Browsing by Subject "history"

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  • Cederbom, Charlotte (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2019)
    This book describes the ways in which married women appeared in legal practice in the medieval Swedish realm 1350-1450, through both the agency of women, and through the norms that surrounded their actions. Since there were no court protocols kept, legal practice must be studied through other sources. For this book, more than 6,000 original charters have been researched, and a database of all the charters pertaining to women created. This enables new findings from an area that has previously not been studied on a larger scale, and reveals trends and tendencies regarding aspects considered central to married women’s agency, such as networks, criminal liability, and procedural capacity.
  • Handa, Ryoichi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Halali, Sridhar; van Bergen, Erik; Breuker, Casper J.; Brakefield, Paul M.; Brattstrom, Oskar (2021)
    New ecological niches that may arise due to climate change can trigger diversification, but their colonisation often requires adaptations in a suite of life-history traits. We test this hypothesis in species-rich Mycalesina butterflies that have undergone parallel radiations in Africa, Asia, and Madagascar. First, our ancestral state reconstruction of habitat preference, using c. 85% of extant species, revealed that early forest-linked lineages began to invade seasonal savannahs during the late Miocene-Pliocene. Second, rearing replicate pairs of forest and savannah species from the African and Malagasy radiation in a common garden experiment, and utilising published data from the Asian radiation, demonstrated that savannah species consistently develop faster, have smaller bodies, higher fecundity with an earlier investment in reproduction, and reduced longevity, compared to forest species across all three radiations. We argue that time-constraints for reproduction favoured the evolution of a faster pace-of-life in savannah species that facilitated their persistence in seasonal habitats.
  • Bergholm, Tapio (Stakes, 2005)
    Suomen työmarkkinasuhteiden puitteet muotoutuivat uudelleen toisen maailmansodan jälkeen. Työntekijät ja ammattiyhdistysliikkeet vahvistivat asemiaan, kun valtakunnalliset työehtosopimukset tulivat maan tavaksi. Tammikuun kihlaus vuodelta 1940 sekä STK:n ja SAK:n tekemät yleissopimukset vuosilta 1944 ja 1946 ovat saaneet päähuomion, kun tätä murrosta on tarkasteltu. Valtiovallan panos on jätetty sivuun. Hallitus sekä kolmikantaiset hinta- ja palkkaneuvosto ja sen palkkajaosto vaikuttivat ratkaisevasti, kun työehtosopimusten läpimurto tapahtui ja kun sekä miesten että naisten kannalta tärkeä palkkapäätös syntyi kesäkuussa 1945. Tämän prosessin tarkastelu avaa uusia näkökulmia työehtosopimusjärjestelmän läpimurtoon, maataloustulon ja palkkojen varhaiseen yhteen kytkeytymiseen ja sukupuolten välisen palkkaeron supistamisen vaikeuteen. Industrial relations in Finland today are so exceptional that even the Swedes have difficulty understanding our deep-rooted tradition of tripartite compromise. A major distinctive feature of Finnish industrial relations has been the government’s strong and prominent role. In incomes policy, agriculture has had a stronger representation than in most other countries on the bodies and around the negotiating tables where compromises concerning the whole society have been hammered out.
  • Lahti, Janne (Taylor & Francis Group (Routledge), 2018)
    The American West and the World provides a synthetic introduction to the transnational history of the American West. Drawing from the insights of recent scholarship, Janne Lahti recenters the history of the U.S. West in the global contexts of empires and settler colonialism, discussing exploration, expansion, migration, violence, intimacies, and ideas. Lahti examines established subfields of Western scholarship, such as borderlands studies and transnational histories of empire, as well as relatively unexplored connections between the West and geographically nonadjacent spaces. Lucid and incisive, The American West and the World firmly situates the historical West in its proper global context.
  • Kaljundi, Linda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2016)
    This article-based dissertation tackles the role of cultural representations and practices in the medieval expansion of Latin Christendom, analysing the historiography concerning the conversion and conquest of the Baltic Sea area. Four of the articles examine Latin missionary historiography from the eleventh to the thirteenth century, concentrating on the chronicles related to the archdiocese of Hamburg-Bremen (with a particular focus on the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia). These founding narratives of the frontier settlements and institutions allow insight into the function of literary representations in legitimising the new rule, but they also highlight the importance of performative practices in the Christianisation of the borderlands. The dissertation also has a more generally theoretical dimension, addressing the oft-debated problem that we can analyse medieval rituals only indirectly, through textual or visual mediations. It argues that because it is impossible to know whether the described rituals actually took place, we should instead focus on the ways in which their historiographical representations enable to analyse the meaning and significance of the rituals. In addition to that the thesis demonstrates that there are fruitful perspectives for analysing the appropriation of rituals in the medieval history writing offered by the studies of cultural memory. These studies have emphasised that the formation of effective memorial figures is based on their remediation in various cultural media. In the frontier chronicles, authority is first and foremost based on the connections with the Christian past. Yet these texts also reveal an understanding that these contacts with the sacred past should be manifested through various media: through textual quotations, but also through rituals and other performances. The dissertation also considers the cultural memory of the Christianisation period in a longer historical perspective, two of the articles discussing its afterlives during later periods: the early modern, the Enlightenment and the modern eras. The rivalry for hegemony in the Eastern Baltic has kept the legacy of the conquest and conversion a topical as well as a political issue. The active appropriations have secured a constant remediation of the medieval narratives in different cultural media, while also resulting in their considerable transformations.
  • Kantola, Mikko (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Davidsen, Peter (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This research monograph is an intellectual history of the theory of the state and the theory of political science of Professor Rudolf Kjellén (1864–1922), who was once one of Europe’s most well-known academics. The dissertation rediscovers the original contexts and scientific debates in which the theories intervened. Thus, it is a study of those theories, contexts, and scientific debates, as well as of the arguments formulated by their interlocutors, including Professors S. J. Boëthius, Pontus Fahlbeck, C. A. Reuterskiöld, Ludvig Stavenow, Otto Varenius, and Gunnar Rexius. Following Professor Quentin Skinner and the Cambridge school of intellectual history, this study excavates, reconstructs, contextualizes, reinterprets, and rethinks a great scientific dispute, a Methodenstreit, over the nature of political science and its relation to, and potential emancipation from, the studies of law, history, philosophy, geography, and statistics.
  • Kivivuori, Janne; Lehti, Martti; Rautelin, Mona; Lindström, Dag; Netterstrøm, Jeppe Büchert (2020)
    An extensive body of criminological research has shown that criminal and violent behaviour manifests time patterns in terms of daily, weekly and annual cycles. This is consistent with criminological routine activities theory. Can we generalize these patterns to historical periods? In this article, we draw on a recently created unique dataset, covering the years 1608 to 1699 in three Nordic regions, to explore time cycles of offending in the early modern period. Examining daily, weekly and annual cycles, we find that lethal violence manifested strong time patterns in the early modern period. The role of public holidays was central especially in the period lasting from Christmas to Midsummer. Probing the role of key routines, we disaggregate the composition of homicide cycles by alcohol use and place of occurrence. The findings indicate that early modern homicide time cycles were associated with alcohol use and activities in private places (private homes, homesteads). We conclude by discussing the strengths and limitations of our data and by suggesting further research in the promising frontier of standardized long duration homicide research.
  • Juvela, Seppo (2019)
    Background and Purpose- The purpose was to obtain a reliable treatment score for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) from variables known at baseline. Methods- The series included 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 when UIAs were not treated and were followed up until the first aneurysm rupture, death, or the last contact. Previously published UIA treatment score was recorded, and finally, a new treatment score was constructed. Results- The median follow-up time was 21.0 years (interquartile range, 10.4-31.8 years). A total of 34 patients had an aneurysm rupture during 3064 person-years of follow-up. The UIA treatment score differed slightly between those with and without an aneurysm rupture (9.4 +/- 2.8 versus 8.3 +/- 3.1, P=0.082). The receiver operating characteristics curve of the UIA treatment score for predicting rupture showed a modest area under the curve (AUC; 0.618, 95% CI, 0.502-0.733; P=0.059). The best new treatment score consisted of 4 variables: age = 7 mm (3 points), and location (anterior communicating artery, 5 points; internal carotid bifurcation, 4 points; and posterior communicating artery, 2 points). Scores of 5 to 12 points were associated with high cumulative UIA rupture rates (16%-60% at 10 years and 49%-80% at 30 years), favoring UIA treatment. Scores of 1 to 4 points (3% at 10 years and 18% at 30 years) favored conservative treatment and needed additional indications for treatment. Patients with a score of 0 points should not be treated (no ruptures during 513 follow-up years). The area under the curve for this scoring was 0.755 (95% CI, 0.657-0.853; P
  • Peltonen, Matti (1991)
    Matti Peltonen: Knowledge, power, sociology. A dispute in 1948 on the poor ability of the Finns to carry liquor In the early winter of 1948 sociologist Veli Verkko gave an inaugural lecture which sparked lively discussion about the basic principles of alcohol policy. This debate also took on an international character when Verkko's main work Homicides and suicides in Finland and their dependence on national character was published in the Scandinavian studies in sociology series in 1951. Verkko's lecture came just as preparations for a largescale alcohol policy campaign in the April of the same year were in their final stages. The campaign was prepared by Kansalaisryhti, a civic movement financed and directed by the alcohol monopoly, Alko, organization of the time, which wanted to offer a more positive alternative to the oldstyle temperance movement. Gaining the chair in sociology was the high point of Verkko's career. To mark the event, Verkko wanted to publish a new sociological theory based on his empirical findings; this was a racial theory about the special character of the Finnish-speaking nation. In Verkko's view, Finnish-speakers formed a small introverted community whose members had several forefathers in common because of this linguistic isolation. The characteristics of this limited number of forefathers were thus shared by all their descendants. The members of a given linguistic group, nationality or tribe were, according to Verkko, fairly homogeneous in national character. He explained the fact that this hypothesis about the origins of the national character, worked out on a purely mathematical basis, led only in the case of the Finns to negative features in the national character, with the argument that, according to contemporary perceptions, the Finns came from farther East and spoke a different language from the peoples of Western Europe and Scandinavia. In public, Verkko's argument was interpreted from the point of view of alcohol policy. If Finnishness was a racial characteristic, then it was something immutable and beyond cure. Hence the problems that the Finnish intelligentsia saw as deriving from the national character — for instance, the large amount of crimes of violence at the beginning of this century or a style of drinking described as 'drunk-oriented' — would be impossible to change via education and greater sophistication. That is why the material used during the Kansalaisryhti campaign referred to above attacked Professor Verkko's theory with exceptional vigour. All the campaign articles criticizing Verkko were written by the young graduate Pekka Kuusi, who had been the guiding light when the movement was founded in 1945 as a 'front against drunkenness'. According to Kansalaisryhti's ideology, the Finns certainly showed many features of the 'dark natives' in distant countries, but the 'bogeyman of primitivism' could be rooted out from the Finnish soul with good education and the right alcohol policy. The dispute about whether the Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor' is a biological or cultural phenomenon continued unabated until Verkko's death — and indeed goes on. In view of the fervour of the debate in the late '40s, it is surprising just how unanimous the two sides were. Veli Verkko's theory could just as well have been interpreted culturally. Pekka Kuusi, on the other hand, took the view that the Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor' was to some extent a genetic racial characteristic. The greatest unanimity of all reigned about the problem itself for which a cure was sought. Nobody questioned the whole myth of a Finnish 'poor ability to carry liquor'. There was not even any disagreement between the two sides about the new alcohol policy, the buyer control system. The Alko organization and Kansalaisryhti saw this as a subtle system of education by which national drinking habits could be watched over and regulated and the antisocial guided into the straight and narrow. To Professor Verkko and other conservatives, the new alcohol policy was exactly the system of discipline and punishment that the drink-crazy Finns needed. In spring 1948, when professor Verkko started stubbornly — and contrary to his earlier scientific opinions — stressing the biological foundation for the negative sides of the Finnish national character, he was primarily defending his reputation and standing as a scientist in the academic world. The 1948 debate aired the concept of 'the Finns'poor ability to carry liquor in the same way as Michel Foucault did with his claim about the suppressed sexuality of the Western world. As in the case of the generally accepted myth of suppressed sexuality, the 'repressice hypothesis', which has served all those sex theoriticians who say that they are here to liberate the oppressed and to make them happy, the myth about the Finns'poor ability to carry liquor has served as a starting point for all reformers od Finnish alcohol policy, abolishers of bad drinking habits and those promising more sophisticated drinking.
  • Fewster, Derek (SKS, 2006)
    The study is an examination of how the distant national past has been conceived and constructed for Finland from the mid-sixteenth century to the Second World War. The author argues that the perception and need of a national 'Golden Age' has undergone several phases during this period, yet the perceived Greatness of the Ancient Finns has been of great importance for the growth and development of the fundamental concepts of Finnish nationalism. It is a question reaching deeper than simply discussing the Kalevala or the Karelianism of the 1890s. Despite early occurrences of most of the topics the image-makers could utilize for the construction of an Ancient Greatness, a truly national proto-history only became a necessity after 1809, when a new conceptual 'Finnishness' was both conceived and brought forth in reality. In this process of nation-building, ethnic myths of origin and descent provided the core of the nationalist cause - the defence of a primordial national character - and within a few decades the antiquarian issue became a standard element of the nationalist public enlightenment. The emerging, archaeologically substantiated, nationhood was more than a scholarly construction: it was a 'politically correct' form of ethnic self-imaging, continuously adapting its message to contemporary society and modern progress. Prehistoric and medieval Finnishness became even more relevant for the intellectual defence of the nation during the period of Russian administrative pressure 1890-1905. With independence the origins of Finnishness were militarized even further, although the 'hot' phase of antiquarian nationalism ended, as many considered the Finnish state reestablished after centuries of 'dependency'. Nevertheless, the distant past of tribal Finnishness and the conceived Golden Age of the Kalevala remained obligating. The decline of public archaeology is quite evident after 1918, even though the national message of the antiquarian pursuits remained present in the history culture of the public. The myths, symbols, images, and constructs of ancient Finnishness had already become embedded in society by the turn of the century, like the patalakki cap, which remains a symbol of Finnishness to this day. The method of approach is one of combining a broad spectrum of previously neglected primary sources, all related to history culture and the subtle banalization of the distant past: school books, postcards, illustrations, festive costumes, drama, satirical magazines, novels, jewellery, and calendars. Tracing the origins of the national myths to their original contexts enables a rather thorough deconstruction of the proto-historical imaginary in this Finnish case study. Considering Anthony D. Smith's idea of ancient 'ethnies' being the basis for nationalist causes, the author considers such an approach in the Finnish case totally misplaced.