Browsing by Subject "food"

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  • EFSA Panel Contaminants Food Chain; Knutsen, Helle; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami; Bruschweiler; Ceccatelli; Cottrill; Dinovi; Edler; Grasl-Kraupp; Hogstrand; Nebbia; Oswald; Petersen; Rose; Roudot; Schwerdtle; Vleminckx; Vollmer; Wallace; Furst; Håkansson, Helen; Halldorsson; Lundebye; Pohjanvirta, Raimo Kalevi; Rylander; Smith; van Loveren; Waalkens-Berendsen; Zeilmaker; Binaglia; Gomez Ruiz; Horvath; Christoph; Ciccolallo; Ramos Bordajandi; Steinkellner; Hoogenboom, Ron (2018)
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.
  • Emameh, Reza Zolfaghari; Purmonen, Sami; Sukura, Antti; Parkkila, Seppo (2018)
    Foodborne parasites are a source of human parasitic infection. Zoonotic infections of humans arise from a variety of domestic and wild animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, pigs, boars, bears, felines, canids, amphibians, reptiles, poultry, and aquatic animals such as fishes and shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of efficient, accessible, and controllable inspection policies for livestock, fisheries, slaughterhouses, and meat processing and packaging companies is highly recommended. In addition, more attention should be paid to the education of auditors from the quality control (QC) and assurance sectors, livestock breeders, the fishery sector, and meat inspection veterinarians in developing countries with high incidence of zoonotic parasitic infections. Furthermore, both the diagnosis of zoonotic parasitic infections by inexpensive, accessible, and reliable identification methods and the organization of effective control systems with sufficient supervision of product quality are other areas to which more attention should be paid. In this review, we present some examples of successful inspection policies and recent updates on present conventional, serologic, and molecular diagnostic methods for zoonotic foodborne parasites from both human infection and animal-derived foods.
  • Niva, Mari; Jallinoja, Piia (2018)
    This study looks at food as a realm of political consumption by examining buycotting and boycotting of foods for ethical, political or environmental reasons in Finland. The results of an Internet-based survey (N = 1021) showed that around half of the respondents often or occasionally both buycotted and boycotted foods. Multinomial regression models indicated that women, the highly educated, the political left, those who donated for charity, those whose food choices were motivated by domestic origin and ethical food production, and those who trusted that consumption choices, institutional actors and the media can advance ethical food production and consumption, were most likely to be active in buycotting and boycotting. Buycotters/boycotters were very active in buying local food but less eager, for instance, to buy organic or Fair Trade products or to reduce the use of meat or milk. The article concludes by critically assessing the complex relationship between buycotting/boycotting and sustainable practices and suggesting that consumers may be more willing to transform their eating patterns if other societal actors, too, make an effort to influence ethical food consumption.
  • Uotila, Sarri (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Haemoglobin and globin from blood cells and albumin, fibrinogen and immunoglobulins from blood plasma are the most important proteins in slaughter blood. Different fractions of blood have slightly different technological properties. Adding blood proteins can have an effect on the gelling, foaming and emulsifying properties of foodstuffs. Blood protein hydrolysates have antioxidative and antigenotoxic effects that could be utilised as food preservatives or in functional foods to strengthen health. The nutritional value of food can be improved by adding blood proteins. Blood proteins can be utilized by replacing egg, fat and sodium caseinate in foods, to improve structure and shelf life of food. Blood proteins can also be utilised replacing egg white, milk or soy proteins or replacing fat in light products. Ultrafiltration is a common method in the food industry and it is also suitable for processing blood proteins. The aim of the study was to optimize an ultrafiltration method to concentrate porcine slaughter blood for use in the food industry and to determine the technological properties of plasma concentrate and its suitability for use in the food industry. Response surface methodology was used to create a mathematical model to calculate the optimal ultrafiltration parameters for plasma concentrations. Optimal conditions for the ultrafiltration were an Ultracel PLTK 30 membrane, temperature of 40 ºC and pressure of 2 bar. The technological properties of blood proteins were measured at pH 4.5, 5.5, 6.3 and 7.0. Volume and stability were measured from foams prepared by whipping from plasma concentrate diluted to protein concentration of 5.8 %. Foam volume and stability were greatest at pH 5.5 and weakest at pH 7.0. Emulsifying capacity was measured from plasma concentrate diluted to 0.01 % protein concentration. Emulsifying capacity was weakest at pH 5.5 and increased towards high and low pH. Rheological properties of gels made from 10 % plasma concentrate were measured. The gels were weakest near the isoelectric point of plasma proteins at pH 5.5. Plasma concentrate was used to prepare bologna sausage. The structure and sensory properties of the sausages were evaluated. The sausages containing plasma concentrate were evaluated as equal to control sausages in every category.
  • Soininen, Riikka (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    The aim of this licentiate thesis is to assess by literature the potential exposure of humans to Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) through food and drinking water in Finland and Minnesota, USA and to represent the prevalence (the total number of cases of a disease at a specific time) of Johne's disease and the prevalence and incidence (the number of new cases of a disease during a certain period of time) Crohn's disease in the United States, Minnesota and Finland. Johne's disease (JD), also known as paratuberculosis, is a globally important chronic intestinal disease of cattle and other ruminants such as goats and sheep caused by MAP. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic intestinal disease of humans. The etiology of CD is unknown but in addition to genetic susceptibility, environmental factors have been found to have an impact on the onset of the disease. It has been suggested that MAP could be one of the etiologic agents of CD. In the United States, JD is more common in dairy cattle than in beef cattle. The apparent cow-level prevalence is 6% and apparent herd-level prevalence is 68 % in dairy cattle. In Minnesota the apparent prevalence of JD in dairy cattle at the cow-level is 3% and at the herd-level 46%. In beef cattle the prevalence at the cow-level is only 0.3 % in Minnesota. The prevalence of CD in the United States is 241/100,000 and the annual incidence 20/100,000. The prevalence of CD in Minnesota is 222/100,000 and the annual incidence 13/100,000. In Finland, JD has been diagnosed in five beef cattle herds since 1992. The disease has not been diagnosed in dairy cattle or sheep or goats in Finland. The prevalence of CD in Finland is 124/100,000 and the annual incidence 9/100,000. The prevalence of MAP in food and drinking water in Finland has not been studied. Despite this, it is unlikely that people are exposed to MAP through drinking water or by eating foods of Finnish origin because the prevalence of JD in Finland is very low. However, exposure to the bacterium is possible by eating imported beef and dairy products such as cheese and yogurt. The share of imported foods within these food groups is relatively large in Finland. Dairy products and beef are imported for example from Germany and Denmark where the prevalence of JD at the herd-level is about 50–80 %. In the United States the occurrence of MAP in foods and drinking water has been studied quite much. It appears that the bacterium is found in foods and drinking water of U.S. origin. Because JD is so common in the United States and Minnesota, it is likely that people are exposed to the bacterium in Minnesota even though not all the food eaten is produced in the state. It is likely that people in areas of high prevalence of JD are exposed more to MAP than people in areas of low prevalence of JD. Comparing subsets of CD patients with high exposure to MAP to healthy controls with and without exposure to MAP could reveal the possible role of MAP in the complex etiology of CD. Based on this literature review it can be assumed that in Finland CD is caused by some other environmental agent than MAP. This licentiate thesis sets up further research needs to estimate the true human exposure to MAP.
  • Huan-Niemi, Ellen; Kaljonen, Minna; Knuuttila, Marja; Niemi, Jyrki; Saarinen, Merja (Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 2020)
    Agricultural Food Science 29 4 (2020)
    This study examined what kind of policy instruments and actions are needed for sustainable dietary change and how a large-scale dietary change would impact the climate, thus analysing the economic impacts of transitioning from animal-based diets to alternative plant-based diets. The transition would require the support of horizontal measures that can be implemented throughout the food system. Shifting the emphasis toward the drivers of food demand and consumption will increase the role of new policy instruments and the actors involved in the food system. Collaborative research between environmental and nutritional sciences with economics and policy analysis is necessary to link nutritional health and environmental objectives with economic and social impacts. Less resource-demanding diets would reduce the impact from the food system and lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Drastic changes in diets and food consumption in Finland would have an impact on primary agricultural production, but the output from the food processing industry would only be slightly affected. However, a successful transition would involve considerable investments in the agricultural and food industry.
  • Leppämäki, Sanna-Kaisa (2006)
    In contemporary western societies people face a wide range of different foods and information about them. What happens when a person concretely encounters foods that are unfamiliar to them? Food encounter is a complex interplay between the food and the individual in a given context involving biological, psychological, social and cultural aspects. The theory of social representations offers a perspective to study this interplay. The objective of this work was to study the process of anchoring, described by the theory, of representations related to new foods. The method was based on the observation of the subjects' actions in concrete, experimental food encounter situations. Filming and debrief interviews were used to capture the phenomena in these encounters. Filming was done with two cameras, one giving an overall view, and a miniature camera (subcam) carried by the subject, giving his visual perspective to the situation. Analysis of the film material gave detailed empirical evidence of the anchoring process of which mechanisms are not specified by the theory. In making sense of the foods, the subjects engaged in explorative actions in relation to the foods, the other person and their own prior representations. Already existing representations influenced both actions and conclusions concerning the foods: These results support the theory's view of anchoring as classification in terms of the already known categories of thought. By actions directed to the researcher, i.e. verbal and non-verbal social probing, representational elements were actively sought from the other person. Introducing the same food as organic or genetically modified did in several cases influence the sample exploration, and through it also the sensory perceptions and the interpretation about them - these findings also indicated that anchoring could operate in a way of self-fulfilling prophecy. Moreover, the subjects organized their actions according to their interpretations about the demands of the research situation. The results show that anchoring is not limited to cognitive aspects, and points the importance of social interaction in this process, and opens new perspectives for the theory and practice in the domain of new products adoption.