Browsing by Subject "management"

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  • Rautiainen, Oona (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    This piece of research scrutinizes the relationship between the Grand Renaissance Dam project and the struggling Nile cooperation. It incorporates the themes of transboundary river disputes and power asymmetries within regional cooperation into a qualitative case study in order to achieve a better understanding of the hydro-political situation at the Nile Basin. It approaches the issue through qualitative content analysis of 35 interviews and uses the framework of hydro-hegemony as a theoretical explanatory tool to help in the analysis of its findings. The study analyses the different issues, processes and dynamics related to the Dam project through the different factors of presented in the framework of hydro-hegemony and counter hegemonic act presented by Mark Zeitoun and Ana Cascao. The framework states that the balance of power is the factor that ultimately determines how the riparian states interact over shared resource. The framework assumes that the overall goal of each riparian is to maximize their objectives with the certain resource through control. The control can be achieved through different and strategies. The study confirms the current view rising from the recent research literature that the Nile river basin offers an example of hydro-hegemonic power structures in a transboundary river context. There is a clear asymmetry in power relations between the riparian states which can be seen in power dynamics and in all the aspects of cooperation. The outcome of hydro-hegemony at the Nile basin can be seen in the tension between the riparian states and unequal water distribution. The most downstream riparian state Egypt has been able to establish a consolidated control over the waters of the Nile for decades but through the political changes in the region the control has been contested. One of the main results of this study is to give confirmation to the view that the hydropolitical relations at the basin are in constant transformation mostly due to the increased the bargaining power of the upstream riparian states. At the moment three main challenges are characterizing the Nile cooperation. Firstly the question of CFA was seen by most of the informants as one of the main challenges in the Nile cooperation. Secondly the issue of water allocations was brought up as the most difficult matter to solve before reaching an agreement. Thirdly the environment of mistrust and misknowledge is seen as seriously hindering the cooperation. In addition to the factors which are challenging and hindering the Nile cooperation, the study presented other types of developments which describe the current state of the Nile cooperation. Those observations can be summarized to five factors which are: change in regional power dynamics, the rise of emerging new actors, the frustration of the traditional international donors, clear upstream vs. downstream dualism and the rise of unilateral action. This study states that the main challenges of the Nile cooperation are the main points of contradiction also in the case of the Grand Renaissance Dam project. It concludes that before reaching a permanent legal and institutional framework to the region the issue of water security and water allocations must be redefined and the lack of trust between the countries must be alleviated.
  • Saunders, Matthew; Dengel, Sigrid; Kolari, Pasi; Moureaux, Christine; Montagnani, Leonardo; Ceschia, Eric; Altimir, Nuria; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Acosta, Manuel; Klumpp, Katja; Gielen, Bert; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Hortnagl, Lukas; Merbold, Lutz; Osborne, Bruce; Grunwald, Thomas; Arrouays, Dominique; Boukir, Hakima; Saby, Nicolas; Nicolini, Giacomo; Papale, Dario; Jones, Michael (2018)
    There are many factors that influence ecosystem scale carbon, nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics, including the inherent heterogeneity of soils and vegetation, anthropogenic management interventions, and biotic and abiotic disturbance events. It is important therefore, to document the characteristics of the soils and vegetation and to accurately report all management activities, and disturbance events to aid the interpretation of collected data, and to determine whether the ecosystem either amplifies or mitigates climate change. This paper outlines the importance of assessing both the spatial and temporal variability of soils and vegetation and to report all management events, the import or export of C or N from the ecosystem, and the occurrence of biotic/abiotic disturbances at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a pan-European research infrastructure.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Research Reports
    Leadership and management remain highly gendered. Recent decades have seen a major international growth of studies on gender relations in leadership, organisations and management, in both empirical research and theoretical analysis. The differential relations of women and men to leadership and management are a key question for both theory and practice. Recent research and discussion on the gendering of leadership have been influenced by and have addressed: feminism; recognition of women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in leadership; organisational culture; communication; divisions of labour, hierarchy, power and authority; imagery and symbolism; information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; men and masculinities in leadership; globalisation, transnationalism, intersectionality and post¬¬colonialism – amongst other issues. Having said that, the vast majority of mainstream work on leadership retains little or no gender analysis. In most business schools and other universities the position of gender-explicit work on leadership is still not well established. Leadership through the Gender Lens brings together critical analyses and debates on gender, leadership and management with contributions from 13 countries and five continents. How leadership and management are gendered can mean more gender equal or more gender unequal conditions for women and men. This includes how education and training can contribute to gendered leadership and management. The volume is organised in three main sections, on: careers and leadership; management, hierarchy and leadership: and interventions in leadership.
  • Angelstam, Per; Manton, Michael; Yamelynets, Taras; Fedoriak, Mariia; Albulescu, Andra-Cosmina; Bravo, Felipe; Cruz, Fatima; Jaroszewicz, Bogdan; Kavratishvili, Marika; Munos-Rojas, Jose; Sijtsma, Frans; Washbourne, Carla-Leanne; Agnoletti, Mauro; Dobrynin, Denis; Izakovicova, Zita; Jansson, Nicklas; Kanka, Robert; Kopperoinen, Leena; Lazdinis, Marius; Metzger, Marc; van der Moolen, Bert; Özut, Deniz; Gjorgieska, Dori Pavlovska; Strydmets, Natalie; Tolunay, Ahmet; Turkogly, Turkay; Zagidullina, Asiya (Springer Link, 2020)
    Landscape Ecology 36 (2020)
    Context Maintaining functional green infrastructures (GIs) require evidence-based knowledge about historic and current states and trends of representative land cover types. Objectives We address: (1) the long-term loss and transformation of potential natural forest vegetation; (2) the effects of site productivity on permanent forest loss and emergence of traditional cultural landscapes; (3) the current management intensity; and (4) the social-ecological contexts conducive to GI maintenance. Methods We selected 16 case study regions, each with a local hotspot landscape, ranging from intact forest landscapes, via contiguous and fragmented forest covers, to severe forest loss. Quantitative open access data were used to estimate (i) the historic change and (ii) transformation of land covers, and (iii) compare the forest canopy loss from 2000 to 2018. Qualitative narratives about each hotspot landscape were analysed for similarities (iv). Results While the potential natural forest vegetation cover in the 16 case study regions had a mean of 86%, historically it has been reduced to 34%. Higher site productivity coincided with transformation to non-forest land covers. The mean annual forest canopy loss for 2000–2018 ranged from 0.01 to 1.08%. The 16 case studies represented five distinct social-ecological contexts (1) radical transformation of landscapes, (2) abuse of protected area concepts, (3) ancient cultural landscapes (4) multi-functional forests, and (5) intensive even-aged forest management, of which 1 and 4 was most common. Conclusions GIs encompass both forest naturalness and traditional cultural landscapes. Our review of Pan-European regions and landscapes revealed similarities in seemingly different contexts, which can support knowledge production and learning about how to sustain GIs.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Piekkari, Rebecca; Jyrkinen, Marjut (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Research Reports
    Mainstream research on management generally continues to ignore gender relations. Even so, over recent years there has been a major growth of international research on gender relations in organizations. Yet, most of this has focused on gender relations in lower or middle levels rather than at the apex of the organization. This book draws on research on gender policies, structures and practices of management in large Finnish corporations. It builds on earlier survey work of gender policies in the 100 largest corporations in Finland, to examine, through qualitative interviews, more detailed gendered processes in seven selected corporations. These represent corporations that are ‘relatively active’, ‘moderately active’, and ‘not active’ in relation to gender equality. Key issues include contrasts between formal policies and organizational practices; different corporate contexts and individual managers’ views; definition and scope of gender policy; and the relation of gender policies and diversity policy. This focus on gender policies is understood and located within organizational structures, most obviously gendered corporate hierarchies. Important structures include national context in relation to transnationalization, relations of headquarters and subsidiaries, and interrelations of management, policy development and policy implementation. Gender relations in practice and gender practices are considered in more detail. These women and men managers operate at the intersections of gendered transnational managerial work, careers and family-type relations, including marriage and children, or lack thereof. Women and men managers may be part of the same management levels or management teams, but have totally different family-type situations and gendered experiences. Interconnections of management, domestic life and transnationalizations are intensely gendered matters. The debate on the public/private continues to be important for both gender relations and organizational relations, but complicated through transnationalizations. The modern transnational corporation is considered in terms of gender divisions and gender power, with particular reference to top management. The concluding discussion notes implications for research and policy.
  • Niemi, Hertta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    Parliaments are political institutions, but they are also places where people work; the MPs and the people who are employed there work, albeit in rather different ways. In this research the focus is on those in a Parliament who work there as employees and managers, and thereby, in some senses, run the organisation. Accordingly, this involves seeing the Parliament as a working environment, for MPs and employees, for men and women. The institution of Parliament is thus here examined by looking at it from a different and new angle. Instead of the usual focus on politicians the focus is on the administration of this institution. The aim is, amongst other things, to increase knowledge and offer different perspectives on democracy and democratic institutions. Unpacking the nearly mythical institution into smaller, more digestible, graspable realities should at the very least help to remind the wider society that although nations, to a certain extent, do need national institutions they should not become mystified or seen as larger than life. Institutions should work on behalf of people and thus be accountable to these same people. The main contribution of this work is to explore and problematise how managing and working is done inside an institution that both largely fulfils the characteristics of a bureaucracy and yet also has added special features that seem to be rather far removed from clear bureaucratic structures. This research offers a new kind of information on working life inside this elite institution. The joys and the struggles of working and managing in this particular public sector organisation are illustrated here and offer a view, a glimpse, into the experiences of managing and working in this House.
  • Korpilo, Silviya; Virtanen, Tarmo; Saukkonen, Tiina; Lehvävirta, Susanna (2018)
    Planning and management needs up-to-date, easily-obtainable and accurate information on the spatial and social aspects of visitor behaviour in order to balance human use and impacts, and protection of natural resources in public parks. We used a web-based public participation GIS (PPGIS) approach to gather citizen data on visitor behaviour in Helsinki's Central Park in order to aid collaborative spatial decision-making. The study combined smartphone GPS tracking, route drawing and a questionnaire to examine differences between user groups in their use of formal trails, off-trail behaviour and the motivations that affect it. In our sample (n = 233), different activity types were associated with distinctive spatial patterns and potential extent of impacts. The density mapping and statistical analyses indicated three types of behaviour: predominantly on or close to formal trails (runners and cyclists), spatially concentrated off-trail behaviour confined to a few informal paths (mountain bikers), and dispersed off trail use pattern (walkers and dog walkers). Across all user groups, off-trail behaviour was mainly motivated by positive attraction towards the environment such as scenic view, exploration, and viewing flora and fauna. Study findings lead to several management recommendations that were presented to city officials. These include reducing dispersion and the spatial extent of trampling impacts by encouraging use of a limited number of well-established informal paths away from sensitive vegetation and protected habitats. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Porsbjerg, Celeste; Ulrik, Charlotte; Skjold, Tina; Backer, Vibeke; Laerum, Birger; Lehman, Sverre; Janson, Crister; Sandstrom, Thomas; Bjermer, Leif; Dahlen, Barbro; Lundback, Bo; Ludviksdottir, Dora; Bjornsdottir, Unnur; Altraja, Alan; Lehtimaki, Lauri; Kauppi, Paula; Karjalainen, Jussi; Kankaanranta, Hannu (2018)
    Although a minority of asthma patients suffer from severe asthma, they represent a major clinical challenge in terms of poor symptom control despite high-dose treatment, risk of exacerbations, and side effects. Novel biological treatments may benefit patients with severe asthma, but are expensive, and are only effective in appropriately targeted patients. In some patients, symptoms are driven by other factors than asthma, and all patients with suspected severe asthma ('difficult asthma') should undergo systematic assessment, in order to differentiate between true severe asthma, and 'difficult-to-treat' patients, in whom poor control is related to factors such as poor adherence or co-morbidities. The Nordic Consensus Statement on severe asthma was developed by the Nordic Severe Asthma Network, consisting of members from Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Iceland and Estonia, including representatives from the respective national respiratory scientific societies with the aim to provide an overview and recommendations regarding the diagnosis, systematic assessment and management of severe asthma. Furthermore, the Consensus Statement proposes recommendations for the organization of severe asthma management in primary, secondary, and tertiary care.
  • Int PCOS Network; Teede, Helena J.; Misso, Marie L.; Costello, Michael F.; Dokras, Anuja; Laven, Joop; Moran, Lisa; Piltonen, Terhi; Norman, Robert J.; Tapanainen, Juha (2018)
    Study QuestionWhat is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise, and consumer preference? Summary AnswerInternational evidence-based guidelines including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. What is Known AlreadyPrevious guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. Study Design, Size, DurationInternational evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. Participants/Materials, Setting, MethodsGovernance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups (GDGs), and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis, and translation experts. Thirty-seven societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. Main Results and the Role of ChanceThe evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: (a) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; (b) reducing unnecessary testing; (c) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and (d) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. Limitations, Reasons for CautionOverall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. Wider Implications of the FindingsThe international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program.
  • Int PCOS Network; Teede, Helena J.; Misso, Marie L.; Costello, Michael F.; Dokras, Anuja; Laven, Joop; Moran, Lisa; Piltonen, Terhi; Norman, Robert J.; Tapanainen, Juha (2018)
    STUDY QUESTION: What is the recommended assessment and management of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), based on the best available evidence, clinical expertise and consumer preference? SUMMARY ANSWER: International evidence-based guidelines, including 166 recommendations and practice points, addressed prioritized questions to promote consistent, evidence-based care and improve the experience and health outcomes of women with PCOS. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Previous guidelines either lacked rigorous evidence-based processes, did not engage consumer and international multidisciplinary perspectives, or were outdated. Diagnosis of PCOS remains controversial, and assessment and management are inconsistent. The needs of women with PCOS are not being adequately met and evidence practice gaps persist. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: International evidence-based guideline development engaged professional societies and consumer organizations with multidisciplinary experts and women with PCOS directly involved at all stages. Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II-compliant processes were followed, with extensive evidence synthesis. The Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) framework was applied across evidence quality, feasibility, acceptability, cost, implementation and ultimately recommendation strength. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Governance included a six continent international advisory and a project board, five guideline development groups, and consumer and translation committees. Extensive health professional and consumer engagement informed guideline scope and priorities. Engaged international society-nominated panels included pediatrics, endocrinology, gynecology, primary care, reproductive endocrinology, obstetrics, psychiatry, psychology, dietetics, exercise physiology, public health and other experts, alongside consumers, project management, evidence synthesis and translation experts. In total, 37 societies and organizations covering 71 countries engaged in the process. Twenty face-to-face meetings over 15 months addressed 60 prioritized clinical questions involving 40 systematic and 20 narrative reviews. Evidence-based recommendations were developed and approved via consensus voting within the five guideline panels, modified based on international feedback and peer review, with final recommendations approved across all panels. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: The evidence in the assessment and management of PCOS is generally of low to moderate quality. The guideline provides 31 evidence based recommendations, 59 clinical consensus recommendations and 76 clinical practice points all related to assessment and management of PCOS. Key changes in this guideline include: (i) considerable refinement of individual diagnostic criteria with a focus on improving accuracy of diagnosis; (ii) reducing unnecessary testing; (iii) increasing focus on education, lifestyle modification, emotional wellbeing and quality of life; and (iv) emphasizing evidence based medical therapy and cheaper and safer fertility management. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Overall evidence is generally low to moderate quality, requiring significantly greater research in this neglected, yet common condition, especially around refining specific diagnostic features in PCOS. Regional health system variation is acknowledged and a process for guideline and translation resource adaptation is provided. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: The international guideline for the assessment and management of PCOS provides clinicians with clear advice on best practice based on the best available evidence, expert multidisciplinary input and consumer preferences. Research recommendations have been generated and a comprehensive multifaceted dissemination and translation program supports the guideline with an integrated evaluation program. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The guideline was primarily funded by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia (NHMRC) supported by a partnership with ESHRE and the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Guideline development group members did not receive payment. Travel expenses were covered by the sponsoring organizations. Disclosures of conflicts of interest were declared at the outset and updated throughout the guideline process, aligned with NHMRC guideline processes. Full details of conflicts declared across the guideline development groups are available at https://www.monash.edu/medicine/sphpm/mchri/pcos/guideline in the Register of disclosures of interest. Of named authors, Dr Costello has declared shares in Virtus Health and past sponsorship from Merck Serono for conference presentations. Prof. Laven declared grants from Ferring, Euroscreen and personal fees from Ferring, Euroscreen, Danone and Titus Healthcare. Prof. Norman has declared a minor shareholder interest in an IVF unit. The remaining authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The guideline was peer reviewed by special interest groups across our partner and collaborating societies and consumer organizations, was independently assessed against AGREE-II criteria, and underwent methodological review. This guideline was approved by all members of the guideline development groups and was submitted for final approval by the NHMRC.
  • Heikkilä, Hanna (2002)
    The purpose of this qualitative case study is to examine a role of a manager and role conflicts in his work. The study is conducted in a high-technology company, and one aim of it is also to find concrete development solutions in order to improve the communication between Human Resources department and line management. The theory of role conflicts forms the theoretical framework for the study. A role conflict is a situation where incompatible expectations are held towards a person's behavior, and six different type of role conflicts can be distinguished: an inter-role conflict, two types of intrarole conflicts, a personality-role conflict, role overload and finally, role ambiguity. The data was collected by thematic interviews and the results indicate that line managers in the target organization encounter nearly all kind of role conflicts in their work. Due to their position, they automatically have two roles: a role of an expert and a role of a superior. This leads to an inter-role conflict, which was strongly perceived especially by the female informants. Also intrarole conflicts emerged to some extent. Any personality-role conflicts did not occur, but role overload and role ambiguity came strongly across in the data. The managers are not able to perform all the duties they have, and the expectations of different interest groups are not communicated clearly enough. All conflicts cannot be completely solved, but communication is one way to improve the situation. Human Resources department, like other stakeholders should express the expectations they hold for a manager as explicitly as possible, and different roles should be clearly defined. Also induction and training can prevent role conflicts. The central references were Brown (1965): Social Psychology. Kahn et al. (1964): Organizational stress - Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. Katz & Kahn (1978): The social psychology of organizations.
  • Assom, Luigi (2007)
    This study focuses on the role of Extension Institution in Bio Energy as structure of governance for sustainable use of biomass in rural development.Theoretical approach is derived from New Institution Economics, practice approach benefit by the contribution of main Finnish extension services “Pro Agria”. The study overviews food security and wood fuel use as linkages to bio energy sector. Cooperation for governance of resources and environment is discussed, considering transaction costs and property rights. Under this point of view the Clean Development Mechanism is introduced, as a tool combining bio energy production and environmental purposes; legal aspects and participation planning by community are described. Planning, information and improving self-organisation of governance for management of biomass and natural resources are functions analysed through the Finnish extension services and experiences made on field in Finnish countryside. Co-operatives and networking of producers of biomass for heating and/or electrification are structure of governance discussed from data gathered on field; and hypothesis under broad thresholds is done. Considerations derived from theory and Finnish experience are finally applied to a pattern of economy in transition, specifically to Republic of Moldova; impact that Extension Services can have for sustainability of bio energy production for energy and/or heating purposes in rural areas are reported as conclusions, considering small network of producers.
  • Gaudig, G.; Krebs, M.; Prager, A.; Wichmann, S.; Barney, M.; Caporn, S. J. M.; Emmel, M.; Fritz, C.; Graf, M.; Grobe, A.; Pacheco, S. Gutierrez; Hogue-Hugron, S.; Holztraeger, S.; Irrgang, S.; Kämäräinen, A.; Karofeld, E.; Koch, G.; Koebbing, J. F.; Kumar, S.; Matchutadze, I.; Oberpaur, C.; Oestmann, J.; Raabe, P.; Rammes, D.; Rochefort, L.; Schmilewksi, G.; Sendzikaite, J.; Smolders, A.; St-Hilaire, B.; van de Riet, B.; Wright, B.; Wright, N.; Zoch, L.; Joosten, H. (2017)
    Sphagnum farming - the production of Sphagnum biomass on rewetted bogs - helps towards achieving global climate goals by halting greenhouse gas emissions from drained peat and by replacing peat with a renewable biomass alternative. Large-scale implementation of Sphagnum farming requires a wide range of know-how, from initial species selection up to the final production and use of Sphagnum biomass based growing media in horticulture. This article provides an overview of relevant knowledge accumulated over the last 15 years and identifies open questions.
  • Karja, Miia (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    An interdisciplinary research project The conservation of the native breeds for the social welfare and rural entrepreneurship – the background for the economical, social and cultural activities was carried out in MTT Agrifood Research Finland during the years 2004-2006. The research was done in collaboration with MTT Agrifood Research Finland, TTS Work Efficiency Institute, persons having native breeds and experts in the field of native breeds. The research was one part of Biodiversity and Monitoring Programme MOSSE partially funded by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry. One dimension of the research was to examine the socio-cultural meaning of native breeds in productisation. The aim was to find out the social and cultural meanings of native breeds among breeders, consumers and citizens and to define the essential meanings and their dimensions relating to native breeds. Answers for the research questions were searched for example by the theme interview done for eight breeders of Finncattle and Finnsheep. Resting on material of the theme interview I have researched in this Master´s thesis, what kind of policy measures would be the most functional ones so that breeders would keep native breeds also in the future and even have more of them. I have examined these policy measures by using farmer typology, considering challenges and opportunities arousing from keeping native breeds and the dimensions of utilizing native breeds. With the help of farmer typology were found out those policy measures, targets and need for policy measures important for each farmer type for example in the situation where a breeder wanted to start with upgrading of native breed products in his farm. Examining policy measures by using challenges and opportunities of keeping native breeds and by the dimensions of utilizing native breeds, did highlight the need not only for diversified policy measures but also for collaboration between administrative and social sectors and participation of breeders when planning policy measures for the conservation of native breeds. This arises from the diverse field of keeping native breeds: native breeds are utilized in traditional agricultural production and in a hobby oriented way when living in the countryside as well. Farmers, other entrepreneurs, private persons, school farms, prison farms and other breeders do have a key position in conservation work of native breeds. They in practice do take care of breeding of these animals and maintaining live gene banks. In addition to functional policy measures, we need management of diversity of indigenous breeds based on breeders´ views and actors committed to the work.
  • Mäkitie, Antti A.; Keski-Säntti, Harri; Markkanen-Leppänen, Mari; Bäck, Leif; Koivunen, Petri; Ekberg, Tomas; Sandström, Karl; Laurell, Göran; von Beckerath, Mathias; Nilsson, Johan S.; Wahlberg, Peter; Greiff, Lennart; Spaak, Lena Norberg; Kjaergaard, Thomas; Godballe, Christian; Rikardsen, Oddveig; Channir, Hani Ibrahim; Rubek, Niclas; von Buchwald, Christian (2018)
    Background: The five Nordic countries with a population of 27 M people form a rather homogenous region in terms of health care. The management of head and neck cancer is centralized to the 21 university hospitals in these countries. Our aim was to gain an overview of the volume and role of transoral robotic surgery (TORS) and to evaluate the need to centralize it in this area as the field is rapidly developing. Materials and Methods: A structured questionnaire was sent to all 10 Departments of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery in the Nordic countries having an active programme for TORS in December 2017. Results: The total cumulative number of performed robotic surgeries at these 10 Nordic centers was 528 and varied between 5 and 240 per center. The median annual number of robotic surgeries was 38 (range, 5-60). The observed number of annually operated cases remained fairly low ( Conclusions: The present results showing a limited volume of performed surgeries call for considerations to further centralize TORS in the Nordic countries.
  • Jussila, Jaana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    This thesis studies the views of managers working in specialist organizations regarding leadership and emotional intelligence. The purpose of this study is to form an understanding of what views and concepts of the managers in specialist organizations have regarding emotional intelligence and its significance in managerial work. The purpose is to build an understanding of what the challenges are in managing specialist knowledge and to form an understanding of what the understanding and experience of emotional intelligence is in relation to leading an organization with specialist knowledge. The theoretical framework of the study was formed around three concepts: emotional intelligence, leadership and leadership of specialist knowledge. Theories of emotional intelligence, especially the concept of emotional intelligence by David Goleman and concepts of emotionally intelligent leadership were used as a theoretical framework. Concepts and definitions related to leadership and knowledge and theories in leadership of knowledge - such as the concept of transformational leadership presented by Bernard M. Bass – that have been combined with management that furthers learning by Riitta Viitala and Pirjo Kolari were also used in the study. The empirical research material was gathered by interviewing eight people who work or have worked in managerial positions in the specialist organization. The interviews were conducted as theme interviews. The methodological approach of the study was content analysis through which the research material was analyzed. Based on the material of the research, the challenges of managerial emotional intelligence in the specialist organization were the expectations and broad range of tasks related to managerial positions, substance knowledge, the management of strategic specialist knowledge, motivating, supporting and interaction. According to the study, the most important competences of emotional intelligence were emotional self-awareness, good selfassessment, self-control, transparency, ability to perform, empathy, service orientedness, inspirational leadership, ability to develop others and teamwork and collaboration skills. The conclusion of the study is that in the management of specialist knowledge in specialist organizations, matters such as interaction, individual attentiveness, empathy, ability to motivate and support, being present and enabling are highlighted. In a specialist organization a manager needs sufficient substance knowledge, purely emotional leadership is not sufficient. In specialist organizations, succeeding in knowledge management requires emotional intelligence, substance knowledge and transformational leadership. When these are combined by competent managers, they are able to motivate, focus on individuals and enable development.
  • Hytönen, Iina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tämän kirjallisuuskatsauksen tarkoitus on tarkastella altistavia tekijöitä utaretulehdukselle umpiaikana ja seuraavalla lypsykaudella, sekä löytää management-suosituksia, joilla kyseisen ajan utaretulehdusriskiä voidaan vähentää. Utaretulehdus on lypsylehmän merkittävin tuotannollinen sairaus. Edellisestä laktaatiosta persistoivilla utaretulehduksilla, sekä ummessaoloaikana hankituilla uusilla infektioilla, on suuri rooli seuraavan lypsykauden utareterveyteen. Siksi onkin tärkeää ymmärtää ummessaoloaikana esiintyvien utaretulehduksien epidemiologiaa ja utareen infektoitumiselle altistavia tekijöitä. Utareterveyden kannalta ummessaoloajan tavoite onkin sekä parantaa olemassa olevat tulehdukset että estää uudelleen infektoituminen. Umpiaikana käytetään pitkävaikutteisia intramammaariantibiootteja edellisessä laktaatiossa esiintyneiden utaretulehduksien hoitoon ja uusien infektioiden ehkäisyyn. Tuotantoeläinten antibioottien käyttöä tulisi nykyisestä antibioottiresistenssitilanteesta johtuen vähentää, joten on tärkeää ymmärtää, kuinka uusien utaretulehduksien syntymistä voi ehkäistä ilman lääkkeitä. Nykyiset umpeutussuositukset pohjautuvat pitkälti tutkimuksiin, joiden lehmät olivat huomattavasti matalatuottoisempia kuin tänä päivänä. Suositukset eivät siis välttämättä enää päde 2000-luvun lypsylehmälle. Maidon korkea somaattinen soluluku, utaretulehdus edellisessä laktaatiossa, ja korkea poikimakerta altistavat utaretulehdukselle ummessaoloaikana ja poikimisen jälkeen. Vaurioituneet vetimenpäät ja keratiinitulpattomat avoimet vedinkanavat altistavat neljännestä utaretulehdukselle ummessaoloaikana ja seuraavalla lypsykaudella. Korkean maidontuotoksen on puolestaan havaittu hidastavan keratiinitulpan muodostumista vedinkanavaan. Myös korkea kuntoluokka sekä pitkä maidossaoloaika edellisessä laktaatiossa voivat altistaa utaretulehdukselle seuraavalla lypsykaudella. Umpikauden konventionaalinen pituus on 6-8 viikkoa, koska lyhyempi tai väliinjätetty umpikausi laskee tuotosta seuraavassa laktaatiossa. Lyhyempään umpikauteen on kuitenkin ollut kiinnostusta, koska sen on ajateltu tuovan lisätuloja loppulypsykauden pidentyessä, sekä sallivan paremman energiatasapainon lehmälle poikimisen jälkeen. Umpikauden pituuden vaihtelun ei ole havaittu vaikuttavan merkittävästi utareterveyteen, joskin alue vaatii lisää tutkimuksia. Umpeenpanohetken korkean maidontuotoksen on havaittu altistavan utaretulehdukselle umpeenpanon jälkeen ja lisäävän riskiä maidonvaluttamiseen. Maidontuotosta voidaan laskea ennen umpeenpanoa asteittaisella lypsynlopettamisella sekä ruokinnan rajoittamisella. Lypsyn äkillinen lopettaminen umpeutettaessa lehmiä on yleinen käytäntö maailmalla, mutta siitä aiheutuu kipua ja epämukavuutta nykyajan korkeatuottoisille lehmille. Ruokinnan rajoittamisessa tulee kiinnittää huomiota siihen, että lehmille tarjotaan riittävästi rehua ja ravintoaineita, jotta niiden hyvinvointi ei vaaraudu umpeutuksen aikana. Umpeutuksen yhteydessä annosteltavien umpituubien laitossa osittainen insertio vähentää utaretulehdusriskiä ummessaoloaikana ja seuraavalla lypsykaudella. Ummessaoloaikana lehmien ruokintaan ja elinolosuhteisiin tulee kiinnittää huomiota. Umpilehmien kuntoluokkia tulee tarkkailla rutiinisti, koska ylikuntoutuneiden lehmien utareterveyttä vaarantaa ketoosin ja poikimahalvauksen lisääntynyt esiintyvyys. Umpiosasto tulee sijoittaa siten, että päivittäinen panostus lehmien utareiden tarkkailuun ja olosuhteiden puhtaanapitoon on helppoa. Poikimakarsinan puhtaus ja siivoaminen jokaisen poikimisen jälkeen vähentää utaretulehduksen esiintyvyyttä seuraavalla lypsykaudella.
  • Husu, Liisa; Hearn, Jeff; Lämsä, Anna-Maija; Vanhala, Sinikka (Hanken School of Economics, Department of Management and Organisation, Management and Organisation, 2012)
    Research Report - 72
    Leadership without the full participation of women not only excludes women individually and collectively, but is also a huge waste of talent, knowledge and expertise. And crucially, given the current state of society and the world, this aspect of gender inequality is likely to become even more important in the future. NASTA - Women’s Leadership: A Research and Education Development Project was established in 2005 as a national multi-university project mainly and generously funded by Finnish Ministry of Education. The project aims at producing new knowledge and increasing understanding about women’s leadership, as well as promoting women’s leadership through research, development of teaching, and public outreach. NASTA is a joint effort of three Finnish universities – Hanken School of Economics, University of Jyväskylä School of Business and Economics, and the Helsinki School of Economics (now part of Aalto University) – and has been coordinated by Hanken. This report presents research and activities conducted within and around the project. NASTA activities have been many and various. They have examined the position and experiences of women in relation to leadership, management, organisation and work more generally. They have sought new knowledge about gender and leadership, on women leaders’ values, attitudes and behaviour, as well as about values, attitudes and behaviour in relation to women’s leadership. NASTA activities have included teaching, student supervision, research theses, research projects, publishing, networking, seminars, meetings, an international conference, and knowledge transfer into other sectors of society. The first section of the book introduces NASTA joint projects, including web-based teaching material, a survey of gender staffing and teaching on gender in business schools, critical review of previous research literature, and new empirical research. The next section includes research articles on different aspects of gender, leadership and manage¬¬ment from more individual projects conducted by participating researchers and research groups linked to NASTA across the three universities. The final section includes short presentations of other research in progress. The appendix lists publications by NASTA members – journal articles, research reports, books, chapters, journal special issues, popular journal articles, magazine articles - and masters, licentiate and doctoral theses that have been produced. These matters of women, leadership and management are not simply academic concerns but urgent matters for practice, organisations, management, policy, and society more generally.
  • Timonen, R. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2000)
    Julkaisuja
    The aim of the study was to search for relationships between entrepreneurship, management and success in farm businesses. Entrepreneurship (’yrittävyys’ in Finnish) is considered as a qualitative characteristic of a person. It is defined as the combination of certain values and attitudes, which are concept of human being; attitudes towards property, labour and uncertainty as well as innovativeness. Management is considered as a labour process on three levels: the institutional level, the economical level and the operative level. Entrepreneurship was measured with a one-dimensional construction called ideology of entrepreneurship. The effectiveness of management on different levels was measured with sum variables. The empirical data of the study was collected from bookkeeping farms in the region of Southern Finland. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. Well-educated farmers and farmers of large farms were more entrepreneurial and more effective as managers than those with lower education and smaller farms. The more entrepreneurial the orientation of the farmer, the higher the effectiveness of management on all the three levels. Innovative farmers and farmers who are willing to take risks were more effective as managers than the less innovative and the risk minimizers. The score on the measure of ideology of entrepreneurship and the coefficient of profitability were positively correlated. The correlation was higher on small farms than on large farms. Three out of five components of ideology of entrepreneurship correlated with the coefficient of profitability on a significant level. The components were attitudes toward property, labour and uncertainty. The scores on the measures of effectiveness on all the managerial levels had a stronger relationship with the technical success (average yield) than with the economical success (coefficient of profitability). Regression analysis demonstrated that besides arable area entrepreneurship is a significant predictor of economical success. Other variables in the model were forest area, insitutional effectiveness and the production line. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the coefficient of profitability.