmaterialien sind weitgehend auf der Basis eigener Forschungsergebnisse konzipiert und evaluiert worden und wurden gleichzeitig an den Gemeinsamen europäischen Referenzrahmens für Sprachen (CEFR) angepasst.
  • Rummukainen, Arto; Alanne, Heikki; Mikkonen, Esko (The Society of Forestry in Finland - The Finnish Forest Research Institute, 1995)
    Linear optimization model was used to calculate seven wood procurement scenarios for years 1990, 2000 and 2010. Productivity and cost functions for seven cutting, five terrain transport, three long distance transport and various work supervision and scaling methods were calculated from available work study reports. All method's base on Nordic cut to length system. Finland was divided in three parts for description of harvesting conditions. Twenty imaginary wood processing points and their wood procurement areas were created for these areas. The procurement systems, which consist of the harvesting conditions and work productivity functions, were described as a simulation model. In the LP-model the wood procurement system has to fulfil the volume and wood assortment requirements of processing points by minimizing the procurement cost. The model consists of 862 variables and 560 restrictions. Results show that it is economical to increase the mechanical work in harvesting. Cost increment alternatives effect only little on profitability of manual work. The areas of later thinnings and seed tree- and shelter wood cuttings increase on cost of first thinnings. In mechanized work one method, 10-tonne one grip harvester and forwarder, is gaining advantage among other methods. Working hours of forwarder are decreasing opposite to the harvester. There is only little need to increase the number of harvesters and trucks or their drivers from today's level. Quite large fluctuations in level of procurement and cost can be handled by constant number of machines, by alternating the number of season workers and by driving machines in two shifts. It is possible, if some environmental problems of large scale summer time harvesting can be solved.