Browsing by Subject "faba bean"

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  • Lamminen, M.; Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, A.; Kokkonen, T.; Vanhatalo, A.; Jaakkola, S. (2019)
    Alternative protein sources such as microalgae and faba beans may have environmental benefits over rapeseed. We studied the effects of rapeseed meal (RSM) or faba beans (FB) as a sole protein feed or as protein feeds partially substituted with Spirulina platensis (spirulina) microalgae on milk production, N utilization, and AA metabolism of dairy cows. Eight multiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows (113 +/- 36.3 d in milk; mean +/- SD) were used in a balanced, replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments and 21-d periods. Four cows in one Latin square were rumen cannulated. Treatments were 2 isonitrogenously fed protein sources, RSM or rolled FB, or one of these sources with half of its crude protein substituted by spirulina (RSM-SPI and FB-SPI). Cows had ad libitum access to total mixed rations consisting of grass silage, barley, sugar beet pulp, minerals, and experimental protein feed. The substitution of RSM with FB did not affect dry matter intake (DMI) but decreased neutral detergent fiber intake and increased the digestibility of other nutrients. Spirulina in the diet decreased DMI and His intake. Spirulina had no effect on Met intake in cows on RSM diets but increased it in those on FB diets. Energy-corrected milk (ECM) and protein yields were decreased when RSM was substituted by FB. Milk and lactose yields were decreased in cows on the RSM-SPI diet compared with the RSM diet but increased in those on FB-SPI compared with FB. The opposite was true for milk fat and protein concentrations; thus, spirulina in the diet did not affect ECM. Feed conversion efficiency (ECM: DMI) increased in cows on FB diets with spirulina, whereas little effect was observed for those on RSM diets. The substitution of RSM by FB decreased arterial concentration of Met and essential AA. Spirulina in the diet increased milk urea N and ruminal NH4-N and decreased the efficiency of N utilization in cows on RSM diets, whereas those on FB diets showed opposite results. Met likely limited milk production in cows on the FB diet as evidenced by the decrease in arterial Met concentration and milk protein yield when RSM was substituted by FB. The results suggest the potential to improve milk production response to faba beans with supplementation of Met-rich feeds such as spirulina. This study also confirmed spirulina had poorer palatability than RSM and FB despite total mixed ration feeding and lower milk production when spirulina partially replaced RSM.
  • Vottonen, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) also known as broad bean is an ancient pulse, grown since Neolithic times. It is an excellent source of protein, energy and fibre to humans and animals. Recently in Finland, faba bean has featured heavily in meat replacements, meant for vegan consumers. Faba bean can also be grown further north, than soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), making it a possible domestic plant protein source for Finns. The problem with faba bean is that the beans contain various anti-nutritional compounds. The major ones are vicine and convicine (v-c), located in the cotyledons of the beans, which means that dehulling the seeds does not remove them. V-c can cause favism in humans with G6PD gene mutation this is a disease where red blood cells are destroyed, in worst cases resulting in blood transfusions and death. V-c is also an anti-feedant to livestock and can among other things cause increase in mortality in poultry. Normal v-c content of faba bean is around 1%. There are low v-c faba beans that contain only 5-15% of the original v-c. Markers for this trait have been found, but gene controlling for this trait is not known yet. The synthesis pathway of the v-c is not known. There is a new hypothesis by Dr Fernando Geu Flores of The University of Copenhagen, where the v-c synthesis is an off shoot of another biosynthetic pathway. An experiment was done where RNA of two populations (one low v-c and other high) were compared to each other. The samples were taken during the seed filling period, which is thought to be when v-c is synthesized. Kernel, testa, pod and leaf tissues were collected and RNA of those extracted. Only kernel and testa samples were sequenced. This thesis focuses on the testa results. Results showed differences between the populations. Considering the new hypothesis, the results showed some differences in the beginning of the suspected pathway, with the high v-c population having a 4.97 fold increase compared to the low v-c population. Other differences were also noted, which may cast light on other steps in the pathway.