Browsing by Subject "impact"

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  • Voorsluis, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract In this Master’s thesis I investigate Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) involvement, experiences and outcomes in Madagascar, including the limiting and enabling factors for impact of conservation interventions driven by NGOs. The focal point of the research is the lived experiences from the field, including identification of processes and forces shaping the preconditions for NGO interventions. As part of the research I explore experiences of NGOs from their interventions and from engaging with local communities, government, policy makers and other NGOs in Madagascar. Many NGOs are active in biodiversity hotspots like Madagascar, but evaluation outcomes and lessons learned tend not to be extensively shared across organizations and thematic focus areas. This in turn affects preconditions to influence outcome determinants not only in isolated interventions but also across organizational borders. This study aims to define the situation and the issues faced by NGOs in Madagascar to suggest how the landscape could be navigated to improve the preconditions for long term intervention impact. The purpose is not to evaluate specific projects, but to assess the mechanisms through which the NGO sector can make a significant contribution to conservation, as well as the challenges in doing so. As the analysis seeks to broaden and contextualize the discussion of NGO involvement in conservation interventions, the theoretical framework for the research is based on theory on Non-Governmental Organizations and grounded theory. The theoretical framework facilitates the analysis of the findings, understanding of the results, as well as structuring and highlighting new insights. The theory is complemented with a background assessment of the environmental context in Madagascar, reviewing other research on conservation and its challenges in the country. This helps to understand the dimensions of the challenges, as well as the avenues open for exploration. Insights are gathered from representatives of long-term in situ NGOs to better understand the wider playing field in which they operate. The empirical research is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 21 representatives from 12 international and local NGOs working with biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. The data was transcribed and analyzed through thematic network analysis and constructivist grounded theory analysis. The interviews were combined with a literature review, a group interview, a field visit to a project site, and more informal conversations with academic researchers and experts in the field. As part of the study, a two-week field trip to Madagascar was undertaken. To present the findings from this research, thematic categorizations were used to illustrate factors that affect outcomes of conservation interventions driven by NGOs. The categories are related to internal organization specific factors, cooperation with other actors (including other NGOs, government and actors in the local communities), as well as the Malagasy environment and politics (including government, laws and policies). The findings reveal challenges especially with systematic coordination of NGO interventions, NGO evaluation practices, resources, as well as issues with implementing sustainable community involvement in project design and decision making. Local community involvement is considered important, but in practice is not fully scaled up and inclusive in terms of decision making and consistent involvement. Findings indicate that the cooperation between NGOs and their key stakeholders works reasonably well from the NGO perspective, but still has potential to be better utilized in order to improve long-term sustainability. Consideration of external constraints is important to assess the potential of different types of interventions and approaches, allowing NGOs to focus their efforts according to the context and their capacities. While acknowledging and navigating the diversity of viewpoints, it is essential to be aware of the impact of structural challenges, the political complexity and the often-conflicting interests between conservation, the commercial and extractive sector, as well as local livelihoods and practices. Findings indicate issues with policy implementation and harmonization, and with conservation prioritization and law enforcement by the government. Local and national ownership and leadership backing is seen as essential for biodiversity conservation, pushing for stronger leadership from within the society. My research provides insights, recommendations and conclusions from which NGOs and conservation actors can gain better understanding of factors impacting interventions, as well as on the Malagasy playing field and its dynamics. This can be helpful in order to capitalize on opportunities and counter challenges, focusing actions on areas that make a difference. The findings can also be of value to other biodiversity conservation researchers, funding agencies, associations, communities and government stakeholders specifically focused on Madagascar. The research may also benefit NGOs and conservation actors involved in other countries, which confront similar challenges concerning conservation, governance, NGO involvement and interventions.
  • Lindfors, Pirjo; Minkkinen, Jaana; Katainen, Anu Hannele; Rimpelä, Arja (2019)
    Background: Previous research suggests that parental knowledge of the child's activities and whereabouts prevents adolescents' alcohol use. However, evidence on whether the positive effects of maternal and paternal knowledge are distinctive for boys' and girls' alcohol use is inconclusive. We examined whether perceived parental knowledge at age 13 prevents alcohol use at age 16, whether the effect of maternal and paternal knowledge was the same for both genders, and whether paternal knowledge had as strong an effect as maternal knowledge. Method: Adolescents answered a school survey in 2011 (age 13) and 2014 (age 16) in Finland (N = 5742). Perceived maternal and paternal knowledge was measured separately using a Parents' Monitoring Scale. The data were analysed via moderation regression modelling using Bayesian estimation. Results: Perceived maternal and paternal knowledge at age 13 predicted boys' and girls' lower alcohol use at age 16. For those who had not used alcohol at age 13, parental knowledge protected against an increase of alcohol use at age 16. Both maternal and paternal knowledge had a shielding effect against the increase of boys' and girls' alcohol use, but maternal knowledge had a stronger shielding effect than paternal knowledge. Conclusions: Both maternal and paternal perceived knowledge at age 13 buffers against the adverse development of alcohol use at age 16 for both genders. Underlining the importance of parent-child communication and knowledge about the child's activities should be a part of family health counselling and school health services.
  • Wan, Minli; D'amato, Dalia; Toppinen, Anne Maarit Kristiina; Rekola, Mika Olavi (2017)
    Global awareness of sustainability issues is growing rapidly, and business organizations are called to address wider social and environmental concerns along with economic performance. However, limited systematic knowledge exists on the interactions between forest industries and natural ecosystems. We thus investigated the role of ecosystem services in the context of China's forest sector. A qualitative research approach was used to elicit company external expert viewpoints on the topic. Our analysis focused on three themes: (1) forest company dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services; (2) business risks arising from dependencies and impacts; and (3) risk response strategies. The interviewed 20 experts identified a series of forest company dependencies and impacts (including negative and positive impacts) on several ecosystem services. The extent of dependencies and impacts is largely influenced by the business portfolio of the company. The perceived business risks include intense competition and the consequently increasing price for natural resources, which would affect forest company business plans, costs and outputs. The suggested strategies for turning risks into opportunities include outsourcing wood, changing production focus, promoting industrial upgrading and implementing regular assessments of corporate dependencies and impacts on ecosystem services. The findings of our study can guide companies' decision-making in managing forest ecosystems sustainably.
  • Haavisto, Ira (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
    Economics and Society – 275
    The goals of humanitarian organizations are to save lives, decrease human suffering, and contribute to development. However, humanitarian response has been criticized for its lack of positive impact on the societies receiving aid, or more precisely, for the lack of the effectiveness of the aid. Discussion of the effectiveness of aid has seemingly been incorporated at the operational level as focus on cost and time efficiency. However, efficiency considerations have been criticized because they can lead to oversight of other considerations, such as sustainability. Humanitarian practitioners have started paying attention to measuring their performance. Measuring the performance of humanitarian operations, however, can be cumbersome, due to the complexity of the operating environment, which has limited data accessibility and multiple actors involved. This thesis’ overall aim is to analyze how supply chain performance is understood in the humanitarian context. The research questions are deliberated on in four essays. Each essay has a different scope, ranging from an intra-organizational supply chain perspective to a macro perspective on country logistics performance. This thesis builds mainly on the literature about humanitarian supply chain and its performance measurement. To date, the performance literature in the humanitarian context has covered different performance measurement frameworks and suggested specific key performance indicators. However, it has not yet tackled the essence of performance measurement, which should be connected to the goal of the activity at hand and support learning and development.
  • EFSA Panel Anim Hlth Welf AHAW; Nielsen, Soren Saxmose (2020)
    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a vector-borne disease transmitted by different mosquito species, especially Aedes and Culex genus, to animals and humans. In November 2018, RVF re-emerged in Mayotte (France) after 11 years. Up to the end of October 2019, 126 outbreaks in animals and 143 human cases were reported. RVF mortality was 0.01%, and the number of abortions reported in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive ruminants was fivefold greater than the previous 7 years. Milk loss production in 2019 compared to 2015-2018 was estimated to be 18%, corresponding to an economic loss of around Euro191,000 in all of Mayotte. The tropical climate in Mayotte provides conditions for the presence of mosquitoes during the whole year, and illegal introductions of animals represent a continuous risk of (re)introduction of RVF. The probability of RVF virus (RVFV) persisting in Mayotte for 5 or more years was estimated to be <10% but could be much lower if vertical transmission in vectors does not occur. Persistence of RVF by vertical transmission in Mayotte and Reunion appears to be of minor relevance compared to other pathways of re-introduction (i.e. animal movement). However, there is a high uncertainty since there is limited information about the vertical transmission of some of the major species of vectors of RVFV in Mayotte and Reunion. The only identified pathways for the risk of spread of RVF from Mayotte to other countries were by infected vectors transported in airplanes or by wind currents. For the former, the risk of introduction of RVF to continental France was estimated to 4 x 10(-6) epidemic per year (median value; 95% CI: 2 x 10(-8); 0.0007), and 0.001 epidemic per year to Reunion (95% CI: 4 x 10(-6); 0.16). For the latter pathway, mosquitoes dispersing on the wind from Mayotte between January and April 2019 could have reached the Comoros Islands, Madagascar, Mozambique and, possibly, Tanzania. However, these countries are already endemic for RVF, and an incursion of RVFV-infected mosquitoes would have negligible impact. (c) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Talwar, Shalini; Dhir, Amandeep; Singh, Dilraj; Virk, Gurnam; Salo, Jari (2020)
    Sharing of fake news on social media platforms is a global concern, with research offering little insight into the motives behind such sharing. This study adopts a mixed-method approach to explore fake-news sharing behaviour. To begin with, qualitative data from 58 open-ended essays was analysed to identify six behavioural manifestations associated with sharing fake news. Thereafter, research model hypothesizing the association between these behaviours was proposed using the honeycomb framework and the third-person effect hypothesis. Age and gender were the control variables. Two data sets obtained from cross-sectional surveys with 471 and 374 social media users were utilized to test the proposed model. The study results suggest that instantaneous sharing of news for creating awareness had positive effect on sharing fake news due to lack of time and religiosity. However, authenticating news before sharing had no effect on sharing fake news due to lack of time and religiosity. The study results also suggest that social media users who engage in active corrective action are unlikely to share fake news due to lack of time. These results have significant theoretical and practical implications.