Browsing by Subject "itsetunto"

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  • Mäntylä, Paula (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Aims of the study Many changes have been made to the school environment in Finland. Still there are no research about how new school environments will effect pupils’ well-being, such as self-esteem. Due to the lack of previous research it cannot be concluded whether these changes to school environment are equal to every student regardless of their temperament. The aim of this study is to find out about the effects of the lack of stability in the school environment (stability of social relations, stability of physical features, stability of overall structure) to pupils’ self-esteem. In addition, the possible moderating effect of temperament is under an interest. Methods The representative sample of this study (n=2210) consisted of Finnish 9th graders, who participated in The Finnish Study on Temperament and School Achievement –research project between 2005 and 2006. Self-esteem was measured by the Finnish version of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory. Temperament traits were measured by TABC-R and DOTS-R –inventories. The stability of the school environment was measured with three different scales: the stability of social relations, physical features and overall structure. The study was carried out by using multilevel models. Three multilevel models were created, in each of which self-esteem was the dependent variable. Results and conclusions The stability of social relations, physical features or overall structure did not have statistically significant main effects on the pupils’ self-esteem. However, the non-steadiness of overall structure had a statistically significant negative effect on the self-esteem of pupils with a higher task orientation. Reactivity or flexibility did not moderate any effects of the stability scales. All the observed effects were small, which implies that there are a number of different variables not measured in this study that affect pupils’ self-esteem. The results of this study show that the non-steady school environments do not have a positive effect on pupils’ well-being, as it has been assumed. The non-steadiness of the school environment with other changes in the school environment and their effects to pupils’ well-being need further research.
  • Pihlaja, John (2002)
    Tämän tutkimuksen kohteena olivat tutkimus- ja ammattikirjallisuudessa yleisimmin esitetyt onnistuneen työnhakukoulutuksen edellytykset sekä niiden mittaamisen mahdollisuudet. Yleistä kurssityytyväisyyttä, ohjaaja- sekä ryhmätyytyväisyyttä, itsetuntoa, motivaatiota, työnhakupystyvyyttä, yleistä pystyvyyttä, selviytymisstrategioita ja kontrolliodotuksia on kaikkia kuvattu psykososiaaliselle selviytymiselle välttämättöminä, mutta niistä yksittäin esitetyt tutkimustulokset ovat usein keskenään ristiriitaisia. Vaikutussuhteiden laimeus sekä tulosten heikko replikoitavuus vaikeuttavat kokonaiskuvan muodostamista ja johtopäätösten tekemistä koulutuksen kehittämistä varten. Tämän työn tavoitteena oli osoittaa ainekset, joiden varaan voi rakentaa perusteltuja ja ennustevoimaisia työnhakukoulutuksen laatumittareita. Menettelynä oli verrata yhtenäisellä metodologialla samassa tutkimuksessa kaikkia edellä mainittuja ulottuvuuksia. Osana Varsinais-Suomen TE-keskuksen työvoimaosaston laatuprojektia ja laatumittarihanketta kerättiin työnhakuryhmien päättymishetkellä 354 osanottajan täyttämän tutkimuslomakkeen numeeriset kurssi- ja itsearviot. Näitä verrattiin kaksi kuukautta myöhemmin palautettuihin työnhakuaktiivisuuden itsearvioihin ja työhallinnon sijoittumistietoihin kolme ja kaksitoista kuukautta myöhemmin. ltsetunto, motivaatio, työnhakupystyvyys, yleinen pystyvyys, selviytymisstrategiat ja kontrolliodotukset sekä tutkimuksen kuluessa esille noussut koettu työmarkkina-arvo olivat suhteellisen tasavahvoja ennustajia, mutta erillisinä riittämättömiä. Kaikki erikseen ennustivat työnhakuaktiivisuutta selvästi yli ennustevoimalle asetetun tavoitteen. Edellämainituista yhdistetty mittari korreloi työnhakuaktiivisuuteen r = .58 ja lisäksi sijoittumiseen r = .21 erittäin merkitsevällä tasolla. Kurssi, ohjaaja- tai ryhmätyytyväisyys eivät ennustaneet työnhakuaktiivisuutta tai sijoittumista sen kummemmin työhön kuin koulutukseenkaan. Kurssityytyväisyys liittyi selvimmin ryhmä- ja ohjaajatyytyväisyyteen. Yli kolmesataa kysymystä sisältäneen lomakkeiston tuottama rikas aineisto mahdollisti aktiivisuutta ennustavien ja ei-ennustavien yksittäisten muuttujien vertailun. Kysymyksen muotoilu vaikuttaa ratkaisevasti sen ennustavuuteen.. Mitä yksityiskohtaisemmin ja omakohtaisemmin muotoiltu, sen selvimmin näkyvät yhteydet. Omien työnhakuun liittyvien kognitioiden ja aiottujen konkreettisten tekemisien kysyminen lienee vähemmän altis arviointivirheille ja sosiaalisen suotavuuden vaikutuksille kuin mielipide kurssista tai ohjaajista. Kaikkiaan noin 80% hyvinkin perustelluista muuttujista jouduttiin hylkäämään. Tässä työssä paljastunut kysymisen tavan herkkyys saattaa selittää suuren osan aiempien tutkimustulosten ristiriitaisuudesta. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella voidaan yleisellä tasolla todeta, että työnhakukoulutuksen tutkimusten osanottajille asetut kysymykset tulisi kohdistaa todetusti ennustevoimaisiin ulottuvuuksiin. Ne tulisi muotoilla mahdollisimman lähelle sitä oman prosessin hallinnan problematiikkaa, joka on kurssilaiselle välitöntä todellisuutta. Todettu kysymysten muotoilun vaikutus puoltaisi ennustevoimaltaan testattavien standardikysymysten suosimista alan tutkimustyössä. Koulutussuunnittelun ja laadunseurannan suuremmat vaatimukset ennustavuuden suhteen edellyttävät testatuista kysymyksistä rakennettujen summamuuttujien käyttöä ja sijoittumistietojen seuraamista jatkuvina muuttujina, esimerkiksi työssäolokuukausien lukumäärän muodossa. Tavanomaiset kurssipalautteet kuvannevat hyvin osanottajien ensireaktioita, mutta eivät tavoita koulutuksen tuottamia vaikutuksia sosiaaliseen oppimiseen, myöhempään toimintaan tai toiminnan tuloksellisuuteen. Bandura, Albert (1997) Self-efficacy: the exercise of control. Tarkkonen, Lauri (1 987) On reliability of composite seales.
  • Elomaa, Nora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    My master's thesis examines the dimensions of well-being in sixth-graders (school engagement, self-esteem, school burnout and depression) as well as their relations to each other. This thesis focuses on how social factors can predict the dimensions of well-being. Previous studies have shown that adolescent's school engagement has a positive effect even later in working life. According to research the support of classmates, teacher and family is related to the well-being in adolescents. The results of this study can be used to develop tools for support the well-being of adolescents. In addition, it might be useful for the future research of adolescents’ well-being. This is a quantitative study, and the research material was collected as part of the #Uuttakoulua - project. However, my thesis is not part of the project. The data was collected in three different schools in the metropolitan area surrounding Helsinki, and it consist of 156 respondents; 99 of them belongs to the experimental group with strength-based education and 57 belongs to the comparison group. Participants in the study were sixth-graders and their answers were filled by an online questionnaire. IBM SPSS Statistics 27 was used for data analysis. I used statistical methods to answer my research questions (independent sample t-test, means - standard deviations, Pearson correlation coefficient, linear regression analysis). The results showed that the well-being of sixth-graders is generally good. They experienced more school engagement and higher self-esteem than school burnout and depression. The dimensions of well-being correlate statistically significantly with each other, for example self-esteem and depression had a quite strong negative correlation. Based on the results, support of the family seemed to have a more significant impact on students’ well-being than other social factors.
  • Jääskeläinen, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The aim of this study was to find out how doing craft has an impact on self-esteem, life management and well-being for two women prisoners in Hämeenlinna prison. The study covers not only part of the time in prison but also six months after the release from prison. I wanted to find out the reasons that they had for doing craft, as well as what they made and why. I was also interested in knowing if they continued with their hobby, or if not, after being released and the reasons for their choice. In this study my hypothesis was that doing craft might help prisoners to cope with stressful feelings during the time in prison. My hypothesis was based on the theories of the role of craft in well-being and the impacts on self-esteem and life management. Doing craft has been found therapeutic for its ability to improve a person's self image and for maintaining functional mental health and for several benefits for mental well-being. I had three questions in my study which I wanted to get an answer to: "How did the prisoners consider the value of doing craft for self-esteem and life management in jail and in the activity centre Monikko in Hämeenlinna prison?", "What connections do former prisoners find between doing craft, self-esteem and life management?" and "What were the reasons for continuing or giving up doing craft after being released?". I had an interview with the women a few times while they were in prison and six months after they had been released. I analyzed the interviews using the content analysis. The interviews revealed that while in prison both women found the influence of doing craft, especially knitting, calming, stress reducing and therapeutic. They found that knitting increased the quality of life and the feeling of life management. They also realized that they have skills and talent to manage and complete tasks, which improved their self-esteem and increased their self-confidence. After having found their competence on knitting, they started to feel hopeful for the future again. While knitting they were able to evaluate and deconstruct their previous lives, consider the change of life and set new goals for it. After being released both women continued to knit mainly for the same reasons as in prison but also to avoid getting back to the previous lifestyle with harmful addictions. Keeping themselves busy by knitting among other responsibilities in their lives, they brought life management and increased control in their lives. Based on the results in my study, crafts, especially knitting, can be considered a useful chore in prison for its impact on reducing stress and on other benefits to mental well-being.
  • Eira, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Goals. The purpose of this study was to find out what kind of social media groups can be identified among high school students and what kind of gender differences exist in the use of social media. This study also examined whether the social media user groups differ in self-esteem and how gender and socioeconomic background are related to the relationship between social media use and self-esteem. It is important to examine adolescents’ social media user habits in order to gain more detailed information about the association between adolescents’ social media use and self-esteem. Methods. The data (N = 1203) was collected from high school students in 34 Helsinki schools in spring 2018. Participants filled in questionnaires that measured social media use, self-esteem and questions regarding family background. Gender differences in social media usage were evaluated with Independent Samples t-Test and the relationship between with the preliminary variables were analyzed using Pearsons’ correlation factors. Respondents were divided into groups based on participation in social media by using the Two Step Cluster analysis. One-way analysis of variance examined whether groups differed in self-esteem. The one-way analysis of variance also examined whether socioeconomic background and gender influence how user groups differ in self-esteem. Results and conclusions. Four distinct groups were identified from the data: socially networked, knowledge-oriented, academically oriented, and active users. Differences in the use of social media by girls and boys were observed. Girls were found to use more social media for social networking compared to boys. Boys, in turn, were found to use more social media for knowledge-oriented and academically oriented purposes than girls. In addition, gender differences in the distribution of social media user groups were examined. The group of active users and socially networked were more popular among girls, while the knowledge-oriented and academically oriented groups were more popular among boys than girls. The group of active users was the largest group in the material and the most popular user group among girls and boys. Based on this, it can be stated that most girls and boys use digital media in a very diverse way. Social media user groups were not found to differ significantly in self-esteem, and gender or socioeconomic background did not explain the differences in user groups in self-esteem.
  • Saarinen, Sanni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The aim of this study is to examine relations between body mass index, self-esteem, body image and adolescents thoughts about body positivity. Earlier study has showed relation among increasing body mass index, body dissatisfaction and lower self-esteem. Body positivity has its roots in the fat acceptance movement in the late 1960s. Goal of the body positivity movement is to address unrealistic ideals about beauty, promote self-acceptance, and build self-esteem and learning to love oneself to the fullest. Body positivity is popular on social media and in Finland discourses about it are controversial. Some think it is a good for health and self-esteem, others think it glamorizes overweight. Finnish adolescents thoughts about body positivity has not been explored before this study. This statistical study was made in Spring 2019. The research subjects were finnish adolescents aged 13-18. The data was obtained from the adolescents by an electronic enquiry. The sample consisted of N=109 adolescents, n 89 women, n 19 men and n 1 transgender. The data was analyzed by using SPSS Statistics 25 program and frequencies, cross-tabulations, Pearson`s correlations, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA tests. In this study self-esteem or body image were not varied by age. Body image was varied by gender so that girls had lower body image than boys. Body mass index were not significant for self esteem or body image and disagreed with earlier study. Physical activity behind many of the adolescents has been noticed while reporting results. Term body positivity was familiar for 72,4 % of participants, specially from social media. Girls knew it more often than boys and estimated its effects for better self-love stronger than boys. Majority of adolescents thought that body positivity tries to increase self-love among every size and age. Only few thought that body positivity glamorize overweight and obesity. This research reveals that there is a need for wider study around relations between body mass index, self-esteem, body image and body positivity among adolescents. This study offers a base for extensive study in the future.
  • Isotupa, Mari Annukka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Goals: The prevalence of subclinical psychotic symptoms in the normal population is 5–8%. Approximately 8% of the subclinical psychotic symptoms have been shown to predict the onset of later psychotic disorder. It can be assumed that if the number of subclinical psychotic symptoms is related to the locus of control and self-esteem, these connections would appear in the normal population at different stages of the psychosis continuum depending on the severity of the psychotic symptoms. A better understanding of these connections could in the future help distinguish those who report subclinical psychotic symptoms from those who later develop a clinically significant psychotic disorder. Methods: In this study, correlation of psychotic symptoms (UM-CIDI) with the locus of control (I.E. Scale in part) and self-esteem (RSES in part) were studied, as well as through variance analyzes of how the healthy (n = 5279) with little or more reported subclinical psychotic symptoms (n = 141 and n = 84), and persons with non-affective psychotic disorders (SCID) (n = 50) differed in relation to these factors (PSO groups). The study used the NCS-data collected from the normal population in 1990–1992. Results and Conclusions: According to previous research data, the number of psychotic symptoms was related to the external locus of control and the low self-esteem. The PSO groups differed more widely only in the case of external locus of control which based on other’s people power and control. The combined effect of psychotic symptoms and self-esteem explained the differences between groups only in relation to the above-mentioned locus of control. The results support previous findings of a more external locus of control, personalizing bias and low self-esteem related to psychotic disorders, as well as indications of their milder occurrence in the normal population already reported with psychotic symptoms. Exploratory study of causal relationships is still needed.
  • Jaari, Aini (2004)
    This study aimed to clarify underlying variables of global self-esteem in work-aged Finnish men and women as assessed on a measure developed by M. Rosenberg (1965). The study examined the relationship between self-esteem and (1) sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1979) and sense of competence, (2) Machiavellism (Mach IV) and (3) personal values assessed through the Portraits measure (Schwartz, 2001) and completed in relation to work and spiritual values. Based on Eagly's (1987) theory of gender role differences, the self-esteem of young adults in further education or at work was compared. The study consisted of two data sets collected through questionnaires: the first in 1995 (n=368), the second in 2001 (n=1283). The central variables were gender, age, education and professional/occupational categories. The sets of data were also examined in relation to salary and type of occupational enterprise including farming. Results showed that neither gender nor age was related to level of self-esteem. However, the more educated the individuals the higher their self-esteem. Low self-esteem was best explained by a low sense of coherence and Machiavellian cynicism. Both can be considered related to weak social integration within society. Cynicism was highest among those men and women aged under 31 years with low levels of education and also those engaged in farming. Young people in further education had more problems with their sense of coherence than those in employment. Well-educated entrepreneurs achieved the highest scores on the self-esteem measure while those engaged in farming had the lowest scores. It seems that a proportion of the farming population perceive themselves deceived and marginalized within the Finnish society which, in turn, contributes to their low self-esteem, cynical attitude and conflicting values. Although this study showed that women were more social and emphatic than men, gender role differences at the workplace had narrowed. For both sexes, roles at the workplace were shaped by society's norms, expectations and demands. A sense of competence and success at the workplace was a very important correlate of self-esteem for both men and women. It can be concluded that work is an important route to social integration in society and work has a positive effect on the individual's sense of self-worth. According to the study, men and especially women at work appear to base their self-esteem on personal competence in the areas of knowledge, skills and social relations and on individual self-enhancement and values. The results of the study are in accordance with the views of Morris Rosenberg. Weak and problematic interpersonal relationships (integration between individuals) and weak institutional and norm-dependent behaviour are typical of persons with low self-esteem.
  • Bergholm, Kati (2001)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa tutkittiin Fortumiin Internetin kautta avoimen tai kesätyöhakemuksen lähettäneiden työnhakijoiden arvoja ja itsetuntoa yleisellä tasolla sekä kesätyöntekijöiksi hakeneiden henkilöiden arvojen ja itsetunnon merkitystä rekrytoijan valintapäätökseen vaikuttavina tekijöinä. Tutkielmassa nojauduttiin Schwartzin arvojen määritelmään. Schwartzin teoria kuvaa arvojen yleismaailmallista rakennetta. Tutkimuksessa käytetty kvalitatiivinen aineisto kerättiin Fortumin Internet-työhakemustietokannan sihteeri-, IT- ja kunnossapitotyöhakemuksista. Kvantitatiivista otosta varten osoitetiedot kerättiin Internet-työhakemustietokannasta. Otokselle lähetettiin kyselylomake, joka sisälsi taustakysymys-, itsetunto- ja arvokysymysosion. Arvokysymyksiin annetut vastaukset standardoitiin. Tehtäviä analyysejä varten muodostettiin sekä arvotyyppejä että arvoulottuvuuksia kuvaavat summamuuttujat Schwartzin jaottelun mukaan. Itsetuntoa mitattiin kahdella asteikolla, Shostromin ja Rosenbergin itsetuntomittareilla. Mittareille suoritettiin faktorianalyysi. Tutkimuksen tuloksena havaittiin, että Fortumiin valituksi tulleet henkilöt (kesätyönhakijat ja avoimella hakemuksella hakeneet) arvostivat perinteet- ja hengellisyys-arvotyyppejä valitsematta jääneitä työnhakijoita enemmän. Sihteeri-,IT- ja kunnossapitotyönhakijoiden arvomaailma poikkesi toisistaan monien arvotyyppien ja arvoulottuvuuksien kohdalla merkitsevästi. Itetunnoltaan heikot työnhakijat arvostivat perinteet-arvotyyppiä enemmän kuin ne, joilla oli hyvä itsetunto. Schwartz, S. H. (1992). Universals in the content and structure on values: theoretical ad-vances and empirical tests in 20 countries. Teoksessa M. P. Zanna. (toim.): Advances in experimental psychology. 25, 1-65. San Diego: Academic Press. Myyry, L. & Helkama, K. (2001). University students´ value priorities and emotional em-pathy. Educational Psychology, 21 (1), 25-40.
  • Savolainen, Juska (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Modernization of society and increased opportunities for choice has made it easier for parents to make individualized breeding solutions. Current parenting is described as "free option" but also growing challenges of quality of breeding. On the other hand, researchers are also increasingly reporting the growing risks of wellbeing among young people, such as loneliness and ill feeling. This research aims to find links between the different parenting styles and the wellbeing of the young people. The purpose of this research is to study the subjective testimonial of the child - parent relationship among the 7th grade students in Helsinki, and to compare the results of the established types of parenting to the ones that are found in professional literature. The aim is also to analyze the connection between the different styles of rearing to the self-reported quality of life, feeling of loneliness and the subjective image of self-esteem. This study is part of the University of Helsinki carried out by Mind the Gap research project (2013-2017). The data was collected from seventh graders (N = 1226) via a questionnaire spring 2014 in Helsinki 20 different schools. The link between parenting styles to self-perceived life satisfaction, loneliness and self-esteem by multidirectional variance analysis (MANOVA) and the differences between genders by Post-hoc (Tukey) test. With the help of a group analysis (K-means Cluster), the aim was also to find new rearing groups that would best describe emphasized dimensions and combinations of parenting. Based on the material, three parenting styles were found. They were called to as intensive, controlling and distant rearing styles. The results showed that previous rearing style classifications are not entirely adequate in relation to the nature of today's parenthood. There were statistically significant differences in the parenting styles when compared to the welfare indicators experienced by young people. Parenting styles intensive and guiding were more positively associated to youth's wellbeing than the parenting style distance. As a conclusion, the results show that parental involvement and presence appear to be in a positive relationship with the indicators of wellbeing experienced by youth.