Browsing by Subject "galaxies: evolution"

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  • Deshev, Boris; Haines, Christopher; Hwang, Ho Seong; Finoguenov, Alexis; Taylor, Rhys; Orlitova, Ivana; Einasto, Maret; Ziegler, Bodo (2020)
    Aims. We qualitatively assess and map the relative contribution of pre-processing and cluster related processes to the build-up of A963, a massive cluster at z=0.2 showing an unusually high fraction of star forming galaxies in its interior.Methods. We use Voronoi binning of positions of cluster members on the plane of the sky in order to map the 2D variations of galaxy properties in the centre and infall region of A963. We map four galaxy parameters (fraction of star forming galaxies, specific star formation rate, HI deficiency and age of the stellar population) based on full SED fitting, 21 cm imaging and optical spectroscopy.Results. We find an extended region dominated by passive galaxies along a north-south axis crossing the cluster centre, possibly associated with known filaments of the large-scale structure. There are signs that the passive galaxies in this region were quenched long before their arrival in the vicinity of the cluster. Contrary to that, to the east and west of the cluster centre lie regions of recent accretion dominated by gas rich, actively star forming galaxies not associated with any substructure or filament. The few passive galaxies in this region appear to be recently quenched, and some gas rich galaxies show signs of ongoing ram-pressure stripping. We report the first tentative observations at 21 cm of ongoing ram-pressure stripping at z=0.2, as well as observed inflow of low-entropy gas into the cluster along filaments of the large-scale structure.Conclusions. The observed galaxy content of A963 is a result of strongly anisotropic accretion of galaxies with different properties. Gas rich, star forming galaxies are being accreted from the east and west of the cluster and these galaxies are being quenched at r<R-200, likely by ram-pressure stripping. The bulk of the accretion onto the cluster, containing multiple groups, happens along the north-south axis and brings mostly passive galaxies, likely quenched before entering A963.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Erfanianfar, G.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2019)
    We use galaxy dynamical information to calibrate the richness-mass scaling relation of a sample of 428 galaxy clusters that are members of the CODEX sample with redshifts up to z similar to 0.7. These clusters were X-ray selected using the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and then cross-matched to associated systems in the redMaPPer (the red sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation) catalogue from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The spectroscopic sample we analyse was obtained in the SPIDERS program and contains similar to 7800 red member galaxies. Adopting NFW mass and galaxy density profiles and a broad range of orbital anisotropy profiles, we use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses. Modelling the scaling relation as lambda proportional to A(lambda) M-200c(B lambda) (1 + z)()lambda), we find the parameter constraints A(lambda) = 38.6(-4.1)(+3.1) +/- 3.9, B-lambda = 0.99(-0.07)(+0.06) +/- 0.04, and gamma(lambda) = -1.13(-0.34)(+0.32) +/- 0.49, where we present systematic uncertainties as a second component. We find good agreement with previously published mass trends with the exception of those from stacked weak lensing analyses. We note that although the lensing analyses failed to account for the Eddington bias, this is not enough to explain the differences. We suggest that differences in the levels of contamination between pure redMaPPer and RASS + redMaPPer samples could well contribute to these differences. The redshift trend we measure is more negative than but statistically consistent with previous results. We suggest that our measured redshift trend reflects a change in the cluster galaxy red sequence (RS) fraction with redshift, noting that the trend we measure is consistent with but somewhat stronger than an independently measured redshift trend in the RS fraction. We also examine the impact of a plausible model of correlated scatter in X-ray luminosity and optical richness, showing it has negligible impact on our results.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Klein, M.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2020)
    We perform the calibration of the X-ray luminosity-mass scaling relation on a sample of 344 CODEX clusters with z <0.66 using the dynamics of their member galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up measurements have been obtained from the SPIDERS survey, leading to a sample of 6658 red member galaxies. We use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses, assuming an NFW mass profile and analysing a broad range of anisotropy profiles. With a scaling relation of the form L-X proportional to A(X)M(200c)(BX) E(z)(2)(1 + z)(gamma x), we find best-fitting parameters A(X) = 0.62(-0.06)(+0.05) (+/- 0.06) x 10(44) erg s(-)(1), B-X = 2.35(-0.18)(+0.21)(+/- 0.09), gamma(X) = -2.77(-1.05)(+1.06)(+/- 0.79), where we include systematic uncertainties in parentheses and for a pivot mass and redshift of 3 x 10(14) M-circle dot and 0.16, respectively. We compare our constraints with previous results, and we combine our sample with the SPT SZE-selected cluster subsample observed with XMM-Newton extending the validity of our results to a wider range of redshifts and cluster masses.
  • Aghanim, N.; Altieri, B.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A. J.; Barreiro, R. B.; Bartolo, N.; Battaner, E.; Beelen, A.; Benabed, K.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J. -P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J. R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F. R.; Boulanger, F.; Burigana, C.; Calabrese, E.; Canameras, R.; Cardoso, J. -F.; Catalano, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chary, R. -R.; Chiang, H. C.; Christensen, P. R.; Clements, D. L.; Colombi, S.; Couchot, F.; Crill, B. P.; Curto, A.; Danese, L.; Dassas, K.; Davies, R. D.; Davis, R. J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Diego, J. M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Keihänen, Elina; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Valiviita, J. (2015)
    We have used the Planck all-sky submillimetre and millimetre maps to search for rare sources distinguished by extreme brightness, a few hundred millijanskies, and their potential for being situated at high redshift. These "cold" Planck sources, selected using the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) directly from the maps and from the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS), all satisfy the criterion of having their rest-frame far-infrared peak redshifted to the frequency range 353-857 GHz. This colour-selection favours galaxies in the redshift range z = 2-4, which we consider as cold peaks in the cosmic infrared background. With a 4.'5 beam at the four highest frequencies, our sample is expected to include overdensities of galaxies in groups or clusters, lensed galaxies, and chance line-of-sight projections. We perform a dedicated Herschel-SPIRE follow-up of 234 such Planck targets, finding a significant excess of red 350 and 500 mu m sources, in comparison to reference SPIRE fields. About 94% of the SPIRE sources in the Planck fields are consistent with being overdensities of galaxies peaking at 350 mu m, with 3% peaking at 500 mu m, and none peaking at 250 mu m. About 3% are candidate lensed systems, all 12 of which have secure spectroscopic confirmations, placing them at redshifts z > 2.2. Only four targets are Galactic cirrus, yielding a success rate in our search strategy for identifying extragalactic sources within the Planck beam of better than 98%. The galaxy overdensities are detected with high significance, half of the sample showing statistical significance above 10 sigma. The SPIRE photometric redshifts of galaxies in overdensities suggest a peak at z similar or equal to 2, assuming a single common dust temperature for the sources of T-d = 35 K. Under this assumption, we derive an infrared (IR) luminosity for each SPIRE source of about 4x10(12) L-circle dot, yielding star formation rates of typically 700 M-circle dot yr(-1). If the observed overdensities are actual gravitationally-bound structures, the total IR luminosity of all their SPIRE-detected sources peaks at 4 x 10(13) L-circle dot, leading to total star formation rates of perhaps 7 x 10(3) M-circle dot yr(-1) per overdensity. Taken together, these sources show the signatures of high-z (z > 2) protoclusters of intensively star-forming galaxies. All these observations confirm the uniqueness of our sample compared to reference samples and demonstrate the ability of the all-sky Planck-HFI cold sources to select populations of cosmological and astrophysical interest for structure formation studies.
  • Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Lahen, Natalia; Sawala, Till (2017)
    We present KETJU, a new extension of the widely used smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code GADGET-3. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of algorithmically regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries, and surrounding stellar systems at subparsec scales. The KETJU code includes post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs, which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale, pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to similar to 0.005 pc. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multicomponent merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the nonspherical shape of the merger remnants. For bulge-only models, the hardening rate decreases with increasing resolution, whereas for models that in addition include massive dark matter halos, the SMBH binary hardening rate becomes practically independent of the mass resolution of the stellar bulge. The SMBHs coalesce on average 200 Myr after the formation of the SMBH binary. However, small differences in the initial SMBH binary eccentricities can result in large differences in the SMBH coalescence times. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of KETJU, which allows for a straightforward inclusion of gas physics in the simulations.
  • Pawlik, M. M.; Wild, V.; Walcher, C. J.; Johansson, P. H.; Villforth, C.; Rowlands, K.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Hewlett, T. (2016)
    We present a new morphological indicator designed for automated recognition of galaxies with faint asymmetric tidal features suggestive of an ongoing or past merger. We use the new indicator, together with pre-existing diagnostics of galaxy structure to study the role of galaxy mergers in inducing (post-) starburst spectral signatures in local galaxies, and investigate whether (post-) starburst galaxies play a role in the build-up of the 'red sequence'. Our morphological and structural analysis of an evolutionary sample of 335 (post-) starburst galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7 with starburst ages 0 <t(SB) <0.6 Gyr, shows that 45 per cent of galaxies with young starbursts (t(SB) <0.1 Gyr) show signatures of an ongoing or past merger. This fraction declines with starburst age, and we find a good agreement between automated and visual classifications. The majority of the oldest (post-) starburst galaxies in our sample (t(SB) similar to 0.6 Gyr) have structural properties characteristic of early-type discs and are not as highly concentrated as the fully quenched galaxies commonly found on the 'red sequence' in the present day Universe. This suggests that, if (post-) starburst galaxies are a transition phase between active star-formation and quiescence, they do not attain the structure of presently quenched galaxies within the first 0.6 Gyr after the starburst.
  • Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo (2017)
    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). TheNIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.
  • Liu, Tie; Kim, Kee-Tae; Yoo, Hyunju; Liu, Sheng-Yuan; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Qin, Sheng-Li; Zhang, Qizhou; Wu, Yuefang; Wang, Ke; Goldsmith, Paul F.; Juvela, Mika; Lee, Jeong-Eun; Toth, L. Viktor; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Bronfman, Leonardo; Cunningham, Maria R.; Li, Di; Lo, Nadia; Ristorcelli, Isabelle; Schnee, Scott (2016)
    We observed 146 Galactic clumps in HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment 10 m telescope. A tight linear relationship between star formation rate and gas mass traced by dust continuum emission was found for both Galactic clumps and the high redshift (z > 1) star forming galaxies (SFGs), indicating a constant gas depletion time of similar to 100 Myr for molecular gas in both Galactic clumps and high z SFGs. However, low z galaxies do not follow this relation and seem to have a longer global gas depletion time. The correlations between total infrared luminosities (L-TIR) and molecular line luminosities (L-mol') of HCN (4-3) and CS (7-6) are tight and sublinear extending down to clumps with L-TIR similar to 10(3) L-circle dot. These correlations become linear when extended to external galaxies. A bimodal behavior in the L-TIR-L-mol' correlations was found for clumps with different dust temperature, luminosity-to-mass ratio, and sigma(line)/sigma(vir). Such bimodal behavior may be due to evolutionary effects. The slopes of L-TIR-L-mol' correlations become more shallow as clumps evolve. We compared our results with lower J transition lines in Wu et al. (2010). The correlations between clump masses and line luminosities are close to linear for low effective excitation density tracers but become sublinear for high effective excitation density tracers for clumps with L-TIR larger than L-TIR similar to 10(4.5) L-circle dot. High effective excitation density tracers cannot linearly trace the total clump masses, leading to a sublinear correlations for both M-clump-L-mol' and L-TIR-L-mol' relations.
  • Erfanianfar, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Furnell, K.; Popesso, P.; Biviano, A.; Wuyts, S.; Collins, C. A.; Mirkazemi, M.; Comparat, J.; Khosroshahi, H.; Nandra, K.; Capasso, R.; Rykoff, E.; Wilman, D.; Merloni, A.; Clerc, N.; Salvato, M.; Chitham, J. I.; Kelvin, L. S.; Gozaliasl, G.; Weijmans, A.; Brownstein, J.; Egami, E.; Pereira, M. J.; Schneider, D. P.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Damsted, S.; Kukkola, A. (2019)
    We present the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs) catalog for SPectroscoic IDentification of eROSITA Sources (SPIDERS) DR14 cluster program value-added catalog. We list the 416 BCGs identified as part of this process, along with their stellar mass, star formation rates (SFRs), and morphological properties. We identified the BCGs based on the available spectroscopic data from SPIDERS and photometric data from SDSS. We computed stellar masses and SFRs of the BCGs on the basis of SDSS, WISE, and GALEX photometry using spectral energy distribution fitting. Morphological properties for all BCGs were derived by Sersic profile fitting using the software package SIGMA in different optical bands (g,r,i). We combined this catalog with the BCGs of galaxy groups and clusters extracted from the deeper AEGIS, CDFS, COSMOS, XMM-CFHTLS, and XMM-XXL surveys to study the stellar mass-halo mass relation using the largest sample of X-ray groups and clusters known to date. This result suggests that the mass growth of the central galaxy is controlled by the hierarchical mass growth of the host halo. We find a strong correlation between the stellar mass of BCGs and the mass of their host halos. This relation shows no evolution since z similar to 0.65. We measure a mean scatter of 0.21 and 0.25 for the stellar mass of BCGs in a given halo mass at low (0.1 <z <0.3) and high (0.3 <z <0.65) redshifts, respectively. We further demonstrate that the BCG mass is covariant with the richness of the host halos in the very X-ray luminous systems. We also find evidence that part of the scatter between X-ray luminosity and richness can be reduced by considering stellar mass as an additional variable.
  • Habouzit, Melanie; Li, Yuan; Somerville, Rachel S.; Genel, Shy; Pillepich, Annalisa; Volonteri, Marta; Dave, Romeel; Rosas-Guevara, Yetli; McAlpine, Stuart; Peirani, Sebastien; Hernquist, Lars; Anglés-Alcázar, Daniel; Reines, Amy; Bower, Richard; Dubois, Yohan; Nelson, Dylan; Pichon, Christophe; Vogelsberger, Mark (2021)
    The past decade has seen significant progress in understanding galaxy formation and evolution using large-scale cosmological simulations. While these simulations produce galaxies in overall good agreement with observations, they employ different sub-grid models for galaxies and supermassive black holes (BHs). We investigate the impact of the sub-grid models on the BH mass properties of the Illustris, TNG100, TNG300, Horizon-AGN, EAGLE, and SIMBA simulations, focusing on the M-BH - M-star relation and the BH mass function. All simulations predict tight M-BH - M-star relations, and struggle to produce BHs of M-BH = 109M (circle dot) in most of the simulations. The BH mass function is dominated by efficiently accreting BHs ((log(10) f(Edd) >= -2) at high redshifts, and transitions progressively from the high-mass to the low-mass end to be governed by inactive BHs. The transition time and the contribution of active BHs are different among the simulations, and can be used to evaluate models against observations.
  • Sawala, Till; Frenk, Carlos S.; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Bower, Richard G.; Crain, Robert A.; Dalla Vecchia, Claudio; Furlong, Michelle; Helly, John. C.; Jenkins, Adrian; Oman, Kyle A.; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; Theuns, Tom; Trayford, James; White, Simon D. M. (2016)
    The Local Group galaxies offer some of the most discriminating tests of models of cosmic structure formation. For example, observations of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda satellite populations appear to be in disagreement with N-body simulations of the 'lambda cold dark matter' (I > CDM) model: there are far fewer satellite galaxies than substructures in CDM haloes (the 'missing satellites' problem); dwarf galaxies seem to avoid the most massive substructures (the 'too-big-to-fail' problem); and the brightest satellites appear to orbit their host galaxies on a thin plane (the 'planes of satellites' problem). Here we present results from apostle (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment), a suite of cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of 12 volumes selected to match the kinematics of the Local Group (LG) members. Applying the eagle code to the LG environment, we find that our simulations match the observed abundance of LG galaxies, including the satellite galaxies of the MW and Andromeda. Due to changes to the structure of haloes and the evolution in the LG environment, the simulations reproduce the observed relation between stellar mass and velocity dispersion of individual dwarf spheroidal galaxies without necessitating the formation of cores in their dark matter profiles. Satellite systems form with a range of spatial anisotropies, including one similar to the MWs, confirming that such a configuration is not unexpected in I > CDM. Finally, based on the observed velocity dispersion, size, and stellar mass, we provide estimates of the maximum circular velocity for the haloes of nine MW dwarf spheroidals.
  • Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Elvis, M.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Hasinger, G.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Cappelluti, N.; Cardamone, C.; Finoguenov, A.; Griffiths, R. E.; Karim, A.; Laigle, C.; LaMassa, S. M.; Jahnke, K.; Ranalli, P.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J. D.; Smolcic, V.; Suh, H.; Trakhtenbrot, B. (2016)
    We present the catalog of optical and infrared counterparts of the Chandra. COSMOS-Legacy. Survey, a 4.6 Ms Chandra. program on the 2.2 deg(2) of the COSMOS field, combination of 56 new overlapping observations obtained in Cycle 14 with the previous C-COSMOS survey. In this Paper we report the i, K, and 3.6 mu m identifications of the 2273 X-ray point sources detected in the new Cycle 14 observations. We use the likelihood ratio technique to derive the association of optical/infrared (IR) counterparts for 97% of the X-ray sources. We also update the information for the 1743 sources detected in C-COSMOS, using new K and 3.6 mu 3m information not available when the C-COSMOS analysis was performed. The final catalog contains 4016 X-ray sources, 97% of which have an optical/IR counterpart and a photometric redshift, while; similar or equal to 54% of the sources have a spectroscopic redshift. The full catalog, including spectroscopic and photometric redshifts and optical and X-ray properties described here in detail, is available online. We study several X-ray to optical (X/O) properties: with our large statistics we put better constraints on the X/O flux ratio locus, finding a shift toward faint optical magnitudes in both soft and hard X-ray band. We confirm the existence of a correlation between X/O and the the 2-10 keV luminosity for Type 2 sources. We extend to low luminosities the analysis of the correlation between the fraction of obscured AGNs and the hard band luminosity, finding a different behavior between the optically and X-ray classified obscured fraction.
  • Civano, F.; Marchesi, S.; Comastri, A.; Urry, M. C.; Elvis, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Puccetti, S.; Brusa, M.; Zamorani, G.; Hasinger, G.; Aldcroft, T.; Alexander, D. M.; Allevato, V.; Brunner, H.; Capak, P.; Finoguenov, A.; Fiore, F.; Fruscione, A.; Gilli, R.; Glotfelty, K.; Griffiths, R. E.; Hao, H.; Harrison, F. A.; Jahnke, K.; Kartaltepe, J.; Karim, A.; LaMassa, S. M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Sargent, M.; Scoville, N. J.; Schawinski, K.; Schinnerer, E.; Silverman, J.; Smolcic, V.; Stern, D.; Toft, S.; Trakhenbrot, B.; Treister, E.; Vignali, C. (2016)
    The COSMOS-Legacy survey is a 4.6 Ms Chandra program that has imaged 2.2 deg(2) of the COSMOS field with an effective exposure of similar or equal to 160 ks over the central 1.5 deg(2) and of similar or equal to 80 ks in the remaining area. The survey is the combination of 56 new observations obtained as an X-ray Visionary Project with the previous C-COSMOS survey. We describe the reduction and analysis of the new observations and the properties of 2273 point sources detected above a spurious probability of 2 x 10(-5). We also present the updated properties of the C-COSMOS sources detected in the new data. The whole survey includes 4016 point sources (3814, 2920 and 2440 in the full, soft, and hard band). The limiting depths are 2.2 x 10(-16), 1.5 x 10(-15), and 8.9 x 10(-16) erg cm(-2) s(-1)in the 0.5-2, 2-10, and 0.5-10 keV bands, respectively. The observed fraction of obscured active galactic nuclei with a column density >10(22) cm(-2) from the hardness ratio (HR) is similar to 50(-16)(+17)%. Given the large sample we compute source number counts in the hard and soft bands, significantly reducing the uncertainties of 5%-10%. For the first time we compute number counts for obscured (HR > -0.2) and unobscured (HR <-0.2) sources and find significant differences between the two populations in the soft band. Due to the unprecedent large exposure, COSMOS-Legacy area is three times larger than surveys at similar depths and its depth is three times fainter than surveys covering similar areas. The area-flux region occupied by COSMOS-Legacy is likely to remain unsurpassed for years to come.
  • Marchesi, S.; Civano, F.; Salvato, M.; Shankar, F.; Comastri, A.; Elvis, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Trakhtenbrot, B.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Brusa, M.; Fiore, F.; Gilli, R.; Griffiths, R.; Hasinger, G.; Miyaji, T.; Schawinski, K.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M. (2016)
    We present the largest high-redshift (3 <z <6.85) sample of X-ray-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on a contiguous field, using sources detected in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey. The sample contains 174 sources, 87 with spectroscopic redshift and the other 87 with photometric redshift (z(phot)). In this work, we treat z(phot) as a probability-weighted sum of contributions, adding to our sample the contribution of sources with zphot. <3 but zphot probability distribution > 0 at z > 3. We compute the number counts in the observed 0.5-2 keV band, finding a decline in the number of sources at z > 3 and constraining phenomenological models of the X-ray background. We compute the AGN space density at z. > 3 in two different luminosity bins. At higher luminosities (logL(2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s(-1)), the space density declines exponentially, dropping by a factor of similar to 20 from z similar to 3 to z similar to 6. The observed decline is similar to 80% steeper at lower luminosities (43.55 erg s(-1) <logL(2-10 keV) <44.1 erg s(-1)) from z similar to 3 to z similar to 4.5. We study the space density evolution dividing our sample into optically classified Type 1 and Type 2 AGNs. At logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s(-1), unobscured and obscured objects may have different evolution with redshift, with the obscured component being three times higher at z similar to 5. Finally, we compare our space density with predictions of quasar activation merger models, whose calibration is based on optically luminous AGNs. These models significantly overpredict the number of expected AGNs at logL (2-10 keV) > 44.1 erg s(-1) with respect to our data.
  • Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo (2018)
    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution $3$ Gyrs beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feedback and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduces well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters, however the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by $\sim 0.5$ dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT we produce multi-wavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The $1$ Gyr old remnant is well fitted with a S\'ersic profile of $n=4.05$, and with an $r$-band effective radius of $r_{\mathrm{e}}= 1.8$ kpc and velocity dispersion of $\sigma_{\mathrm{e}}=180$ km$/$s the remnant is located on the fundamental plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves onto the red sequence after $\sim 2.5$ Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from $\lambda_R\approx0.11$ to $\lambda_R\approx0.14$ during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common among local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379 and NGC 4494) in the ATLAS$^\mathrm{3D}$ sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.
  • Davies, Jonathan J.; Crain, Robert A.; McCarthy, Ian G.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Schaye, Joop; Schaller, Matthieu; McAlpine, Stuart (2019)
    We examine the origin of scatter in the relationship between the gas fraction and mass of dark matter haloes hosting present-day similar to L-star central galaxies in the EAGLE simulations. The scatter is uncorrelated with the accretion rate of the central galaxy's black hole (BH), but correlates strongly and negatively with the BH's mass, implicating differences in the expulsion of gas by active galactic nucleus feedback, throughout the assembly of the halo, as the main cause of scatter. Haloes whose central galaxies host undermassive BHs also tend to retain a higher gas fraction, and exhibit elevated star formation rates (SFRs). Diversity in the mass of central BHs stems primarily from diversity in the dark matter halo binding energy, as these quantities are strongly and positively correlated at fixed halo mass, such that similar to L-star galaxies hosted by haloes that are more (less) tightly bound develop central BHs that are more (less) massive than is typical for their halo mass. Variations in the halo gas fraction at fixed halo mass are reflected in both the soft X-ray luminosity and thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich flux, suggesting that the prediction of a strong coupling between the properties of galaxies and their halo gas fractions can be tested with measurements of these diagnostics for galaxies with diverse SFRs but similar halo masses.
  • Balogh, Michael L.; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Muzzin, Adam; Rudnick, Gregory; Wilson, Gillian; Webb, Kristi; Biviano, Andrea; Boak, Kevin; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey; Cooper, M. C.; Gilbank, David G.; Gwyn, Stephen; Lidman, Chris; Matharu, Jasleen; McGee, Sean L.; Old, Lyndsay; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Reeves, Andrew M. M.; Shipley, Heath; Vulcani, Benedetta; Yee, Howard K. C.; Alonso, M. Victoria; Bellhouse, Callum; Cooke, Kevin C.; Davidson, Anna; De Lucia, Gabriella; Demarco, Ricardo; Drakos, Nicole; Fillingham, Sean P.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Ben Forrest,; Golledge, Caelan; Jablonka, Pascale; Garcia, Diego Lambas; McNab, Karen; Muriel, Hernan; Nantais, Julie B.; Noble, Allison; Parker, Laura C.; Petter, Grayson; Poggianti, Bianca M.; Townsend, Melinda; Valotto, Carlos; Webb, Tracy; Zaritsky, Dennis (2021)
    We present the first public data release of the GOGREEN (Gemini Observations of Galaxies in Rich Early Environments) and GCLASS (Gemini CLuster Astrophysics Spectroscopic Survey) surveys of galaxies in dense environments, spanning a redshift range 0.8 <z <1.5. The surveys consist of deep, multiwavelength photometry and extensive Gemini GMOS spectroscopy of galaxies in 26 overdense systems ranging in halo mass from small groups to the most massive clusters. The objective of both projects was primarily to understand how the evolution of galaxies is affected by their environment, and to determine the physical processes that lead to the quenching of star formation. There was an emphasis on obtaining unbiased spectroscopy over a wide stellar mass range (M greater than or similar to 2 x 10(10) M-circle dot), throughout and beyond the cluster virialized regions. The final spectroscopic sample includes 2771 unique objects, of which 2257 have reliable spectroscopic redshifts. Of these, 1704 have redshifts in the range 0.8 <z <1.5, and nearly 800 are confirmed cluster members. Imaging spans the full optical and near-infrared wavelength range, at depths comparable to the UltraVISTA survey, and includes Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 F160W (GOGREEN) and F140W (GCLASS). This data release includes fully reduced images and spectra, with catalogues of advanced data products including redshifts, line strengths, star formation rates, stellar masses, and rest-frame colours. Here, we present an overview of the data, including an analysis of the spectroscopic completeness and redshift quality.
  • Reeves, Andrew M. M.; Balogh, Michael L.; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Kukstas, Egidijus; McCarthy, Ian G.; Webb, Kristi; Muzzin, Adam; McGee, Sean; Rudnick, Gregory; Biviano, Andrea; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey C. C.; Cooper, M. C.; Demarco, Ricardo; Jablonka, Pascale; De Lucia, Gabriella; Vulcani, Benedetta; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Zaritsky, Dennis (2021)
    We use photometric redshifts and statistical background subtraction to measure stellar mass functions in galaxy group-mass (4.5-8 x 10(13) M-circle dot) haloes at 1 < z < 1.5. Groups are selected from COSMOS and SXDF, based on X-ray imaging and sparse spectroscopy. Stellar mass (M-stell(ar)) functions are computed for quiescent and star-forming galaxies separately, based on their rest-frame UVJ colours. From these we compute the quiescent fraction and quiescent fraction excess (QFE) relative to the field as a function of M-stel(lar). QFE increases with M-st(ellar), similar to more massive clusters at 1 < z < 1.5. This contrasts with the apparent separability of M-stellar, and environmental factors on galaxy quiescent fractions at z similar to 0. We then compare our results with higher mass clusters at 1 < z < 1.5 and lower redshifts. We find a strong QFE dependence on halo mass at fixed M-ste(ll)ar; well fit by a logarithmic slope of d(QFE)/dlog (M-halo) similar to 0.24 +/- 0.04 for all M-stellar and redshift bins. This dependence is in remarkably good qualitative agreement with the hydrodynamic simulation BAHAMAS, but contradicts the observed dependence of QFE on M-stellar. We interpret the results using two toy models: one where a time delay until rapid (instantaneous) quenching begins upon accretion to the main progenitor ( 'no pre-processing') and one where it starts upon first becoming a satellite ('pre-processing'). Delay times appear to be halo mass-dependent, with a significantly stronger dependence required without pre-processing. We conclude that our results support models in which environmental quenching begins in low-mass ( 1.
  • Biviano, A.; van der Burg, R. F. J.; Balogh, M. L.; Munari, E.; Cooper, M. C.; De Lucia, G.; Demarco, R.; Jablonka, P.; Muzzin, A.; Nantais, J.; Old, L. J.; Rudnick, G.; Vulcani, B.; Wilson, G.; Yee, H. K. C.; Zaritsky, D.; Cerulo, P.; Chan, J.; Finoguenov, A.; Gilbank, D.; Lidman, C.; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Shipley, H. (2021)
    Context. The study of galaxy cluster mass profiles (M(r)) provides constraints on the nature of dark matter and on physical processes affecting the mass distribution. The study of galaxy cluster velocity anisotropy profiles (beta (r)) informs the orbits of galaxies in clusters, which are related to their evolution. The combination of mass profiles and velocity anisotropy profiles allows us to determine the pseudo phase-space density profiles (Q(r)); numerical simulations predict that these profiles follow a simple power law in cluster-centric distance.Aims. We determine the mass, velocity anisotropy, and pseudo phase-space density profiles of clusters of galaxies at the highest redshifts investigated in detail to date.Methods. We exploited the combination of the GOGREEN and GCLASS spectroscopic data-sets for 14 clusters with mass M-200 >= 10(14) M-circle dot at redshifts 0.9 = 10(9.5) M-circle dot. We used the MAMPOSSt method to constrain several M(r) and beta (r) models, and we then inverted the Jeans equation to determine the ensemble cluster beta (r) in a non-parametric way. Finally, we combined the results of the M(r) and beta (r) analysis to determine Q(r) for the ensemble cluster.Results. The concentration c(200) of the ensemble cluster mass profile is in excellent agreement with predictions from Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) cosmological numerical simulations, and with previous determinations for clusters of similar mass and at similar redshifts, obtained from gravitational lensing and X-ray data. We see no significant difference between the total mass density and either the galaxy number density distributions or the stellar mass distribution. Star-forming galaxies are spatially significantly less concentrated than quiescent galaxies. The orbits of cluster galaxies are isotropic near the center and more radial outside. Star-forming galaxies and galaxies of low stellar mass tend to move on more radially elongated orbits than quiescent galaxies and galaxies of high stellar mass. The profile Q(r), determined using either the total mass or the number density profile, is very close to the power-law behavior predicted by numerical simulations.Conclusions. The internal dynamics of clusters at the highest redshift probed in detail to date are very similar to those of lower-redshift clusters, and in excellent agreement with predictions of numerical simulations. The clusters in our sample have already reached a high degree of dynamical relaxation.
  • McNab, Karen; Balogh, Michael L.; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Forestell, Anya; Webb, Kristi; Vulcani, Benedetta; Rudnick, Gregory; Muzzin, Adam; Cooper, M. C.; McGee, Sean; Biviano, Andrea; Cerulo, Pierluigi; Chan, Jeffrey C. C.; De Lucia, Gabriella; Demarco, Ricardo; Finoguenov, Alexis; Forrest, Ben; Golledge, Caelan; Jablonka, Pascale; Lidman, Chris; Nantais, Julie; Old, Lyndsay; Pintos-Castro, Irene; Poggianti, Bianca; Reeves, Andrew M. M.; Wilson, Gillian; Yee, Howard K. C.; Zaritsky, Dennis (2021)
    We measure the rate of environmentally driven star formation quenching in galaxies at z similar to 1, using eleven massive () galaxy clusters spanning a redshift range 1.0 < z < 1.4 from the GOGREEN sample. We identify three different types of transition galaxies: 'green valley' (GV) galaxies identified from their rest-frame (NUV - V) and (V - J) colours; 'blue quiescent' (BQ) galaxies, found at the blue end of the quiescent sequence in (U - V) and (V - J) colour; and spectroscopic post-starburst (PSB) galaxies. We measure the abundance of these galaxies as a function of stellar mass and environment. For high-stellar mass galaxies (logM/M-circle dot > 10.5) we do not find any significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, relative to a comparison field sample at the same redshift. It is likely that such galaxies were quenched prior to their accretion in the cluster, in group, filament, or protocluster environments. For lower stellar mass galaxies (9.5 < logM/M-circle dot < 10.5) there is a small but significant excess of transition galaxies in clusters, accounting for an additional similar to 5-10 percent of the population compared with the field. We show that our data are consistent with a scenario in which 20-30 percent of low-mass, star-forming galaxies in clusters are environmentally quenched every Gyr, and that this rate slowly declines from z = 1 to z = 0. While environmental quenching of these galaxies may include a long delay time during which star formation declines slowly, in most cases this must end with a rapid (tau < 1Gyr) decline in star formation rate.