Browsing by Subject "heritability"

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  • Riihimäki, Anna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The target of pork production is to produce lean meat efficiently in a sustainable way taking into account environment and ethical aspects. The most important production traits in pigs are average daily gain, feed efficiency and leanness. A lot of research is conducted related to production traits in comparison to feeding behavior traits. The objective of this study was to estimate heritability of feeding behavior traits and their genetic correlations with production traits in Finnish Landrace population. The data included feeding records of 4059 Landrace pigs measured automatically in Figen’s test station. The pigs had started their test period during 2010 - 2016. The measured traits were the number of visits per day (NVD), time spent in feeding per day (TPD), daily feed intake (DFI), time spent feeding per visit (TPV), feed intake per visit (FPV), feeding rate (FR), average daily gain (ADG), back fat thickness (BF) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). Feeding behavior traits were divided into 5 periods. Heritability estimates of feeding behavior traits were moderate. The heritability estimates were 0,22-0,29 for NVD, 0,33-0,47 for TPD, 0,16-0,25 for DFI, 0,22-0,31 for TPV, 0,28-0,36 for FPV, 0,35-0,38 for FR, 0,27 for ADG, 0,22 for BF, and 0,24 for FCR. Compared to other published results heritabilities of TPD and FR were similar. However, heritabilities of other feeding behavior traits were quite low compared to published results. In addition, heritability of BF was unexpectedly low. The genetic correlations of feeding behavior traits were similar at different test periods. The highest positive genetic correlations were between traits TPV – FPV, FPV – FR, and NVD – TPD. The highest negative genetic correlations were between traits NVD – FPV, TPD – FR, and NVD – TPV. Genetic correlations between feeding behavior traits and production traits were low. Only between DFI – ADG, DFI – FCR, and FPV – FCR the genetic correlations were significant (and positive). In conclusion, heritabilities of feeding behavior traits were moderate. Because the only strong genetic correlation between feeding behavior and production traits was obtained between DFI and ADG, including feeding behavior traits in breeding programs is not necessary. However, feeding behavior data are easy to collect from the electronic feeders and the observations are reliable, thus daily feeding records can be used for monitoring animal’s health and welfare.
  • Class, Barbara; Kluen, Edward; Brommer, Jon E. (2019)
    Indirect sexual selection arises when reproductive individuals choose their mates based on heritable ornaments that are genetically correlated to fitness. Evidence for genetic associations between ornamental colouration and fitness remains scarce. In this study, we investigate the quantitative genetic relationship between different aspects of tail structural colouration (brightness, hue and UV chroma) and performance (cell-mediated immunity, body mass and wing length) in blue tit (Cyanistes caeruleus) nestlings. In line with previous studies, we find low heritability for structural colouration and moderate heritability for performance measures. Multivariate animal models show positive genetic correlations between the three measures of performance, indicating quantitative genetic variation for overall performance, and tail brightness and UV chroma, two genetically independent colour measures, are genetically correlated with performance (positively and negatively, respectively). Our results suggest that mate choice based on independent aspects of tail colouration can have fitness payoffs in blue tits and provide support for the indirect benefits hypothesis. However, low heritability of tail structural colouration implies that indirect sexual selection on mate choice for this ornament will be a weak evolutionary force.
  • Silventoinen, Karri; Jelenkovic, Aline; Sund, Reijo; Honda, Chika; Aaltonen, Sari; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Tarnoki, Adam D.; Tarnoki, David L.; Ning, Feng; Ji, Fuling; Pang, Zengchang; Ordonana, Juan R.; Sanchez-Romera, Juan F.; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Burt, S. Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L.; Medland, Sarah E.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Kandler, Christian; McAdams, Tom A.; Eley, Thalia C.; Gregory, Alice M.; Saudino, Kimberly J.; Dubois, Lise; Boivin, Michel; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Plomin, Robert; Oncel, Sevgi Y.; Aliev, Fazil; Stazi, Maria A.; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Craig, Jeffrey M.; Saffery, Richard; Siribaddana, Sisira H.; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Spector, Timothy; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A.; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Freitas, Duarte L.; Maia, Jose Antonio; Harden, K. Paige; Tucker-Drob, Elliot M.; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Hong, Changhee; Chong, Youngsook; Derom, Catherine A.; Vlietinck, Robert F.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E.; Mack, Thomas M.; He, Mingguang; Ding, Xiaohu; Chang, Billy; Silberg, Judy L.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Maes, Hermine H.; Cutler, Tessa L.; Hopper, John L.; Aujard, Kelly; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Aslan, Anna K. Dahl; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Baker, Laura A.; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bjerregaard-Andersen, Morten; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Sodemann, Morten; Heikkila, Kauko; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Swan, Gary E.; Krasnow, Ruth; Jang, Kerry L.; Knafo-Noam, Ariel; Mankuta, David; Abramson, Lior; Lichtenstein, Paul; Krueger, Robert F.; Mcgue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Tynelius, Per; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Corley, Robin P.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Nelson, Tracy L.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Franz, Carol E.; Kremen, William S.; Lyons, Michael J.; Ooki, Syuichi; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Inui, Fujio; Watanabe, Mikio; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos C. E. M.; Wardle, Jane; Llewellyn, Clare H.; Fisher, Abigail; Rebato, Esther; Martin, Nicholas G.; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Hayakawa, Kazuo; Rasmussen, Finn; Sung, Joohon; Harris, Jennifer R.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Busjahn, Andreas; Goldberg, Jack H.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Kaprio, Jaakko (2015)
    For over 100 years, the genetics of human anthropometric traits has attracted scientific interest. In particular, height and body mass index (BMI, calculated as kg/m(2)) have been under intensive genetic research. However, it is still largely unknown whether and how heritability estimates vary between human populations. Opportunities to address this question have increased recently because of the establishment of many new twin cohorts and the increasing accumulation of data in established twin cohorts. We started a new research project to analyze systematically (1) the variation of heritability estimates of height, BMI and their trajectories over the life course between birth cohorts, ethnicities and countries, and (2) to study the effects of birth-related factors, education and smoking on these anthropometric traits and whether these effects vary between twin cohorts. We identified 67 twin projects, including both monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins, using various sources. We asked for individual level data on height and weight including repeated measurements, birth related traits, background variables, education and smoking. By the end of 2014, 48 projects participated. Together, we have 893,458 height and weight measures (52% females) from 434,723 twin individuals, including 201,192 complete twin pairs (40% monozygotic, 40% same-sex dizygotic and 20% opposite-sex dizygotic) representing 22 countries. This project demonstrates that large-scale international twin studies are feasible and can promote the use of existing data for novel research purposes.
  • Silventoinen, K.; Jelenkovic, A.; Yokoyama, Y.; Sund, R.; Sugawara, M.; Tanaka, M.; Matsumoto, S.; Bogl, L. H.; Maia, J. A.; Hjelmborg, J. v. B.; Aaltonen, S.; Piirtola, M.; Latvala, A.; Calais-Ferreira, L.; Oliveira, V. C.; Ferreira, P. H.; Ji, F.; Ning, F.; Pang, Z.; Ordonana, J. R.; Sanchez-Romera, J. F.; Colodro-Conde, L.; Burt, S. A.; Klump, K. L.; Martin, N. G.; Medland, S. E.; Montgomery, G. W.; Kandler, C.; McAdams, T. A.; Eley, T. C.; Gregory, A. M.; Saudino, K. J.; Dubois, L.; Boivin, M.; Brendgen, M.; Dionne, G.; Vitaro, F.; Tarnoki, A. D.; Tarnoki, D. L.; Haworth, C. M. A.; Plomin, R.; Oncel, S. Y.; Aliev, F.; Medda, E.; Nistico, L.; Toccaceli, V.; Craig, J. M.; Saffery, R.; Siribaddana, S. H.; Hotopf, M.; Sumathipala, A.; Rijsdijk, F.; Jeong, H. -U.; Spector, T.; Mangino, M.; Lachance, G.; Gatz, M.; Butler, D. A.; Gao, W.; Yu, C.; Li, L.; Bayasgalan, G.; Narandalai, D.; Harden, K. P.; Tucker-Drob, E. M.; Christensen, K.; Skytthe, A.; Kyvik, K. O.; Derom, C. A.; Vlietinck, R. F.; Loos, R. J. F.; Cozen, W.; Hwang, A. E.; Mack, T. M.; He, M.; Ding, X.; Silberg, J. L.; Maes, H. H.; Cutler, T. L.; Hopper, J. L.; Magnusson, P. K. E.; Pedersen, N. L.; Dahl Aslan, A. K.; Baker, L. A.; Tuvblad, C.; Bjerregaard-Andersen, M.; Beck-Nielsen, H.; Sodemann, M.; Ullemar, V.; Almqvist, C.; Tan, Q.; Zhang, D.; Swan, G. E.; Krasnow, R.; Jang, K. L.; Knafo-Noam, A.; Mankuta, D.; Abramson, L.; Lichtenstein, P.; Krueger, R. F.; McGue, M.; Pahlen, S.; Tynelius, P.; Rasmussen, F.; Duncan, G. E.; Buchwald, D.; Corley, R. P.; Huibregtse, B. M.; Nelson, T. L.; Whitfield, K. E.; Franz, C. E.; Kremen, W. S.; Lyons, M. J.; Ooki, S.; Brandt, I.; Nilsen, T. S.; Harris, J. R.; Sung, J.; Park, H. A.; Lee, J.; Lee, S. J.; Willemsen, G.; Bartels, M.; Van Beijsterveldt, C. E. M.; Llewellyn, C. H.; Fisher, A.; Rebato, E.; Busjahn, A.; Tomizawa, R.; Inui, F.; Watanabe, M.; Honda, C.; Sakai, N.; Hur, Y. -M.; Sorensen, T. I. A.; Boomsma, D. I.; Kaprio, J. (2019)
    The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural-geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
  • Masip-Manuel, Guiomar; Silventoinen, Karri; Keski-Rahkonen, Anna; Palviainen, Teemu; Sipilä, Pyry N.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Bogl, Leonie H. (2020)
    Background Obesity susceptibility genes are highly expressed in the brain suggesting that they might exert their influence on body weight through eating-related behaviors. Objectives To examine whether the genetic susceptibility to obesity is mediated by eating behavior patterns. Methods Participants were 3977 twins (33% monozygotic, 56% females), aged 31–37 y, from wave 5 of the FinnTwin16 study. They self-reported their height and weight, eating behaviors (15 items), diet quality, and self-measured their waist circumference (WC). For 1055 twins with genome-wide data, we constructed a polygenic risk score for BMI (PRSBMI) using almost 1 million single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used principal component analyses to identify eating behavior patterns, twin modeling to decompose correlations into genetic and environmental components, and structural equation modeling to test mediation models between the PRSBMI, eating behavior patterns, and obesity measures. Results We identified 4 moderately heritable (h2 = 36–48%) eating behavior patterns labeled “snacking,” “infrequent and unhealthy eating,” “avoidant eating,” and “emotional and external eating.” The highest phenotypic correlation with obesity measures was found for the snacking behavior pattern (r = 0.35 for BMI and r = 0.32 for WC; P < 0.001 for both), largely due to genetic factors in common (bivariate h2 > 70%). The snacking behavior pattern partially mediated the association between the PRSBMI and obesity measures (βindirect = 0.06; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.09; P = 0.002 for BMI; and βindirect = 0.05; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.08; P = 0.003 for WC). Conclusions Eating behavior patterns share a common genetic liability with obesity measures and are moderately heritable. Genetic susceptibility to obesity can be partly mediated by an eating pattern characterized by frequent snacking. Obesity prevention efforts might therefore benefit from focusing on eating behavior change, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals.
  • Merikallio, Sini (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Canine uveal melanoma (UM) usually manifests as a slowly developing, darker pigmented and well distinguishable mass in the iris. Less than a third of them are considered malignant, which is much less than with other melanocytic cancers. In contrast, in humans, 90% of UM occurs in the choroid and half of the patients eventually develop aggressive and often lethal metastases. Understanding the disease process and genetic background in dogs might also help us further the knowledge and improve the treatment options of humans. There is a hereditary component to the oncogenesis of the UM: the disease is more common in a Caucasian race and is also found in certain families. It is also more prevalent in certain dog breeds; Labrador Retrievers seem to be overrepresented. Several susceptibility genes have been identified in humans. One with the strongest association with UM is a tumor suppressor gene BAP1, which is dysfunctional or missing in nearly half of the human uveal melanomas. This gene is a so-called secondary driver of the UM and mutations in it spark the metastasizing process. There is a germline mutation of BAP1 in fourth of Finnish UM families and these mutations are also connected to various other cancers. Moreover, BAP1 shows over 98% protein product homology and almost 80% mRNA homology between dogs and humans, making it an appealing study target also for canines. Should a single variant account for high UM risk, a DNA test could be developed to be used in breeding and veterinary diagnostics. In this work, I mapped the BAP1 germline mutations of seven Labrador Retrievers with diagnosed uveal melanomas or melanocytomas. It was found that four dogs shared the same set of five heterozygous single nucleotide variants (SNV). One of the SNVs within exon 17 was synonymous, g.37,363,076G>A, p.(Ser721Ser), while the other four SNVs were intronic, residing close to exons 4, 10, 11 and 14. In the future, variant comparisons with healthy Labradors are needed to study the role of the identified variants for the development of UM, as the SNVs now found could also just be a part of a common variation in the Labrador Retriever gene pool. To grasp a bigger picture of the UM tumor development, the tumors themselves should also be analyzed for somatic mutations. Moreover, when we know that the disease is likely affected by over a hundred genes, studying just one gene is unnecessarily self-restricting. Modern full genome sequencing techniques should be used for catching all the predisposing genes simultaneously.