Browsing by Subject "fermentation"

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  • Viksten, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The literature review focused on the proteins and insoluble fibre, ?-(1->4)-galactan, of blue lupin seed and how they degrade during germination. The review also dealt with the food applications of lupins and the harmful substances of lupins: allergens and ?-galactosides. The object of the experimental study was to determine the peptidase activities in the blue lupin seeds at the different stages of germination, classify the peptidases in the seeds and investigate the changes occuring in the proteins during germination and fermentation. The percentage of the water-soluble protein in the seeds was also determined. Blue lupin seeds were soaked in water over night and were germinated in the dark (15 ° C, RH 100 %). Peptidase activities were determined spectrofotometrically using azo-casein as a substrate. Class-specific peptidase-inhibitors (Pepstatin A, PMSF, E-64 and O-FEN) were used for classification of peptidases. Lactobacillus brevis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus were used in the fermentations (35 °C, 24 h) as well as baking yeast. The changes which occured in the proteins during germination and fermentation were investigated by electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The Dumas method was used to determine the percentage of the water-soluble protein in the extracts composed of soaked and germinated (2 day) seeds. Peptidase activities increased until the second day of germination and then remained constant until the fourth day. Serine- and aspartic peptidases were identified by inhibitor tests but not cysteine peptidases, even though cysteine peptidases have been previously known to break down legume proteins during germination. The cysteine peptidase inhibitor, E-64, used in this study has been observed earlier to inhibit cysteine peptidases belonging to papain family but not to legumain family. Proteins degraded slightly when the germination continued 4 days, and the degradation continued further during the fermentations. Large polypeptides (MW 45–100 kDa) mainly degraded during germination and fermentation. In addition, 17 kDa polypeptides degraded during fermentation. Possible 20 kDa hydrolysis products also formed during fermentation. The degradation of proteins in fermentations was more efficient when seeds germinated for 2 days were used compared to ungerminated seeds. The content of the water-soluble protein in the soaked seeds and the seeds germinated for 2 days varied between 35–96 %, and the content increased markedly when the pH of the extraction solvent increased from 6 to between 7.5–9.0. Thus the alkalinity of the extraction solution changed the structure of the storage seed proteins to more water-soluble form. The peptidase activity of germinated blue lupin could be applied in varied fermentation processes. The storage proteins of blue lupin were extremely water-soluble, so this discovery could be utilised for manufacturing substitutes for dairy products.
  • Huang, Xin; Schuppan, Detlef; Tovar, Luis E. Rojas; Zevallos, Victor F.; Loponen, Jussi; Ganzle, Michael (2020)
    The ingestion of gluten-containing foods can cause wheat-related disorders in up to 15% of wheat consuming populations. Besides the role of gluten, alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATI) have recently been identified as inducers of an innate immune response via toll-like receptor 4 in celiac disease and non-celiac wheat sensitivity. ATI are involved in plant self-defense against insects and possibly in grain development. Notably, they are largely resistant to gastrointestinal proteases and heat, and their inflammatory activity affects not only the intestine, but also peripheral organs. The aim of this study was to understand the changes of ATI throughout the sourdough and yeast-fermented bread-making processes. ATI tetramers were isolated, fluorescein-labelled, and added to a mini-dough bread-making system. When the pH decreased below 4.0 in sourdough fermentation, the ATI tetramers were degraded due to the activation of aspartic proteases, whilst in yeast fermentation, ATI tetramers remained intact. The amylase inhibitory activity after sourdough fermentation decreased significantly, while the concentration of free thiol groups increased. The glutathione reductase activity ofFructilactobacillus sanfranciscensisdid not contribute to the reduction of ATI tetramers. Compared to the unfermented wheat, sourdough fermentation was able to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) in quantitative ATI extracts added to the human monocytic cell line THP-1. The current data suggest that sourdough fermentation can degrade ATI structure and bioactivity, and point to strategies to improve product development for wheat sensitivity patients.
  • Tenhovirta, Santeri (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In the thesis, the effects of six different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species on properties of sour beer was studied. As the fermentation by LAB may yield unexpected results, and as the prediction of specific organoleptic compounds present in LAB-fermented sour beers has proven to be challenging, sensory and chemical properties of sour beers fermented with selected LAB was assessed. The main research question was “are there statistically significant differences between the different sensory properties of the sour beers produced with different LAB species?”. Use of Lactobacillus plantarum, L. rhamnosus, L. brevis, L. buchneri, L. delbrueckii and previ-ously unreported in sour beer brewing, L. alimentarius, was assessed. Fermentation was carried over approximately six weeks, during which the changes in viable cell density, pH, refractive index, organic acid and ethanol (using PDA/RI) and sugar compositions (using HPAEC-PAD) were assessed. Sensory evaluation was performed in two parts: Overall preference rank test with untrained panellists and descriptive analysis with trained panellists. Differences were found in the results of viable cell count, organic acid composition and descriptive sensory analysis. Increase in lactic, acetic and succinic acid and ethanol over the fermentation period was detected. Decrease in citric acid, maltose, glucose and sucrose was detected. Novel L. alimentarius yielded fastest growth rate, with encouraging results from sensory analysis. L. delbrueckii did not grow in the substrate media, allowing possible infection to take place. L. brevis and L. buchneri yielded acetic acid concentrations detectable in sensory and chemical analysis. Increased lactic acid concentration was associated with increased overall rank, raspberry aroma and apple and vinous flavours, with negative correlation to butyric, rancid and yeasty flavours and bitter aftertaste. Further studies are suggested to assess the effects of fermentation temperature, O2 availability, wort composition and buffering capacity on the results of the LAB fermentations.
  • Song, Airu (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Sorghum and millets are important crops in the world and they are rich of phenolic compounds. Phenolic compounds have good antioxidant ability and they are regarded as the good natural protective screens for oxidative damage. However, the previous studies has only focused on the amount and antioxidant property of phenolic compounds in sorghum and millets and there were limited studies about the effect of sourdough fermentation on the phenolic compounds. Hence, it is necessary to study the fate of phenolic compounds during the sourdough fermentation. The aim of the experimental work was to study the changes of phenolic compounds, namely the soluble and bound phenolics, during lactic acid bacteria fermentation of wholegrain sorghum and millets, and to study the factors contributing to their modifications. Two millet varieties, i.e. finger miller and pearl millet (millet Jaune), and two types of sorghum, i.e. white sorghum and red sorghum were used in this study. Each experiment consisted of two samples, one unfermented and one fermented. The fermented sample was fermented by W. Confusa A16, which was isolated from a sourdough pancake in Burkina Faso and identified in University of Helsinki. During the experiment part, different extraction solvents and methods were used in order to obtain a better extraction of phenolics. Ethanol and methanol were selected as the extraction solvent for soluble phenolics and ultrasonic bath was used to assisst the extraction of insoluble-bound phenolics. And the content of phenolic compounds were determinated by Folin-Ciocalteu assay in coupled with spectrophotometer. The results showed that methanol as the extraction solvent was more efficient in extracting the soluble phenolics than ethanol. And ultrasonic bath could shorten the extraction time of bound phenols from 16h to 2.5h with a good extraction result compared with non-ultrasonic bath. In this study, the content of extracted phenolic compounds varied among different classes and subclasses. Sorghum generally contained higher content of phenolic compounds than millets. And the total phenolic compounds in red sorghum was higher than white sorghum. The changes of total phenolic compounds and insoluble-bound phenolic compounds during sourdough fermentation followed the same trend, both of which decreased after sourdough fermentation. Conversely, soluble phenolic compounds increased during sourdough fermentation both in millet and sorghum samples. Increased enzymatic activities and the increased acidic medium environment during sourdough fermentation might form new interactions between phenolics and other macromolecules or cause the structure changes of phenolics, thus lead to changes of the amount of extractable phenolic compounds. However, the results obtain from this experiment are not completely consistent with literature data, which might be related to the different cultivar of the sorghum and millet raw materials used and the experimental methods adopted .